Teaching English Language Learners in Primary and Elementary Classrooms


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Teaching English Language Learners in Primary and Elementary Classrooms

  1. 1. Presented by: Christine MorrisMemorial University of NewfoundlandIn partial fulfillment for the degree ofMaster’s of Education (Curriculum, Teachingand Learning).
  2. 2. Students who speak limited or no English.They come from diverse backgrounds. They maybe part of a planned voluntary immigrationprocess or may have come as Government-assisted refugees.They require classroom support to learn English.
  3. 3. These students require special attention inthe classroom.They may have had disrupted or no formalschooling.For many students this may be the first timethat they are in a formal school setting.
  4. 4. Many will have encountered war andother traumatizing events and may bewithdrawn or may be very disruptive.Teaching these students will requireteachers to adapt and alter theirteaching style.
  5. 5. Can take from 5-7 years forchildren to become proficient in asecond language.Between the ages of 5-10 childrenare still acquiring their firstlanguage.
  6. 6. Young children become proficient in asecond language quicker than adults.Two types of basic language proficiency:Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency(CALP) and Basic InterpersonalCommunicative Skills (Cummins,1980)
  7. 7. Also referred to as academic language.Language required for development ofliteracy skills in a person’s first language andsecond language.Takes a long time to acquire.Teacher intervention is required.
  8. 8. Involves social language.Everyday language used in conversationssuch as when you are talking on the phone.Acquired in a relatively short period of time.
  9. 9. Communicative Language Teaching(CLT) is the most commonly usedapproach by teachers of English.CLT allows students to learnEnglish naturally through everydaycommunication.
  10. 10. Language is a social tool, encourage talkingand promote conversations.Embrace diversity as part of languagedevelopment.Allow students to make mistakes and do notcorrect a student’s mistakes.Allow them to learn from these mistakes.
  11. 11. Use pair and group work along withdirected teaching to help students besuccessful in learning English.Students are not expected to reach thesame level of mastery at the same time.Each student will learn at their own rate.
  12. 12. Use of their first language should beencouraged when learning a second language.Provide each student with individual learningplans.Provide a caring and supportive environment inwhich students are not afraid to take risks.
  13. 13. Role play Interviews andinformation exchange Group/pair work GamesLearning by teaching
  14. 14. A program that follows the CLTapproach.Immerses ELLs with high interestillustrated story books.Students are encouraged to read andshare their books with their classmates.
  15. 15. Helps students to make significant gainsin reading and listening comprehensionand mastery of English structures.Research by Elley (1991,2000) hasconsistently found that students learnthe target language more quickly withBook Floods.
  16. 16. English as Second Language (ESL) andLiteracy Enrichment and AcademicReadiness (LEARN).The ESL program teaches English tostudents who have little or no Englishand helps develop basic literacy skills.
  17. 17. ESL support is available to studentsfor a maximum of five years.LEARN is an academic programaimed at developing literacy andmathematic skills of ELLs who havea gap in their formal education.
  18. 18. Offered to newcomers throughthe Association For NewCanadians and is available inmany schools in the St. John’sarea.
  19. 19. Assists with registration of students in school.Translation and interpretation services.Offers homework assistance to students.Help finding textbooks and school supplies.Can provide counselling services if necessary.
