League of Corinth - Alexander the Great

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League of Corinth - Alexander the Great

  1. 1. The League of CorinthThe League of Corinth Established 338/337BCEstablished 338/337BC Topic: Alexander the GreatTopic: Alexander the Great
  2. 2. Theme: Leadership and PowerTheme: Leadership and Power By the end of this lesson you will be able to:By the end of this lesson you will be able to: ►Explain who created the league and when.Explain who created the league and when. ►Describe how the league was structured.Describe how the league was structured. ►Describe restrictions imposed on membersDescribe restrictions imposed on members of the league.of the league. ►Describe the functions of the league.Describe the functions of the league. ►Explain in detail the benefits of the leagueExplain in detail the benefits of the league for Macedonian power in Greece.for Macedonian power in Greece.
  3. 3. What was the League of Corinth?What was the League of Corinth? ►The League of Corinth was a political andThe League of Corinth was a political and military organisation established by Philip IImilitary organisation established by Philip II of Macedon in 338/337BC.of Macedon in 338/337BC. ►The purpose of the League was to createThe purpose of the League was to create political stability in Greece by making allpolitical stability in Greece by making all participating states swear to observe aparticipating states swear to observe a Common Peace.Common Peace.
  4. 4. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Macedonia_336_BC-en.svgSource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Macedonia_336_BC-en.svg
  5. 5. Source: Diodorus 16.89Source: Diodorus 16.89
  6. 6. ““In 338/7 BC King Phillip, proud of hisIn 338/7 BC King Phillip, proud of his victory atvictory at ChaeroneiaChaeroneia by which he had humbled the leading Greekby which he had humbled the leading Greek states, became ambitious to become leader of all Greece.states, became ambitious to become leader of all Greece. He spread the word that he wished to undertake a warHe spread the word that he wished to undertake a war against theagainst the PersiansPersians on behalf of Greece and to punishon behalf of Greece and to punish them for thethem for the sacrilege they had committed againstsacrilege they had committed against Greek templesGreek temples .. He treated them all kindly both inHe treated them all kindly both in public and private matterspublic and private matters and revealed to the citiesand revealed to the cities that he wanted to discuss with them matters of mutualthat he wanted to discuss with them matters of mutual benefit. Hence he convened a general congress at Corinthbenefit. Hence he convened a general congress at Corinth and put forward his proposals for the war. Byand put forward his proposals for the war. By raisingraising great hopes, he won the support of the delegatesgreat hopes, he won the support of the delegates and finally the chose him asand finally the chose him as commander-in-chief ofcommander-in-chief of the Greek forcesthe Greek forces. He began to make great preparations. He began to make great preparations for the campaign against the Persians and, after fixing thefor the campaign against the Persians and, after fixing the number of troops each city should contribute to the alliednumber of troops each city should contribute to the allied forces, he returned to Macedonia.forces, he returned to Macedonia.””
