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The potential role of open data in
supply chain integration
Christopher Brewster
Aston University
Food and Drink IT Summit, 7 July, 2015
Birmingham
Food is infrastructure
• An invisible system that supports our
lives ("infrastructure is our life support
system” @paulgrahamraven)
• “invisible” — means it works
• “invisible” — means it is not transparent
2
Transparency means data integrations
• Drivers for Data Integration
• Need for transparency - tracking and tracing
• Desire for food awareness - on the part of
consumers, but not only
• Regulatory pressure - e.g.EU Regulation
1169/2011
• New business opportunities ….
3
Food Crises and Scandals
• Major driver for greater data integration (whether
open or closed).
• E. Coli in Germany in 2011 - Spanish growers
lost over €200M
• Horse meat scandal across Europe in 2013 -
impact very great on some supermarkets
4
Lack of Data Integration
• Both scandals suffered from lack of data and
data integration
• E. Coli - who affected? what purchased?
where? when? and who participated in the
supply chain
• Horse meat - six months for Irish FSA to map
the supply chain network
• Need for greater supply chain transparency =
need for data integration
5
Trust - 1
6
Trust - 2
7
• More information, more data = more trust
What role Open Data here?
8
What is “Open Data”?
• Open Data is part of a wider movement (e.g.
wikipedia)
• Open Data is part of a movement for more efficient
decision making processes than price signalling
(cf. Hayek 1945)
•Open Data is data that is available for anyone to
use, build upon, and build business services around
• More information rich, more equitable (if we are
lucky)
• Lots of business opportunities!!!
9
Open Data in agri-food
• Suddenly Open Data is all the fashion cf. G-8 International
Conference on Open Data for Agriculture April 2013
• World-wide explosion of data sources:
• data.fao.org
• http://www.gbif.org
• (US) http://www.data.gov/food/community/food
• http://inspire-geoportal.ec.europa.eu
• http://www.foodsecurityportal.org
• http://data.worldbank.org
• http://open-data.europa.eu
10
Across Europe: UK
• World leader in Open Data
• data.gov.uk has very large collection
of agri-food data sets
• Data comes from many government
agencies
• Many agri-food data sets listed but
not available e.g. from FERI and
other institutes
11
The “Where’s this from” App
• Uses FSA meat audit reports linked packaging codes
• Reports on: animal welfare, slaughtering hygiene, animal hygiene,
HACCP (bacteria)
• Weaknesses: audits are carried out by local authorities, budget cuts,
and often no inspection has occurred.12
http://
www.where
sthisfrom.co
m
Across Europe: The EC
• Most important is: http://open-data.europa.eu - many data sets
out of date
• AND
• Health and Consumers (SANCO) has published
consolidated data sets from EFSA – European Food Safety
Agency, ECDC – European Centre of Disease Control, EMA
– European Medicines Agency, CPVO – Community Plant
Variety Office
• Available as RDF and JSON http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/
health_consumer/information_systems/index_en.htm
13
Across Europe: Germany
• Commitment to G8 initiative
• No national equivalent to data.gov.uk
• National Statistics Office (https://www-
genesis.destatis.de/ ) but not exactly “open data”
• Main driver is KTBL (http://www.ktbl.de)
• Main data sets include pesticide data/plant variety
data, and crop models
• Gradually to be released as Open Linked Data
14
Across Europe: France
• Government data portal: http://www.data.gouv.fr
(only 16 data sets concern agri-food)
• Two initiatives concerning food product data:
• http://product-open-data.com —> now part of
OKFN, has 900,000 GTIN codes
• http://openfoodfacts.org —> crowd sourcing data,
now has 14,000 products
15
OpenFoodFacts
16
GS1 - Hopefully (not so) soon open data (?)
• GS1 product information - everything connected to
barcodes/RFID
• Fundamental link between products along the supply
chain
• Sort of available:
• GEPIR: Global Electronic Party Information Registry
- allows limited lookup of GTINs
• Data belongs to food producers …. and not yet
openly available
• GS1 are aware of the need to open up ….
17
Types of Data
18
Open Data
= Gov Data?
Closed Data
= Private + Gov Data
Commercial
Data Privacy?
Homologa
• “Homologa ™, The Global Crop
Protection Database” - http://
www.agrobase-logigram.com/pages/
homologa.html
• Combines pesticide regulations and
Minimum Residue Level data from
around the world
• Commercial product built on multiple
sources including public/open data.
19
What we need!
• End-to-end supply chain data that is "as
open as possible"
• Beginnings are occurring:
• In UK - Where’s that From (app) using open
FSA data
• In France - OpenFoodFacts - food product
ingredients crowdsources from labels
20
Data is Infrastructure
• “National Information Infrastructure” @jeniT
• Like all infrastructure somebody pays for it
• It moves like roads (in the 18th century) from a private
invention to a public utility
• So agri-food data needs to become a “public utility”
• Where we draw a sensible line between public and
private/commercial data is up for discussion and
negotiation
• Cost of data capture is decreasing
21
Social Opportunities
• to connect farmers to eaters
• to connect eaters to the sources of their food
• to connect people who share common food and agricultural
interests
• connect farmers at a local level
• connect connect eaters to each other
• enable every actor along the food supply chain to feed data/
queries into the network
22
Business Opportunities
• Allowing farmers to ‘know’ their end
consumers
• Enabling all actors (suppliers, logistics,
retailers) better planning, faster
response to changing demand
• Reducing waste through the supply
chain
• .... many unforeseeable opportunities
23
The Ethical Challenge
• Will this be beneficial to wider society?
• for farmers?
• for consumers/eater?
• Complex networks tie people into
complex systems
• Will this benefit the soil?
