PS 240 Anarchism spring 2014

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PS 240 Anarchism spring 2014

  1. 1. Anarchism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. I must tell you first of all what anarchism is not. It is not bombs, disorder, or chaos. It is not robbery or murder. It is not a war of each against all. It is not a return to barbarism or to the wild state of man. Anarchism is the very opposite of all that. – Alexander Berkman, American anarchist, 1929
  3. 3. ?
  4. 4. Anarchism The philosophy of a new social order based on liberty unrestricted by man-made law; the theory that all forms of government rest on violence and are therefore wrong and harmful, as well as unnecessary.
  5. 5. Enragés
  6. 6. Order is the genus: Government is the species
  7. 7. anarchos
  8. 8. Anarchism is not as systematic an ideology as liberalism or Marxism
  9. 9. Liberty Equality Solidarity
  10. 10. Liberalism Anarchism Marxism
  11. 11. freedom and equality are complementary, not contradictory
  12. 12. Progress & History (Dualistic)
  13. 13. HOPE, not certainty
  14. 14. A little of column A, A little of column B
  15. 15. What is the individual’s role in society?
  16. 16. The individual is the basic unit of society…
  17. 17. …but full humanity can only be achieved by membership in a community/ society.
  18. 18. Individual-in-Community
  19. 19. Human Nature
  20. 20. Prisoner s Dilemma Prisoner B Stays Silent Prisoner B Betrays Prisoner A Stays Silent Both serve six months Prisoner A serves ten years Prisoner B goes free Prisoner A Betrays Prisoner A goes free Prisoner B serves ten years Both serve two years
  21. 21. Prisoner s Dilemma Cooperate Defect Cooperate 3,3 Win, Win 0,5 Lose much, win much Defect 5,0 Win much, lose much 1,1 Lose, lose
  22. 22. Tit-for-Tat Logic •  Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be "nice", that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. •  Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as "nasty" strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. •  Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. •  Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a nice strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent).
  23. 23. Tit-for-Tat Logic •  Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be "nice", that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. •  Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as "nasty" strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. •  Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. •  Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a nice strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent).
  24. 24. Tit-for-Tat Logic •  Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be "nice", that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. •  Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as "nasty" strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. •  Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. •  Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a nice strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent).
  25. 25. Tit-for-Tat Logic •  Nice - The most important condition is that the strategy must be "nice", that is, it will not defect before its opponent does. •  Retaliating - The successful strategy must not be a blind optimist. It must always retaliate. An example of a non-retaliating strategy is Always Cooperate. This is a very bad choice, as "nasty" strategies will ruthlessly exploit such softies. •  Forgiving - Successful strategies must be forgiving. Though they will retaliate, they will once again fall back to cooperating if the opponent does not continue to play defects. This stops long runs of revenge and counter-revenge, maximizing points. •  Non-envious - The last quality is being non-envious, that is not striving to score more than the opponent (impossible for a nice strategy, i.e., a 'nice' strategy can never score more than the opponent).
  26. 26. The Public Goods Game
  27. 27. 2basic impulses
  28. 28. Kill the social sense in man – and you get a savage orangutan; kill egoism in him and he will become a tame monkey. - Alexander Herzen
  29. 29. Self-interested impulse to subdue others for individual purposes
  30. 30. An impulse to help others (Mutual Aid)
  31. 31. Kropotkin and Darwinism •  Does human nature demand cooperation? •  In spite of the odds, cooperation does occur. •  Is enlightened self-interest explanatory enough? – Selfish Genes
  32. 32. Human Malleability
  33. 33. HOPE
  34. 34. The Problem of The State
  35. 35. Of all the things which interfere with the free activity of the individual, which reduce liberty and compel us to act in ways different from those we would choose, the most powerful and pervasive is the state. (Jennings)
  36. 36. The essential function of the state is to maintain the existing inequalities in society…
  37. 37. The Problem of Private Property
  38. 38. Godwin: each article of property ought to belong to the individual whose possession of it would yield the greatest good for the greatest number; thus, property should be distributed according to claims of need.
  39. 39. Property is Theft (Proudhon)
  40. 40. The only demand that property recognizes is its own gluttonous appetite for greater wealth, because wealth means power; the power to subdue, to crush, to exploit, the power to enslave, to outrage, to degrade. - Emma Goldman
  41. 41. The Problem of Democracy
  42. 42. All voting is a sort of gaming, like checkers, or backgammon, a playing with right and wrong; its obligation never exceeds that of expediency. Even voting for the right thing does nothing for it. A wise man will not leave the right to the mercy of chance, nor wish it to prevail through the power of the majority. - Henry David Thoreau
  43. 43. Decision-making by Consensus
  44. 44. The Problem of Conventional Institutions
  45. 45. Religion! How it dominates man s mind, how it humiliates and degrades his soul. God is everything, man is nothing, says religion. But out of that nothing God has created a kingdom so despotic, so tyrannical, so cruel, so terribly exacting that naught but gloom and tears and blood have ruled the world since gods began. Anarchism rouses man to rebellion against this black monster. Break your mental fetters, says anarchism to man, for not until you think and judge for yourself will you get rid of the dominion of darkness, the greatest obstacle to all progress. - Emma Goldman
  46. 46. What do Anarchists wish to achieve?
  47. 47. The highest level of individual freedom possible for the individual, the fulfillment of each individual s full human potential, while at the same time developing human society to the highest degree possible.
  48. 48. Anarchism seeks the complete development of individuality combined with the highest development of voluntary association in all respects, in all possible degrees for all imaginable ends. ~Kropotkin
  49. 49. A few goals… •  Overthrow of the State •  End of private property •  The end of democracy •  The end of repressive social structures and values ( transvaluation of human values) •  Full and rewarding work and leisure
  50. 50. 4 Approaches to Anarchism •  Armed and Violent Revolution
  51. 51. 4 Approaches to Anarchism •  Armed and Violent Revolution •  Civil Disobedience
  52. 52. 4 Approaches to Anarchism •  Armed and Violent Revolution •  Civil Disobedience •  Propaganda by the Deed
  53. 53. 4 Approaches to Anarchism •  Armed and Violent Revolution •  Civil Disobedience •  Propaganda by the Deed •  Transvaluation
  54. 54. Rebellion vs. Revolution
  55. 55. Rebellions MUST be: •  Voluntary •  Spontaneous •  Total Ÿ International
  56. 56. DISOBEY
  57. 57. Designing for Management of the Commons
  58. 58. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: •  Group boundaries are clearly defined •  Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions. •  Most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules. •  The rights of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities.
  59. 59. •  A system for monitoring members behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. •  A graduated system of sanctions is used. •  Community members have access to low-cost conflict resolution systems. •  For CPRs that are parts of larger systems, appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of nested enterprises. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority:
  60. 60. The Coming Anarchism
  61. 61. p2p Technologies and Anarchism
  62. 62. MojoNation s 3 major fixes: •  Cooperation is structurally encouraged by requiring users to contribute at least as much as they take away. •  Queries are anonymous and NOBODY knows where specific files are stored. •  Swarm Distribution breaks up files into large numbers of small segments, distributed throughout the network.
  63. 63. /.

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