  7. 7. ““……victory at Chaeroneia…victory at Chaeroneia… ”” ► 22ndnd August 338 BCAugust 338 BC ► Greek Allies (led by Athens and Thebes) v Macedonia &Greek Allies (led by Athens and Thebes) v Macedonia & Thessalian CavalryThessalian Cavalry ► Allies held strong position between foothills and theAllies held strong position between foothills and the Cephisus R.Cephisus R. ► Phillip orders ‘withdraw’ of Macedonian rightPhillip orders ‘withdraw’ of Macedonian right  AtheniansAthenians pursuepursue  Gap opens between Athenians and Sacred BandGap opens between Athenians and Sacred Band  Alexander lead companions through the Gap andAlexander lead companions through the Gap and wheeled left to attack Sacred bandwheeled left to attack Sacred band  ThebiansThebians slaughteredslaughtered  1000 Athenians fell, 2000 taken hostage.1000 Athenians fell, 2000 taken hostage. ► Consequences:Consequences:  Thebes heavily punished for ‘breaking’ an agreementThebes heavily punished for ‘breaking’ an agreement with Macedon.with Macedon.  Athens was offered more lenient terms.Athens was offered more lenient terms. VIDEOVIDEO
  8. 8. ““Persians… …sacrilege they hadPersians… …sacrilege they had committed against Greek temples.committed against Greek temples. ”” ► Persian Invasion led by King Xerxes 480-479BCPersian Invasion led by King Xerxes 480-479BC ► The idea of a war against Persia was not new…The idea of a war against Persia was not new…  Text calledText called PanegyricusPanegyricus 380BC – Isocrates urges a380BC – Isocrates urges a Greek crusade against Persia.Greek crusade against Persia.  Phillip 346BC – Isocrates sends an open letter to PhillipPhillip 346BC – Isocrates sends an open letter to Phillip to lead the invasion.to lead the invasion.  Demosthenes (Athenian orator) supported an AthenianDemosthenes (Athenian orator) supported an Athenian lead response against Persia – but was openly hostile tolead response against Persia – but was openly hostile to a Macedonian lead campaign by Phillip the Barbarian!a Macedonian lead campaign by Phillip the Barbarian! ► Sacrilege – Xerxes has desecrated the GreekSacrilege – Xerxes has desecrated the Greek temples, Athens had been burned down.temples, Athens had been burned down.
  9. 9. SEGUE! Sparta, Laconic Wit Philip II of Macedon With key Greek city-states in submission, he turned his attention to Sparta and sent a message: "If I win this war, you will be slaves forever." In another version, Philip proclaims: "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." According to both accounts, the Spartan ephors sent back a one word reply: "If" (αἴκα). [20] Subsequently both Philip and Alexander avoided Sparta entirely. VIDEO Sparta under King Agis, with the financial backing of Persia is later defeated by Antipater at the Battle of Megalopolis. Sparta is forced to join the Corinthian League.
  10. 10. ““……He treated them all kindly both inHe treated them all kindly both in public and private matters…public and private matters… ”” ► Is this a little romanticised???Is this a little romanticised??? ► After the battle of Chaeroneia…After the battle of Chaeroneia…  Thebes: Leaders executed, pro-Macedonian oligarchy established,Thebes: Leaders executed, pro-Macedonian oligarchy established, prisoners sold into slavery, independent treaties abolishedprisoners sold into slavery, independent treaties abolished ► But then againBut then again  Athens: Disband confederacy and give up Chersonnese, AthenianAthens: Disband confederacy and give up Chersonnese, Athenian prisoners were restored, gained territory from Thebesprisoners were restored, gained territory from Thebes ► Also…Also…  The Greek states were to be‘free and autonomous’The Greek states were to be‘free and autonomous’ ► But then again…But then again…  ‘‘free and autonomousfree and autonomous’’ within the boundaries set by Philipwithin the boundaries set by Philip  Four Macedonian garrisons held‘strategic’positions in GreeceFour Macedonian garrisons held‘strategic’positions in Greece  Phillip was Hegemon of all GreecePhillip was Hegemon of all Greece  Anyone allying with Persia was to be executedAnyone allying with Persia was to be executed
  11. 11. ““……raising great hopes, he wonraising great hopes, he won the support of the delegates…the support of the delegates… ”” ►A slightly different translation…A slightly different translation…  Through bribery and propaganda, military mightThrough bribery and propaganda, military might and the threat of reprisal, he won theand the threat of reprisal, he won the begrudging support of the delegates and theybegrudging support of the delegates and they had no choice but to name him as thehad no choice but to name him as the commander-in-chief of the Greek forces.commander-in-chief of the Greek forces.
