PS 101 The Presidency Summer 2008

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PS 101 The Presidency Summer 2008

  1. 1. The Presidency Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. Setting precedents Early US presidents & their actions…
  3. 3. What explains the expansion of presidential power?
  4. 4. 4 Factors
  5. 5. Vague Energy Constitutional Provisions Expansion of Presidential Power Changing Congressional Public Delegation of Expectations Power, Authority
  6. 6. Roles and Powers of the President
  7. 7. Chief of State
  8. 8. The Power to Persuade
  9. 9. The “Bully Pulpit”
  10. 10. State of the Union Address
  11. 11. Success! FAIL The Importance of Approval Ratings
  12. 12. Commander-in-Chief
  13. 13. Conveys significant authority over foreign affairs
  14. 14. 1861 - U.S. Civil War - 1865 Action on Military Matters Congress President
  15. 15. United States vs. Curtiss-Wright (1936)
  16. 16. Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer (1951)
  17. 17. War Powers Resolution (1973)
  18. 18. Manager of the Economy
  19. 19. Employment Act of 1946
  20. 20. The Budgetary Process (c) 2008 L.A. Times
  21. 21. Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
  22. 22. Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
  23. 23. Chief Diplomat
  24. 24. Treaty Power Power to negotiate treaties, official agreements with other countries
  25. 25. The Need for Senate Ratification
  26. 26. Executive Agreement Legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature
  27. 27. Chief Executive
  28. 28. Appointment Power
  29. 29. Constitution allows presidents to “appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court… and all other Officers of the United States.”
  30. 30. Advice & Consent
  31. 31. Inherent Executive Power
  32. 32. Executive Orders directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress
  33. 33. Executive Privilege right of the president to deny Congress the information it requests
  34. 34. Chief Legislator
  35. 35. Power to Recommend Constitution encourages presidents to recommend for Congressional “consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.”
  36. 36. I’m in ur Congress Ignorin’ ur President
  37. 37. The “Honeymoon Period” (and the importance of approval ratings)
  38. 38. Veto Power Most important FORMAL presidential power
  39. 39. FAIL
  40. 40. Vetoes are a NEGATIVE option, not a POSITIVE method
  41. 41. Reagan and the Pocket Veto
  42. 42. Signing Statements
  43. 43. “I find these signing statements are to Bush and Cheney's presidency what steroids were to Arnold Schwarzenegger’s bodybuilding. Like Schwarzenegger with his steroids, Bush does not deny using his signing statements; does not like talking about using them; and believes that they add muscle. But like steroids, signing statements ultimately lead to serious trouble.” John Dean, former Nixon White House Counsel
  44. 44. Signing Statements Statements appended to bills signed into law by the president which function as directives to executive branch departments and agencies as to how they are to implement the relevant law.
  45. 45. Source: CBS News
  46. 46. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006)
  47. 47. In recent years, signing statements have been used to effectively nullify legislation as it relates to the Executive Branch, rather than veto it.
  48. 48. Source: New York Times
  49. 49. Signing Statements MONROE to CARTER
  50. 50. Signing Statements REAGAN to CLINTON
  51. 51. President Bush’s Signing Statements Number of Signing YEAR Statements 2001 24 2002 34 2003 27 2004 24 2005 14 2006 23 2007 8 TOTAL 154
  52. 52. How are President Bush’s signing statements different?
  53. 53. Generally, President Bush's signing statements tend to be brief and very broad, & seldom cite the authority on which the president is relying for his reading of the law.
  54. 54. Signing Statements EXAMPLES
  55. 55. Signing Statements PROBLEMS
  56. 56. Signing Statements • Problems – Violates legal reasoning behind judicial rejection of Line-Item Veto – Violation of the Presentment Clause – Conflict with the Justice Department?
  57. 57. Presidential Personality & Style • The Presidential Character (1972) – James David Barber • Style – president’s habitual way of performing his three political roles: rhetoric, personal relations and homework. • World View – consists primarily of a president’s primary, politically relevant beliefs, particularly his conceptions of social causality, human nature and the central moral conflicts of the time.
  58. 58. Presidential Personality & Style • The Presidential Character (1972) – James David Barber • Style – president’s habitual way of performing his three political roles: rhetoric, personal relations and homework. • World View – consists primarily of a president’s primary, politically relevant beliefs, particularly his conceptions of social causality, human nature and the central moral conflicts of the time.
  59. 59. Presidential Personality & Style • The Presidential Character (1972) – James David Barber • Style – president’s habitual way of performing his three political roles: rhetoric, personal relations and homework. • World View – consists primarily of a president’s primary, politically relevant beliefs, particularly his conceptions of social causality, human nature and the central moral conflicts of the time.
  60. 60. Presidential Personality & Style • Character – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduringly. – Activity-Passivity – how much energy does the man (or woman!) invest in his presidency? – Positive-Negative Affect – how does the president feel about what he does?
  61. 61. Presidential Personality & Style • Character – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduringly. – Activity-Passivity – how much energy does the man (or woman!) invest in his presidency? – Positive-Negative Affect – how does the president feel about what he does?
  62. 62. Presidential Personality & Style • Character – way the president orients himself towards life and towards himself, not for the moment, but enduringly. – Activity-Passivity – how much energy does the man (or woman!) invest in his presidency? – Positive-Negative Affect – how does the president feel about what he does?
  63. 63. ACTIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Active-Positive Active-Negative PASSIVE Passive- Passive-Positive Negative
  64. 64. ACTIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Active-Positive Active-Negative PASSIVE Passive- Passive-Positive Negative
  65. 65. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. – Conviction of capability – Investment without immersion – Positive sense of the possibilities of the future – Repertoire of Habits – The Communication of Excitement
  66. 66. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. – Conviction of capability – Investment without immersion – Positive sense of the possibilities of the future – Repertoire of Habits – The Communication of Excitement
  67. 67. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. – Conviction of capability – Investment without immersion – Positive sense of the possibilities of the future – Repertoire of Habits – The Communication of Excitement
  68. 68. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. – Conviction of capability – Investment without immersion – Positive sense of the possibilities of the future – Repertoire of Habits – The Communication of Excitement
