Globalization a multi-dimensional process integrating the world’s economies, cultures, technologies, societies and governance
“ Take, for instance the path that a strawberry in a Chicago supermarket took to get there. The strawberry “is likely to have come from Mexico, where it might have been grown with the help of pesticides made in the Rhine Valley of Germany and a tractor made in Japan. The tractor, perhaps constructed with Korean steel cast from iron ingots dug from the territory of tribal peoples in Papua New Guinea, was likely fueled with diesel pumped from the earth in southern Mexico. At harvest time, the strawberry may have been packed in a box made of cardboard from Canadian softwood pulp, wrapped in plastic manufactured in New Jersey, and loaded on a truck made in Italy with German, Japanese, and American parts. The ecological wakes of the…strawberry – like the production lines themselves – span the globe.” - Alan Durning
The Five Dimensions of Global Cultural Flow <ul><li>Ethnoscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Mediascapes </li></ul><ul><li>Technoscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Finanscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Ideoscapes </li></ul>
How is globalization different from previous eras of colonialism?
The “challenge of globalization in the new century is not to stop the expansion of global markets.” Rather, the challenge is to “ensure that globalization works for people – not just for profits.” 1999 UNDP Human Development Report
The 1999 HDR says we need globalization with: <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Human Security </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul>
Dimensions of Globalization SOCIAL POLITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGICAL ECONOMIC CULTURAL
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) A corporation which takes on many national identities, maintaining relatively autonomous production and sales facilities in individual countries, establishing local roots and presenting itself in each locality as a good local citizen. Globalized operations are linked to one another but are deeply integrated into the individual local economies in which they operate.
Transnational Corporations (TNCs) Corporations whose global networks are integrated around vertically integrated supplier networks. Although a TNC may choose to claim local citizenship when that posture suits its purpose, local commitments are temporary, and it actively attempts to eliminate considerations of nationality in its efforts to maximize the economies that centralized global procurement makes possible.
An Ideal World? <ul><li>The world’s money, technology, and markets are controlled and managed by gigantic global corporations; </li></ul><ul><li>A common consumer culture unifies all people in a shared quest for material gratification; </li></ul><ul><li>There is perfect global competition among workers and localities to offer their services to investors at the most advantageous terms; </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations a free to act solely on the basis of profitability without regard to national and local consequences; (Dow, Bhopal) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships, both individual and corporate, are defined entirely by the market; and, </li></ul><ul><li>There are no loyalties to place and community. </li></ul>
Future Forms? Metanational Corporations Global Crime Syndicates Guerrilla Entrepreneurs