I’m not evidence-I’m evidence- NO! I am based, I’m ignore her! look evidence-informedbased at me!
1. Intervention specificity - what is it?2. Evaluation quality - is the method robust enough for us to believe the findings?3. Intervention impact - which aspects of child health and development are affected and to what extent?4. System readiness - is the intervention replicable?Standards of Evidence
*Approximately 5,000 6th and 7th grade students @ baseline and follow-upData from Pentz, Trebow, Hansen, MacKinnon, Dwyer, Johnson, Flay, Daniels, &CormackEffects of Program Implementation on Adolescent Drug Use Behavior: TheMidwestern Eval Rev.1990; 14: 264-289
FFT Results 63 Control Group (N=313)18-Month Unadjusted Major Recidivism Percentage 55 Individual Therapists (N=387) Group Mean (Average) 47 47 43 42 34 33 33 31 28 26 26 23 23 22 20 18 17 18 17 1717 14 14 14 12 11 8 0 C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M 8 9 10111213M 1415161718M 19202122232425M Low Fidelity High Fidelity From: Outcome Evaluation of Washington States Evidence-Based Programs for Juvenile Offenders, January 2004. Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Report #04-01-1201
Innovation vs invention Small, simple, effective When attending a home birth in rural Nepal, a birth attendant brings a delivery kit the size of a deck of cards: a small bar of soap for washing hands, a plastic sheet to serve as the delivery surface, clean string for tying the umbilical cord, and a new razor blade for cutting the cord. It’s cheap and basic, but it helps mothers and babies avoid infection. Photo: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation / Toni Greaves
Start with scale in mind Community members participate in discussions after watching video documentaries screened by the Self Employed Women’s Association in an urban slum. (Ahmedabad, India, 2010) Photo: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation/PrashantPanjiar
What is core and what isadaptable? Mother’s new car is a cargo bike The residents of Christiania, a communal neighborhood in Copenhagen, have long had an affinity for customized bikes – easily personalized but practical to the core. Photo: Mikael Colville-Andersen
The potential of socialnetworks Charting contagion Harvard medical sociologist Nicholas Christakis is one of the foremost researchers and communicators on social networks. He and his collaborators have found that many surprising phenomena are contagious, such as loneliness, altruism, and obesity. Network image: Nicholas Christakis
Diffusion vs dissemination The S-curve of diffusion In 1962, sociologist Everett Rogers set out the ideas of “dissemination” and “diffusion.” The S-curve predicts how an innovation proceeds from a trickle of early adopters, to a flood of mainstream users, until only a few laggards remain. Image: Everett M. Rogers. 2003. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Ed. New York: Free Press.
Pull beats push The demand for vaccination In many parts of the world, the demand for vaccination shows how “pull” beats “push.” In Pantasma, Nicaragua, mothers are willing to wait in line for hours so that their children can receive the rotavirus vaccine – with the result that 80 percent of children in Nicaragua have been vaccinated against this life-threatening disease. Photo: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation / Brent Stirton
There are no blueprintsfor scale up Any blueprints for our work? A World War II poster from the US prescribes a “Blueprint for Victory.” Image: US National Archives and Records Administration
Data is essential but weneed stories too It was 1970 when designer Jeremy Sinclair, at the advertising agency Cramer Saatchi, created the “pregnant man” poster for the UK’s Health Education Council. It aimed to tell a story that men would recognize. Advertisement: Jeremy Sinclair
Great impact might comefrom a simple innovationwidely adopted A new use for an old wheel The pulley – a simple re-configuring of wheels and rope – is one of the all- time great radical ideas. Here, a pulley helps to raise water from a traditional indoor well in a house in Chettinad. (Tamil Nadu, India, 2008) Photo: Ramaswamy N.