  20. 20. Association for New Canadians –www.anc-nf.cc Citizenship and Immigration Canada- www.cic.gc.ca Department of Education – www.gov.nl.ca/edu Ontario Ministry of Education- http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/esleld programs/esleldprograms.pdf
  21. 21.  Association for New Canadians (2009). Guide to Newfoundland and Labrador school system. Retrieved from http://www.anc- nf.ca/files/SchoolsGuideBook_09.pdf Citizenship and Immigration Canada (2010a). Canada facts and figures; Immigrant overview, permanent and temporary residents 2009. Retrieved from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/research-stats/facts2009.pdf Citizenship and Immigration Canada (2010b). Government-assisted refugee program. Retrieved from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/outside/resettle-gov.asp Collier, V. P. (1987). Age and rate of acquisition of second language for academic purposes. TESOL Quarterly, 21(4), 617-641. Doi: 10.2307/3586986 Coltrane, B. (2003). Working with young English language learners: Some considerations. Eric Digest. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED481690.pdf
  22. 22.  Coltrane, B. (2003). Working with young English language learners: Some considerations. Eric Digest. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED481690.pdf Cummins, J. (1980). The cross-lingual dimensions of language proficiency: Implications for bilingual education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Quarterly, 14(2), 175-187. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.qe2a-proxy.mun.ca/stable/pdfplus/3586312.pdf Department of Education (2010a). Guidelines for delivery of ESL services in K-6. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/k12/curriculum/guides/esl/esl_k- 6/Guidelines_for_Delivery_of_ESL_Services_K-6.pdf Department of Education (2010b). Literacy enrichment and academic readiness newcomers (LEARN) program; curriculum guide; LEARN-1 language arts: Basic literacy. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/k12/curriculum/guides/esl/learn/learn1_language_arts.pdf Department of Education (2010c). Literacy enrichment and academic readiness newcomers (LEARN) program; curriculum guide; LEARN-1 mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/k12/curriculum/guides/esl/learn/learn1_mathematics.pdf
  23. 23.  Elley, W. B. (1991). Acquiring literacy in a second language: The effect of book- based programs. Language Learning, 41, 375-411. Doi: 10.1111/j.14671770.1991.tb00611.x Elley, W.B. (2000). The potential of book floods for raising literacy levels. International review of Education, 36(3/4), 233-255. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.qe2a-proxy.mun.ca/stable/3445488 Gatbonton, E. (2005). Rethinking communicative language teaching: A focus on access to fluency. Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(3), 325-353. Doi: 0.3138/cmlr.61.3.325 Griffiths, J. & Parr, J. M. (2001). Language-learning strategies: theory and perception. ELT Journal, 55(3), 247-254. Doi: 10.1093/elt/55.3.247 Hiep, P. H. (2007). Communicative language teaching: Unity within diversity. ELT Journal, 61(3), 193-201. Doi: 10.1093/elt/ccm026 Krashen, S., Long, M., & Scarcella, R. (1979). Age, rate and eventual attainment in second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 13(4), 573-582. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.qe2a-proxy.mun.ca/stable/pdfplus/3586451.pdf
  24. 24.  Matthews, J. (2008). Schooling and settlement: Refugee education in Australia. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 18(1), 31- 45. Doi: 10.1080/09620210802195947. Ontario Ministry of Education (2007). English language learners: ESL and ELD programs and services. Policies and procedures for the Ontario elementary and secondary schools, kindergarten to grade 12. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/esleldprograms/esleldprogra ms.pdf Savignon, S. J. (1987). Communicative language teaching. Theory into Practice, 26(4), 235-242. Doi: 10.1080/00405848709543281 Savignon, S. J. (2006). Beyond communicative language teaching: What’s ahead? Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 207-220. Doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.09.004.
  25. 25.  Saville-Troike, M. (1973). Reading and the Audio-Lingual Method. TESOL Quarterly,( 7) 4, 395-405. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.qe2a- proxy.mun.ca/stable/pdfplus/3585870.pdf Statistics Canada. (2010). 2006 community profiles. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92- 591/details/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=1001519&Geo2=PR&Code2=1 0&Data=Count&SearchText=St. Johns&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=10&B1=All&Custom= Terrell, T. (1977). A natural approach to second language acquisition and learning. The Modern Language Journal 61(7), 325-337. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.qe2a-proxy.mun.ca/stable/pdfplus/324551.pdf Zimmerman, C. B. (1997). Historical trends in second language instruction. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.). Second language vocabulary acquisition: A rationale for pedagogy (pp. 5-15). [Adobe Digital Editions Version]. Retrieved from http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam034/96003115.pdf Verdugo, R. & Flores, B. (2007). English language learners: key issues. Education in urban society, 39(2), 167-193. Doi: 10.1177/0013124506294852