Anarchism
Dr. Christopher S. Rice
“I must tell you first of all what anarchism
is not. It is not bombs, disorder, or chaos.
It is not robbery or murder. It ...
?
Anarchism
 The philosophy of a new social
      order based on liberty
 unrestricted by man-made law;
   the theory that a...
Enragés
Order is the genus:
Government is the species
anarchos
Anarchism is not as systematic an
ideology as liberalism or Marxism
Liberty
Equality
Solidarity
Liberalism

Anarchism
 Marxism
freedom and equality are
  complementary, not
    contradictory
Progress & History
Linear
Dialectic
Dualistic
HOPE, not certainty
A little of column A,
A little of column B
Anarchist Conception
    of Freedom
Agent
The individual is the basic
    unit of society…
…but full humanity can only
be achieved by membership in
    a community/ society.
Individual-in-Community
Human Nature
2
basic impulses
“Kill the social sense in man – and
you get a savage orangutan; kill
egoism in him and he will become a
tame monkey.”
- Al...
Self-interested impulse to subdue
 others for individual purposes
An impulse to help others
     (Mutual Aid)
Human Malleability
HOPE
Goal
The highest level of individual
freedom possible for the
individual, the fulfillment of each
individual’s full human poten...
Anarchism “seeks the complete
development of individuality
combined with the highest
development of voluntary
association ...
The Problem of
Conventional Institutions
A few goals…
A few goals…
• Overthrow of the State
A few goals…
• Overthrow of the State
• End of private property
A few goals…
• Overthrow of the State
• End of private property
• The end of “democracy”
A few goals…
•   Overthrow of the State
•   End of private property
•   The end of “democracy”
•   The end of repressive s...
A few goals…
• Overthrow of the State
• End of private property
• The end of “democracy”
• The end of repressive social
  ...
Obstacle(s)
The State (!)
“Of all the things which interfere
with the free activity of the
individual, which reduce liberty
and compel us to act in ...
The essential function of the state
is to maintain the existing
inequalities in society…
Private Property
Godwin: each article of property
ought to belong to the individual
whose possession of it would yield
the greatest good fo...
“Property is Theft”
     (Proudhon)
“The only demand that property
recognizes is its own gluttonous
appetite for greater wealth,
because wealth means power; t...
Democracy (?)
Decision-making by
   Consensus
The Anarchist Conception of Freedom
4 Approaches to Anarchism

•   Armed and Violent Revolution
•   Civil Disobedience
•   Propaganda by the Deed
•   Transval...
4 Approaches to Anarchism

•   Armed and Violent Revolution
•   Civil Disobedience
•   Propaganda by the Deed
•   Transval...
4 Approaches to Anarchism

•   Armed and Violent Revolution
•   Civil Disobedience
•   Propaganda by the Deed
•   Transval...
4 Approaches to Anarchism

•   Armed and Violent Revolution
•   Civil Disobedience
•   Propaganda by the Deed
•   Transval...
Designing for Management
     of the Commons
Design principles for managing
the commons in the absence of a
      centralized authority:
Design principles for managing
   the commons in the absence of a
         centralized authority:
• Group boundaries are c...
Design principles for managing
   the commons in the absence of a
         centralized authority:
• Group boundaries are c...
Design principles for managing
   the commons in the absence of a
         centralized authority:
• Group boundaries are c...
Design principles for managing
   the commons in the absence of a
         centralized authority:
• Group boundaries are c...
Design principles for managing
the commons in the absence of a
centralized authority:
Design principles for managing
  the commons in the absence of a
  centralized authority:
• A system for monitoring member...
Design principles for managing
  the commons in the absence of a
  centralized authority:
• A system for monitoring member...
Design principles for managing
  the commons in the absence of a
  centralized authority:
• A system for monitoring member...
Design principles for managing
  the commons in the absence of a
  centralized authority:
• A system for monitoring member...
The Coming Anarchism
p2p Technologies and Anarchism
MojoNation’s 3 major fixes:
MojoNation’s 3 major fixes:
•    Cooperation is structurally encouraged
     by requiring users to contribute at
     leas...
MojoNation’s 3 major fixes:
•    Cooperation is structurally encouraged
     by requiring users to contribute at
     leas...
MojoNation’s 3 major fixes:
•    Cooperation is structurally encouraged
     by requiring users to contribute at
     leas...
/.
The “karma” system
jury duty
“Anonymous Coward”
Filters
Four design goals
• Promote quality, discourage crap.
• Make Slashdot as readable as possible
  for as many people as poss...
Four design goals
• Promote quality, discourage crap.
• Make Slashdot as readable as possible
  for as many people as poss...
Four design goals
• Promote quality, discourage crap.
• Make Slashdot as readable as possible
  for as many people as poss...
Four design goals
• Promote quality, discourage crap.
• Make Slashdot as readable as possible
  for as many people as poss...
Craigslist
Reputation Systems
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008
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PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008