  69. 69. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. – Conviction of capability – Investment without immersion – Positive sense of the possibilities of the future – Repertoire of Habits – The Communication of Excitement
  70. 70. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-positive – appear to have fun in the vigorous exercise of presidential power. Healthy, active, energetic. – Conviction of capability – Investment without immersion – Positive sense of the possibilities of the future – Repertoire of Habits – The Communication of Excitement
  71. 71. ACTIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Active-Positive Active-Negative PASSIVE Passive- Passive-Positive Negative
  72. 72. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. – Self-concern – Denial of self-gratification – Views the world as dangerous – Persistent and emphatic style – Dependent upon positive response from his environment
  73. 73. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. – Self-concern – Denial of self-gratification – Views the world as dangerous – Persistent and emphatic style – Dependent upon positive response from his environment
  74. 74. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. – Self-concern – Denial of self-gratification – Views the world as dangerous – Persistent and emphatic style – Dependent upon positive response from his environment
  75. 75. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. – Self-concern – Denial of self-gratification – Views the world as dangerous – Persistent and emphatic style – Dependent upon positive response from his environment
  76. 76. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-negative – display a high expenditure of energy on political tasks and a continual, recurrent, negative emotional reaction to that work. – Self-concern – Denial of self-gratification – Views the world as dangerous – Persistent and emphatic style – Dependent upon positive response from his environment
  77. 77. Presidential Personality & Style • Active-negative – This personality type is said to be dangerous because it is too rigid, characterized by inflexible behavior – often with disastrous results!
  78. 78. ACTIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Active-Positive Active-Negative PASSIVE Passive- Passive-Positive Negative
  79. 79. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. – Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. – Passive-positives are political lovers. • Tend not to accomplish much.
  80. 80. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. – Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. – Passive-positives are political lovers. • Tend not to accomplish much.
  81. 81. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. – Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. – Passive-positives are political lovers. • Tend not to accomplish much.
  82. 82. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-Positive – receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. – Contradiction in their character between low self-esteem and a superficial optimism. – Passive-positives are political lovers. • Tend not to accomplish much.
  83. 83. ACTIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE Active-Positive Active-Negative PASSIVE Passive- Passive-Positive Negative
  84. 84. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self- esteem based on feelings of usefulness. – In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” – Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. – Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. • Problem: DRIFT • A dying breed in US politics.
  85. 85. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self- esteem based on feelings of usefulness. – In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” – Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. – Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. • Problem: DRIFT • A dying breed in US politics.
  86. 86. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self- esteem based on feelings of usefulness. – In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” – Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. – Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. • Problem: DRIFT • A dying breed in US politics.
  87. 87. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self- esteem based on feelings of usefulness. – In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” – Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. – Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. • Problem: DRIFT • A dying breed in US politics.
  88. 88. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self- esteem based on feelings of usefulness. – In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” – Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. – Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. • Problem: DRIFT • A dying breed in US politics.
  89. 89. Presidential Personality & Style • Passive-negative – tends to do political service in order to compensate for low self- esteem based on feelings of usefulness. – In politics because they feel they ought to be: “dutiful service.” – Tend to withdraw from politics by emphasizing vague principles, procedural arrangements. – Lack the experience and flexibility to serve as an effective political leader. • Problem: DRIFT • A dying breed in US politics.
  90. 90. Presidential Personality & Style • Criticisms of Barber – Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonhole” individual presidents. – Ideology may be more important than character in analyzing how presidents approach their jobs. – Presidential behavior may be affected less by character than by events and circumstances surrounding their presidency
  91. 91. Presidential Personality & Style • Criticisms of Barber – Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonhole” individual presidents. – Ideology may be more important than character in analyzing how presidents approach their jobs. – Presidential behavior may be affected less by character than by events and circumstances surrounding their presidency
  92. 92. Presidential Personality & Style • Criticisms of Barber – Some scholars have argued that it is difficult, impossible to “pigeonhole” individual presidents. – Ideology may be more important than character in analyzing how presidents approach their jobs. – Presidential behavior may be affected less by character than by events and circumstances surrounding their presidency
  93. 93. The Vice-Presidency
  94. 94. What does the Vice-President DO, anyway?
  95. 95. “…the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” John Adams, the first Vice- President
  96. 96. “…not worth a pitcher of warm piss.” John Nance Garner, the 32nd Vice- President
  97. 97. “Once there were two brothers. One went away to sea; the other was elected Vice-President of the United States. And nothing was ever heard of either of them again.” Thomas R. Marshall, the 28th Vice- President
  98. 98. What does the Vice-President DO, anyway?
  99. 99. A Heartbeat Away...
  100. 100. Constitution: Should the President die or become disabled while in office, quot;powers and dutiesquot; of the office transferred to the Vice President.
  101. 101. 25th Amendment to the Rescue!
  102. 102. And the First Runner-Up is... (cc) 2005 Flickr user feastoffools
  103. 103. 12th Amendment (1804)
  104. 104. 25th Amendment (1967)
  105. 105. Okay, so I AM your Stepping Stone (cc) 2007 Flickr user .Gladius
  106. 106. The Modern Vice-Presidency

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