• Possibly, in part, if we make careful
choices
24
Thank you
http://www.cbrewster.com
25
http:/www.smartagrifood.eu http:/www.fispace.eu

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The potential role of open data in supply chain integration

  • 1. The potential role of open data in supply chain integration Christopher Brewster Aston University Food and Drink IT Summit, 7 July, 2015 Birmingham
  • 2. Food is infrastructure • An invisible system that supports our lives ("infrastructure is our life support system” @paulgrahamraven) • “invisible” — means it works • “invisible” — means it is not transparent 2
  • 3. Transparency means data integrations • Drivers for Data Integration • Need for transparency - tracking and tracing • Desire for food awareness - on the part of consumers, but not only • Regulatory pressure - e.g.EU Regulation 1169/2011 • New business opportunities …. 3
  • 4. Food Crises and Scandals • Major driver for greater data integration (whether open or closed). • E. Coli in Germany in 2011 - Spanish growers lost over €200M • Horse meat scandal across Europe in 2013 - impact very great on some supermarkets 4
  • 5. Lack of Data Integration • Both scandals suffered from lack of data and data integration • E. Coli - who affected? what purchased? where? when? and who participated in the supply chain • Horse meat - six months for Irish FSA to map the supply chain network • Need for greater supply chain transparency = need for data integration 5
  • 7. Trust - 2 7 • More information, more data = more trust
  • 8. What role Open Data here? 8
  • 9. What is “Open Data”? • Open Data is part of a wider movement (e.g. wikipedia) • Open Data is part of a movement for more efficient decision making processes than price signalling (cf. Hayek 1945) •Open Data is data that is available for anyone to use, build upon, and build business services around • More information rich, more equitable (if we are lucky) • Lots of business opportunities!!! 9
  • 10. Open Data in agri-food • Suddenly Open Data is all the fashion cf. G-8 International Conference on Open Data for Agriculture April 2013 • World-wide explosion of data sources: • data.fao.org • http://www.gbif.org • (US) http://www.data.gov/food/community/food • http://inspire-geoportal.ec.europa.eu • http://www.foodsecurityportal.org • http://data.worldbank.org • http://open-data.europa.eu 10
  • 11. Across Europe: UK • World leader in Open Data • data.gov.uk has very large collection of agri-food data sets • Data comes from many government agencies • Many agri-food data sets listed but not available e.g. from FERI and other institutes 11
  • 12. The “Where’s this from” App • Uses FSA meat audit reports linked packaging codes • Reports on: animal welfare, slaughtering hygiene, animal hygiene, HACCP (bacteria) • Weaknesses: audits are carried out by local authorities, budget cuts, and often no inspection has occurred.12 http:// www.where sthisfrom.co m
  • 13. Across Europe: The EC • Most important is: http://open-data.europa.eu - many data sets out of date • AND • Health and Consumers (SANCO) has published consolidated data sets from EFSA – European Food Safety Agency, ECDC – European Centre of Disease Control, EMA – European Medicines Agency, CPVO – Community Plant Variety Office • Available as RDF and JSON http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/ health_consumer/information_systems/index_en.htm 13
  • 14. Across Europe: Germany • Commitment to G8 initiative • No national equivalent to data.gov.uk • National Statistics Office (https://www- genesis.destatis.de/ ) but not exactly “open data” • Main driver is KTBL (http://www.ktbl.de) • Main data sets include pesticide data/plant variety data, and crop models • Gradually to be released as Open Linked Data 14
  • 15. Across Europe: France • Government data portal: http://www.data.gouv.fr (only 16 data sets concern agri-food) • Two initiatives concerning food product data: • http://product-open-data.com —> now part of OKFN, has 900,000 GTIN codes • http://openfoodfacts.org —> crowd sourcing data, now has 14,000 products 15
  • 17. GS1 - Hopefully (not so) soon open data (?) • GS1 product information - everything connected to barcodes/RFID • Fundamental link between products along the supply chain • Sort of available: • GEPIR: Global Electronic Party Information Registry - allows limited lookup of GTINs • Data belongs to food producers …. and not yet openly available • GS1 are aware of the need to open up …. 17
  • 18. Types of Data 18 Open Data = Gov Data? Closed Data = Private + Gov Data Commercial Data Privacy?
  • 19. Homologa • “Homologa ™, The Global Crop Protection Database” - http:// www.agrobase-logigram.com/pages/ homologa.html • Combines pesticide regulations and Minimum Residue Level data from around the world • Commercial product built on multiple sources including public/open data. 19
  • 20. What we need! • End-to-end supply chain data that is "as open as possible" • Beginnings are occurring: • In UK - Where’s that From (app) using open FSA data • In France - OpenFoodFacts - food product ingredients crowdsources from labels 20
  • 21. Data is Infrastructure • “National Information Infrastructure” @jeniT • Like all infrastructure somebody pays for it • It moves like roads (in the 18th century) from a private invention to a public utility • So agri-food data needs to become a “public utility” • Where we draw a sensible line between public and private/commercial data is up for discussion and negotiation • Cost of data capture is decreasing 21
  • 22. Social Opportunities • to connect farmers to eaters • to connect eaters to the sources of their food • to connect people who share common food and agricultural interests • connect farmers at a local level • connect connect eaters to each other • enable every actor along the food supply chain to feed data/ queries into the network 22
  • 23. Business Opportunities • Allowing farmers to ‘know’ their end consumers • Enabling all actors (suppliers, logistics, retailers) better planning, faster response to changing demand • Reducing waste through the supply chain • .... many unforeseeable opportunities 23
  • 24. The Ethical Challenge • Will this be beneficial to wider society? • for farmers? • for consumers/eater? • Complex networks tie people into complex systems • Will this benefit the soil? • Possibly, in part, if we make careful choices 24