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PS 240 Anarchism Fall 2008

  1. 1. Anarchism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. “I must tell you first of all what anarchism is not. It is not bombs, disorder, or chaos. It is not robbery or murder. It is not a war of each against all. It is not a return to barbarism or to the wild state of man. Anarchism is the very opposite of all that.” – Alexander Berkman, American anarchist, 1929
  3. 3. ?
  4. 4. Anarchism The philosophy of a new social order based on liberty unrestricted by man-made law; the theory that all forms of government rest on violence and are therefore wrong and harmful, as well as unnecessary.
  5. 5. Enragés
  6. 6. Order is the genus: Government is the species
  7. 7. anarchos
  8. 8. Anarchism is not as systematic an ideology as liberalism or Marxism
  9. 9. Liberty Equality Solidarity
  10. 10. Liberalism Anarchism Marxism
  11. 11. freedom and equality are complementary, not contradictory
  12. 12. Progress & History
  13. 13. Linear
  14. 14. Dialectic
  15. 15. Dualistic
  16. 16. HOPE, not certainty
  17. 17. A little of column A, A little of column B
  18. 18. Anarchist Conception of Freedom
  19. 19. Agent
  20. 20. The individual is the basic unit of society…
  21. 21. …but full humanity can only be achieved by membership in a community/ society.
  22. 22. Individual-in-Community
  23. 23. Human Nature
  24. 24. 2 basic impulses
  25. 25. “Kill the social sense in man – and you get a savage orangutan; kill egoism in him and he will become a tame monkey.” - Alexander Herzen
  26. 26. Self-interested impulse to subdue others for individual purposes
  27. 27. An impulse to help others (Mutual Aid)
  28. 28. Human Malleability
  29. 29. HOPE
  30. 30. Goal
  31. 31. The highest level of individual freedom possible for the individual, the fulfillment of each individual’s full human potential, while at the same time developing human society to the highest degree possible.
  32. 32. Anarchism “seeks the complete development of individuality combined with the highest development of voluntary association in all respects, in all possible degrees for all imaginable ends.” ~Kropotkin
  33. 33. The Problem of Conventional Institutions
  34. 34. A few goals…
  35. 35. A few goals… • Overthrow of the State
  36. 36. A few goals… • Overthrow of the State • End of private property
  37. 37. A few goals… • Overthrow of the State • End of private property • The end of “democracy”
  38. 38. A few goals… • Overthrow of the State • End of private property • The end of “democracy” • The end of repressive social structures and values ( “transvaluation” of human values)
  39. 39. A few goals… • Overthrow of the State • End of private property • The end of “democracy” • The end of repressive social structures and values ( “transvaluation” of human values) • Full and rewarding work and leisure
  40. 40. Obstacle(s)
  41. 41. The State (!)
  42. 42. “Of all the things which interfere with the free activity of the individual, which reduce liberty and compel us to act in ways different from those we would choose, the most powerful and pervasive is the state.” (Jennings)
  43. 43. The essential function of the state is to maintain the existing inequalities in society…
  44. 44. Private Property
  45. 45. Godwin: each article of property ought to belong to the individual whose possession of it would yield the greatest good for the greatest number; thus, property should be distributed according to claims of need.
  46. 46. “Property is Theft” (Proudhon)
  47. 47. “The only demand that property recognizes is its own gluttonous appetite for greater wealth, because wealth means power; the power to subdue, to crush, to exploit, the power to enslave, to outrage, to degrade.” - Emma Goldman
  48. 48. Democracy (?)
  49. 49. Decision-making by Consensus
  50. 50. The Anarchist Conception of Freedom
  51. 51. 4 Approaches to Anarchism • Armed and Violent Revolution • Civil Disobedience • Propaganda by the Deed • Transvaluation
  52. 52. 4 Approaches to Anarchism • Armed and Violent Revolution • Civil Disobedience • Propaganda by the Deed • Transvaluation
  53. 53. 4 Approaches to Anarchism • Armed and Violent Revolution • Civil Disobedience • Propaganda by the Deed • Transvaluation
  54. 54. 4 Approaches to Anarchism • Armed and Violent Revolution • Civil Disobedience • Propaganda by the Deed • Transvaluation
  55. 55. Designing for Management of the Commons
  56. 56. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority:
  57. 57. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • Group boundaries are clearly defined
  58. 58. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • Group boundaries are clearly defined • Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions.
  59. 59. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • Group boundaries are clearly defined • Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions. • Most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules.
  60. 60. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • Group boundaries are clearly defined • Rules governing the use of collective goods are well matched to local needs and conditions. • Most individuals affected by these rules can participate in modifying the rules. • The rights of community members to devise their own rules is respected by external authorities.
  61. 61. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority:
  62. 62. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring.
  63. 63. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. • A graduated system of sanctions is used.
  64. 64. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. • A graduated system of sanctions is used. • Community members have access to low-cost conflict resolution systems.
  65. 65. Design principles for managing the commons in the absence of a centralized authority: • A system for monitoring members’ behavior exists; the community members themselves undertake this monitoring. • A graduated system of sanctions is used. • Community members have access to low-cost conflict resolution systems. • For CPRs that are parts of larger systems, appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of nested enterprises.
  66. 66. The Coming Anarchism
  67. 67. p2p Technologies and Anarchism
  68. 68. MojoNation’s 3 major fixes:
  69. 69. MojoNation’s 3 major fixes: • Cooperation is structurally encouraged by requiring users to contribute at least as much as they take away.
  70. 70. MojoNation’s 3 major fixes: • Cooperation is structurally encouraged by requiring users to contribute at least as much as they take away. • Queries are anonymous and NOBODY knows where specific files are stored.
  71. 71. MojoNation’s 3 major fixes: • Cooperation is structurally encouraged by requiring users to contribute at least as much as they take away. • Queries are anonymous and NOBODY knows where specific files are stored. • Swarm Distribution breaks up files into large numbers of small segments, distributed throughout the network.
  72. 72. /.
  73. 73. The “karma” system
  74. 74. jury duty
  75. 75. “Anonymous Coward”
  76. 76. Filters
  77. 77. Four design goals • Promote quality, discourage crap. • Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. • Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. • Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.”
  78. 78. Four design goals • Promote quality, discourage crap. • Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. • Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. • Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.”
  79. 79. Four design goals • Promote quality, discourage crap. • Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. • Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. • Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.”
  80. 80. Four design goals • Promote quality, discourage crap. • Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. • Do not require a huge amount of time from any single moderator. • Do not allow a single monitor a “reign of terror.”
  81. 81. Craigslist
  82. 82. Reputation Systems

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