Introduction lesson


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Introduction lesson

  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. <ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanography </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Astronomy- The study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorology- The study of the air around our planet </li></ul><ul><li>Geology- The study of the materials that make up Earth and the processes that form and change these materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanography- The study of the Earth’s oceans </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Lithosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroshpere </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><li>All interact with each other </li></ul><ul><li>None independent from the others </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The rigid outer shell of the planet and includes the crust and the solid uppermost part of the layer below the crust, the mantle. </li></ul><ul><li>Sits on partially molten layer called the asthenosphere. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The water in Earth’s oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and glaciers, as well as the water in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>97% Salt water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3% Fresh water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers, lakes, rivers, and groundwater </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The blanket of gasses that surrounds our planet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed for respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect from radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps maintain temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>78% nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21% oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Includes all organisms on Earth as well as the environments in which they live. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is our Biosphere unique? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most organisms exist within a few meters of the Earth’s surface. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>WHAT OR HOW DO THESE SYSTEMS INTERACT? </li></ul><ul><li>Give answer to the above question in the Introduction- Forum. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your response must be 50-100 words. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Application of scientific discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Transferable, which means that it can be applied to new situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Freeze-dried foods </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of any more? </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>A scientific Method is a planned, organized approach to solving a problem. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>4 steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation/Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclude </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>What is the observation? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want to know? </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>State a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Design a test. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Once the problem is defined and research is complete, a hypothesis, or suggested explanation for an observation, is made. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Select a sample </li></ul><ul><li>How will the variables be controlled & measured? </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct the experiment & observe </li></ul><ul><li>Record the results </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Organize the data using graphs, tables, and charts. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for trends in the data </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the data w/ the hypothesis & the prediction </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Look @ data & form conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Re-evaluate hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate new questions. </li></ul><ul><li>New questions my begin the scientific method again. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>A good scientific experiment test only one variable, or changeable factor, at a time. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>The independent variable in an experiment is the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>The dependent variable is a factor that can change if the independent variable is changed. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Constants are “constant”. </li></ul><ul><li>They can’t and won’t change during the experiment. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>A control is used in an experiment to show that the results of an experiment are actually a result of the condition being tested. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>When conducting any scientific investigation, it is important to use all materials and equipment only as instructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Now go back and watch the lab safety video in the Introduction module. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>New ideas in science are limited by the context in which they are conceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific methods are not rigid, step-by-step outlines to solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>When problems occur during experimentation it often sparks new questions to be experimented. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Often, scientists propose models to try to explain ideas or systems. </li></ul><ul><li>When an explanation withstands the test of repeated experiments, a theory might be proposed. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Communicating scientific data and results allows others to learn of new discoveries, to possibly verify what has been reported and examine it for bias, and to challenge the findings. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>You will be asked to record and analyze the info that you collected and to draw conclusions based on your data. </li></ul><ul><li>You may also be asked to compare your results with results of other students to help you find both similarities and differences among results. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>On a line graph, the independent variable is plotted on the horizontal (x) axis, and dependent variable is plotted on the vertical (y) axis. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>A scientific model is an idea, a system, or a mathematical expression that is similar to the idea being explained. </li></ul><ul><li>Early astronomers, for example, thought that Earth was the center of the solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>The model was later changed of course. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>A scientific theory is an explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>A scientific theory is valid only if it is consistent with observations, makes predictions that can be tested, and is the simplest explanation of observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be changed or modified with the discovery of new data. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>A scientific law is a basic principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought of as a “rule of nature”, even though the cause of the law may not be known. </li></ul><ul><li>Events described by a law are observed to be the same every time </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Sir Isaac Newton’s first law of motion, which states that an object at rest or in motion stays at rest or in motion unless it is acted upon by an outside force. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Quiz for Introduction </li></ul>