Philippine Government during the Pre- Spanish & Spanish Era - YouTube.FLV Spanish Era in the Philippines - YouTube.FLV
INTRODUCTION The Philippines was not formally organized as a Spanish colony until 1565 when Philip II appointed Miguel Lopez de Legazpi the first Governor-General. Legazpi selected Manila for the capital of the colony in 1571 because of its fine natural harbour and the rich lands surrounding the city that could supply it with produce. The colonization brought great changes in the political, economic and cultural life of the people.
Changes Brought bySpanish Colonizers The foremost aim of Spanish colonization was to spread Christianity. The second aim of the Spanish colonizers was economic wealth. The third aim of Spanish colonization was political grandeur.
COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION For over 333 years, the Philippines was a crown colony of Spain. Until 1821 when the Mexicans revolted and won independence from Spain, the Philippines was a dependency of Mexico, being administered by the viceroy in the name of the king. From 1821 to 1898, the country was a distinct government unit under the direct control of the home government in Madrid. The king issued cedulas for the administration of the colony and appointed a governor, member of the royal audiencia and other high officials.
Cedula 1896 Cedula Personal issued in Manila. This is similar to the cedula torn by the Katipuneros
ENCOMIENDA It comes from the Spanish word encomendar which means "to entrust". The earliest political system used during the conquista period was the encomienda system. Under the encomienda system, the native inhabitants in a given geographic region were entrusted to an encomendero or trustee as a reward for his service to the Spanish Crown.
List of the Officials in some towns ofIloilo elected by their respectedPrincipales in 1855.
KING OF SPAIN THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH THE JUDICIAL BRANCH (Governor General) (Royal Audencia, Residencia, Lower Courts, Governor-General)PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT CITY GOVERNMENT ALCALDIA CORRIGIMIENTO AYUNTAMIENTO (Alcalde Mayor) (Corregidor) (Cabildo) PUEBLOS OR TOWNS CABILDO (Gobernadorcillos) City Council •ALCALDE •REGIDORES BARRIOS •AGUACIL MAYOR (Cabeza de Barangay) •ESCRIBANDO BARRIOS (Cabeza de Barangay)
Spain reigned over the Philippines for 333 years, from1565 to 1898.Since Spain was far from the country, the Spanish kingruled the Islands through the viceroy of Mexico, whichwas then another Spanish colony. KING OF SPAIN VICEROY OF MEXICO PHILIPPINES
When Mexico regained its freedom in1821, the Spanish king ruled thePhilippines through a GovernorGeneral, (GG). KING OF SPAIN GOVERNOR GENERAL PHILIPPINES
THE GOVERNOR GENERALThe Kings representative and the highest-rankingofficial in the PhilippinesRoyal decrees and laws emanating from Spainwere implemented in the PhilippinesHad the power to appoint and dismiss publicofficials, except those personally chosen by theKing
THE GOVERNOR GENERALSupervised all government offices and thecollection of taxesExercised certain legislative powersIssued proclamations to facilitate theimplementation of laws
Governor-General Miguel López de Legazpi April 27, 1565- August 20, 1572
THE GOVERNOR GENERALREQUIREMENT: Must be a PENINSULARES or A SPANIARD BORN IN SPAIN
Gobernadorcillo was a municipal judge or governor in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period, who carried out in a town the combined charges or responsibilities of leadership, economic, and judicial administration. The Gobernadorcillo was the leader of a town or pueblo (people or population). In a coastal town, the "Gobernadorcillo" functioned as a Port Captain. Honor Accorded to Gobernadorcillos
THE POLITICAL STRUCTURE THE GOVERNOR GENERAL The Governor General and other government officials had so much power that it was commonly abused. To investigate the abuses, there were bodies created: THE RESIDENCIA THE VISITA THE ROYAL AUDENCIA
THE RESIDENCIAThis was a special judicial court that investigatesthe performance of a Governor General who wasabout to be replaced. The Residencia, of whichthe incoming Governor General was usually a member, submitted a report ofits findings to the King.
THE VISITAThe Council of the Indies in Spain sent agovernment official called the VISITADORGENERAL to observe conditions in the colony. The Visitador General reported his findings directly to the King.
The highest court inTHE ROYAL AUDENCIA the landServed as an advisory body to the GovernorGeneralHad the power to check and report on hisabusesThe Audiencia also audited the expenditures ofthe colonial governmentSent a yearly report to SpainThe Archbishop and other government officials
THE ROYAL AUDENCIA Despite all these checks, however, an abusive governor general often managed to escape stiff fines, suspension, or dismissal by simply bribing the Visitador and other investigators.
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTThe Spaniards created Local Government Units (LGU)for the provincesThere were two types of local government units: ALCALDIA CORRIGIMIENTO Alcalde Corregidor Mayor
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT The ALCADIA, led by the Alcalde Mayor governed the provinces that had been fully subjugated: UNDER SPANISH CONTROL ALREADY SALARY: P300 A MONTH
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTDUTIES OF THE ALCALDE MAYOR:They represented the Spanish king and theGovernor-GeneralThey managed the day-to-day operations of theprovincial governmentImplemented laws and supervised the collectionof taxes
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT The CORREGIMIENTO, headed by Corregidor
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTThe ALCADIA and the CORREGIMIENTOThough they were paid a small salary,they enjoyed privileges such as the INDULTO DE COMERCIOor the right to participate in the GALLEON TRADE.
THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTEach province was divided into several towns orpueblos headed by GOBERNADORDCILLOS (LittleGovernor)MAIN DUTIES: Efficient governance and taxcollection.Four lieutenants aided the Governardorcillo:the Teniente Mayor (chief lieutenant),the Teniente de Policia (police lieutenant),the Teniente de Sementeras (lieutenant of thefields)
THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT GOBERNADORDCILLOS They had SMALL SALARIES but were exempted from PAYING TAXES QUALIFICATIONS: Any NATIVE or CHINESE MEZTIZO 25 years old Literate in ORAL or WRITTEN SPANISH Cabeza de Barangay for 4 years Ex: Emilio Aguinaldo
THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT CABEZA DE BARANGAY OR (Barrio Administrator or Barangay Captain) -Responsible for the peace and order of the barrio -Recruited men for public works QUALIFICATIONS: Cabezas should be literate in Spanish Have good moral character and property Cabezas who served for 25 years were
THE CITY GOVERNMENTLarger towns became cities called: AYUNTAMIENTOIt became the center of trade and industry.The ayuntamiento had a city council called the CABILDOCABILDO is composed of: ALCALDE (MAYOR) REGIDORES (COUNCILLORS) ALGUACIL MAYOR (POLICE CHIEF) ESCRIBANDO (SECRETARY)