  12. 12. ““……commander-in-chief of thecommander-in-chief of the Greek forces.Greek forces.”” ► Strategos AutokratorStrategos Autokrator  Pure military rolePure military role  Commander-in-chief of all Macedonain and LEAGUECommander-in-chief of all Macedonain and LEAGUE forces in the fieldforces in the field ► HegemonHegemon  Leader of the LeagueLeader of the League  Military and civil functionMilitary and civil function  Council would pass resolutions and hegemon wouldCouncil would pass resolutions and hegemon would implementimplement  Phillip manipulated this position to suit his own ends.Phillip manipulated this position to suit his own ends. ► Taxation, Macedonian status, execution of traitorsTaxation, Macedonian status, execution of traitors
  13. 13. The League of CorinthThe League of Corinth Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions,Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions, No. 177No. 177
  14. 14. ► Oath. I swear by Zeus, Earth, Sun, Poseidon, Athena, Ares, each and everyOath. I swear by Zeus, Earth, Sun, Poseidon, Athena, Ares, each and every one.one. ► I shall abide by the peace, and I shall not break the treaty with Philip ofI shall abide by the peace, and I shall not break the treaty with Philip of Macedon.Macedon. I shall abstain from any attack either by land or sea onI shall abstain from any attack either by land or sea on any member stateany member state which observes the oath and from hostile occupation ofwhich observes the oath and from hostile occupation of any city, fort, or harbour belonging to the participants in the peace by anyany city, fort, or harbour belonging to the participants in the peace by any means whatsoever.means whatsoever. ► I shall not subvert the kingdom of Philip and his descendantsI shall not subvert the kingdom of Philip and his descendants , or, or thethe constitutions which existedconstitutions which existed in the several Greek states when theyin the several Greek states when they swore the oaths concerning the peace.swore the oaths concerning the peace. ► I shall do nothing contrary to the present treaty and I shall take every possibleI shall do nothing contrary to the present treaty and I shall take every possible step to prevent others from doing so.step to prevent others from doing so. ► If anyone shall infringe the treaty, I shall assist in response to the request of theIf anyone shall infringe the treaty, I shall assist in response to the request of the injured party, and I shall make war on the transgressor of the Common Peaceinjured party, and I shall make war on the transgressor of the Common Peace in accordance with thein accordance with the decision of the common Council and the ordersdecision of the common Council and the orders of the Leaderof the Leader (Hegemon) and I shall not desert the cause…(Hegemon) and I shall not desert the cause… ► Votes: People of Corcyra 2; Thessalians 10; Magnesians 2; Achaeans ofVotes: People of Corcyra 2; Thessalians 10; Magnesians 2; Achaeans of Phthiotis 2; Islander 1; People of Samothrace and Thasos 2; Aetolians 3;Phthiotis 2; Islander 1; People of Samothrace and Thasos 2; Aetolians 3; Acarnanians 2; Ambraciots 1;…Phocians 3; Locrians 3; Dorians, Oetaeans,Acarnanians 2; Ambraciots 1;…Phocians 3; Locrians 3; Dorians, Oetaeans, Malians, Aenians, Agraeans, and Dolopians 3; Athamanians and PerhaebiansMalians, Aenians, Agraeans, and Dolopians 3; Athamanians and Perhaebians 2; People of Zacynthus and Cephallenia 3.2; People of Zacynthus and Cephallenia 3.
