Marxism (Part 1)

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First half of a slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on Marxism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory at the University of Kentucky, Fall 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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Marxism (Part 1)

  1. 1. Marxism (Part One) Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 3. The Early Marx
  3. 4. Marx Becomes A Philosopher
  4. 5. 2 effects of his career in Journalism
  5. 6. He came to appreciate the central social and political importance of economics
  6. 7. He ceased to be a liberal and became a radical
  7. 9. The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
  8. 10. Hegel and his influence on Marxism
  9. 11. Hegel’s Philosophy of History
  10. 12. Geist
  11. 13. Alienation ( entfremdung )
  12. 14. Dialectic the process whereby opposite views or forces come into conflict, which eventually leads to the overcoming or reconciliation of the opposition in a new and presumably higher form
  13. 15. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  14. 16. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  15. 17. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  16. 18. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  17. 19. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  18. 20. The Master-Slave Dialectic <ul><li>The master becomes master by physically conquering another, whom he then enslaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing oneself through the eyes of the Other. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a symbiotic relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The master and slave are engaged in a conflictual relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The true relationship revealed through resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy Conclusion… </li></ul>
  19. 21. History as the Story of Human Labor and Struggle
  20. 22. “ The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles .”
  21. 23. Materialist vs. Idealist
  22. 24. Material Forces of Production + Social Relations of Production = Material Production
  23. 25. Material Forces of Production
  24. 26. Social Relations of Production
  25. 27. The Dialectic of Class
  26. 28. Class determined by relation to the forces of production
  27. 29. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: <ul><li>Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Control of the Mental Means of Production </li></ul>
  28. 30. Dominating Class has 2 important advantages: <ul><li>Monopoly on the power, agents of coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Control of the Mental Means of Production </li></ul>
  29. 31. False Consciousness
  30. 32. Base & Superstructure
  31. 33. Marx’s Materialist Conception of Society (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) IDEOLOGICAL SUPERSTRUCTURE BASE IDEAS, IDEALS, BELIEFS (Morality, Law, Religion, Etc.) SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION MATERIAL FORCES OF PRODUCTION (“Productive Forces”)
  32. 34. “ Religion is the opiate of the masses”
  33. 35. Possessive Individualism
  34. 36. Marx’s Critique of Capitalism
  35. 37. “ The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a most revolutionary part.”
  36. 38. Capitalism’s 3 important progressive functions
  37. 39. <ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism requires constant innovation and change </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism requires constant innovation and change </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism has made men masters over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism requires constant innovation and change </li></ul>
  40. 42. So why should Capitalism be replaced???
  41. 43. 3 Reasons
  42. 44. Capitalism is Outmoded
  43. 45. Capitalism creates Alienation
  44. 46. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  45. 47. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  46. 48. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  47. 49. 4 ways in which workers are alienated under capitalism: <ul><li>They are alienated from the product of their labor because they are forced to sell their labor and do not own what they produce. </li></ul><ul><li>They are alienated from the activity of production itself because the capitalist system of mass production kills the creative spirit, leaving workers unable to find satisfaction in their labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are alienated from their unique and distinctively human nature and potential, particularly the power to create and enjoy beauty, by the dulling effect of living in a capitalist society. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism alienates workers from each other because it forces them to compete of jobs and wages. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Capitalism is Self-subverting
  49. 51. Why capitalism is DOOOOOOOMED!
  50. 52. Capitalism contains within itself the seeds of its own destruction
  51. 53. Capitalism has created its own “grave-diggers” by creating a class with interests diametrically opposed to its own, brought them together & taught them how to cooperate
  52. 54. Thus, they become a unified class, which has common interests and a common enemy, the bourgeoisie
  53. 55. The proletariat then comes to realize that it is a class with nothing to lose but everything to gain by revolting against and overthrowing the bourgeoisie
  54. 56. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  55. 58. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  56. 59. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  57. 60. Bourgeois-Proletariat Dialectic <ul><li>The Worker is enslaved by the Capitalist, though at first, he or she does not know it </li></ul><ul><li>The Worker wakes from a “False Consciousness” </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialectic turns… </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the classless society </li></ul>
  58. 61. The Revolutionary Sequence COMMUNISM WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT SEIZURE OF STATE POWER REVOLUTIONARY CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS IMMISERATION OF THE PROLETARIAT ECONOMIC CRISES
  59. 62. The Marxist View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Socialism and Communism: More to Marx”) OBSTACLE: Class divisions, economic inequalities, unequal life chances, “False Consciousness&quot; AGENT: Common/ Working People; The proletariat GOAL: Fulfillment of human potential and needs

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