  15. 15. ““I shall abstain from any attack…I shall abstain from any attack… on any member state…on any member state… ”” ►This was essentially a peace proposal.This was essentially a peace proposal.  All members could feel secure and safeAll members could feel secure and safe  Philip would not have to worry about internalPhilip would not have to worry about internal conflicts while he was abroadconflicts while he was abroad  Importantly,Importantly, Macedonia did not join theMacedonia did not join the League so was not bound by theseLeague so was not bound by these clausesclauses
  16. 16. ““I shall not subvert the kingdomI shall not subvert the kingdom of Philip and his descendants…of Philip and his descendants… ”” ► This was Philip’s protection clause.This was Philip’s protection clause.  If any member state tried to rise against Macedon thenIf any member state tried to rise against Macedon then this would be in breach of the common peace.this would be in breach of the common peace.  ““…… I shall make war on the transgressor…I shall make war on the transgressor… ”” This clause meant that all members would need to makeThis clause meant that all members would need to make war on the state that broke the common peace. This is awar on the state that broke the common peace. This is a big incentive NOT to break the conditions.big incentive NOT to break the conditions. ► Alexander was assured the same privileges andAlexander was assured the same privileges and protection that Philip had. This also included aprotection that Philip had. This also included a hereditary right to the leadership of the Leaguehereditary right to the leadership of the League
  17. 17. ““……constitutions which existed…constitutions which existed… ”” ►Philip was shrewd in his political dealings.Philip was shrewd in his political dealings.  He ensured that the conditions enforced onHe ensured that the conditions enforced on Thebes and Athens after Chaeroneia stillThebes and Athens after Chaeroneia still appliedapplied And…And…  That the‘autonomy’of the member states wasThat the‘autonomy’of the member states was protected.protected. ►This autonomy was artificial in that Member StatesThis autonomy was artificial in that Member States had Macedonian garrisons patroling them.had Macedonian garrisons patroling them. ►They wereThey were ‘‘autonomousautonomous’’ as long as they obeyedas long as they obeyed MacedonMacedon
  18. 18. ““……decision of the common councildecision of the common council and the orders of the Leader…and the orders of the Leader… ”” ► Common CouncilCommon Council  SynhedrionSynhedrion  Elected representatives from member statesElected representatives from member states  Numbers of representatives were determined by naval and militaryNumbers of representatives were determined by naval and military strengthstrength  Judicial powers and could impose sentencesJudicial powers and could impose sentences ► Leader (Hegemon)Leader (Hegemon)  Leader of the LeagueLeader of the League  Military and civilMilitary and civil  Council would pass resolutions and hegemon would implementCouncil would pass resolutions and hegemon would implement  Phillip manipulated this position to suit his own ends.Phillip manipulated this position to suit his own ends. ► Taxation, Macedonian status, execution of traitorsTaxation, Macedonian status, execution of traitors
  19. 19. The ‘New’ RelationshipThe ‘New’ Relationship ► By the time the League was actioned…By the time the League was actioned…  Macedonia was now in a dominant position.Macedonia was now in a dominant position. ► The Greek States were forced to support Macedon and anyThe Greek States were forced to support Macedon and any attempts to resist would be meet with force.attempts to resist would be meet with force. ► Macedonia was the MasterMacedonia was the Master  the Greek States were thethe Greek States were the slaves.slaves. ► Just as a Master needs slaves, so to MacedonJust as a Master needs slaves, so to Macedon needed the resources of the Greek States.needed the resources of the Greek States.  ““Philip’s policy, it seems likely, was aimed primarily atPhilip’s policy, it seems likely, was aimed primarily at securing the advancement of Macedon and for this hesecuring the advancement of Macedon and for this he found Greeks useful, perhaps essential.”found Greeks useful, perhaps essential.” (Hamilton, 1973, 28)(Hamilton, 1973, 28)
  20. 20. The ‘New’ RelationshipThe ‘New’ Relationship ► By the time the League was actioned…By the time the League was actioned…  Macedonia was now in a dominant position.Macedonia was now in a dominant position. ► The Greek States were forced to support Macedon and anyThe Greek States were forced to support Macedon and any attempts to resist would be meet with force.attempts to resist would be meet with force. ► Macedonia was the MasterMacedonia was the Master  the Greek States were thethe Greek States were the slaves.slaves. ► Just as a Master needs slaves, so to MacedonJust as a Master needs slaves, so to Macedon needed the resources of the Greek States.needed the resources of the Greek States.  ““Philip’s policy, it seems likely, was aimed primarily atPhilip’s policy, it seems likely, was aimed primarily at securing the advancement of Macedon and for this hesecuring the advancement of Macedon and for this he found Greeks useful, perhaps essential.”found Greeks useful, perhaps essential.” (Hamilton, 1973, 28)(Hamilton, 1973, 28)

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