Earth Science “ The Sun-Earth-Moon System”
Tools of Astronomy <ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Telescopes </li></ul><ul><li>Satellites, Probes, and Science Based ...
Radiation <ul><li>Light is a common term for electromagnetic radiation. Which consists of electric and magnetic disturbanc...
Radiation <ul><li>Now use the back of your Earth-Moon scale to draw illustration of wavelengths and frequency at the top o...
Radiation <ul><li>Electromagnetic radiation is classified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength - distance between peaks on...
Radiation <ul><li>There is a mathematical relationship between frequency and wavelength. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency is re...
Telescopes <ul><li>A telescope collects light from a distant object and focuses it at a point where the image of the objec...
Telescopes <ul><li>4 benefits of telescopes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to attach different detectors to telescopes to ...
Telescopes <ul><li>Refracting telescopes- uses lenses to bring visible light to a focus  </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting tele...
telescopes <ul><li>Radio telescopes - reflect radio waves into electrical signals that can be stored in a computer for ana...
Satellites, Probes, and Space-Based Astronomy <ul><li>Astronomers often have to send their instruments into space to colle...
Spacecraft <ul><li>In addition to making observations from above Earth’s atmosphere, space-based exploration can be achiev...
Human Spaceflight <ul><li>A multi-country space station called the International Space Station is the ideal environment to...
Spinoffs <ul><li>Space-exploration programs have benefited our society far beyond our increased understanding of space. </...
Earth Science “ The Moon”
Reaching for the Moon <ul><li>Astronomers have learned much about the Moon from telescopic observations. </li></ul><ul><li...
Lunar Properties <ul><li>Our moon is unique to all the moons in the solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is one of the la...
Lunar Surface <ul><li>Albedo - the amount of sunlight that the surface reflects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon 7% </li></ul></...
Lunar Surface <ul><li>Different from the Earth in that there is no erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands - light in color, ...
Lunar Surface <ul><li>Impact craters  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All craters on the Moon are impact craters </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Lunar Surface <ul><li>Ejecta - the materials blasted out during these impacts fell back to the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Composition <ul><li>The moon is made up of minerals similar to those of Earth - mostly silicates. </li></ul>
History of the Moon <ul><li>Radiometric dating of lunar rocks from the highlands indicates an age between 3.8 and 4.6 bill...
Tectonics on the Moon? <ul><li>Mountain ranges around maria were not formed tectonically, as mountain ranges on Earth </li...
Formation Theories <ul><li>Capture Theory - The large object floated to close to the Earth’s gravitational pull and became...
Earth Science “ The Sun-Earth-Moon Relationship”
Sun-Earth-Moon <ul><li>Relationship between the three are important for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun provides l...
Daily Motions <ul><li>The Sun, Moon, planets, and stars do not orbit around Earth everyday.  It only appears that way to u...
Earth’s Rotation <ul><li>2 ways to demonstrate Earth’s rotation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foucault pendulum - long wire and a...
<ul><li>Finish… </li></ul>
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Astronomy

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Astronomy

  1. 1. Earth Science “ The Sun-Earth-Moon System”
  2. 2. Tools of Astronomy <ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Telescopes </li></ul><ul><li>Satellites, Probes, and Science Based Astronomy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Radiation <ul><li>Light is a common term for electromagnetic radiation. Which consists of electric and magnetic disturbances, traveling through space as waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Naked eye only sees limited range of all various wavelengths. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Radiation <ul><li>Now use the back of your Earth-Moon scale to draw illustration of wavelengths and frequency at the top of page 748. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Radiation <ul><li>Electromagnetic radiation is classified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength - distance between peaks on a wave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency - the number of waves or oscillations occurring per second. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Radiation <ul><li>There is a mathematical relationship between frequency and wavelength. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency is related to wavelength by: </li></ul><ul><li>c = speed of light (3.0 X 10^8 m/s) </li></ul><ul><li>= wavelength </li></ul><ul><li>f = frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Note that all types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the same speed, because c is constant. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Telescopes <ul><li>A telescope collects light from a distant object and focuses it at a point where the image of the object can be studied or recorded. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Telescopes <ul><li>4 benefits of telescopes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to attach different detectors to telescopes to observe all wavelengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A telescope brings much more light to focus than the human eye can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow astronomers to use specialized equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telescopes can be used to make time exposures, light is collected over a long period of time. Why telescopes are able to detect objects that are too faint for the human eye to see. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Telescopes <ul><li>Refracting telescopes- uses lenses to bring visible light to a focus </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting telescopes- bring light to focus with mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>Although both refracting and reflecting telescopes are still in use today, the majority are reflectors </li></ul>
  10. 10. telescopes <ul><li>Radio telescopes - reflect radio waves into electrical signals that can be stored in a computer for analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Interferometry - is the process of linking separate telescopes together so that they act as one telescope. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Satellites, Probes, and Space-Based Astronomy <ul><li>Astronomers often have to send their instruments into space to collect the information they seek. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s atmosphere blocks infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, X rays and gamma rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Close up pictures are needed. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spacecraft <ul><li>In addition to making observations from above Earth’s atmosphere, space-based exploration can be achieved by sending spacecraft directly to the bodies being observed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human Spaceflight <ul><li>A multi-country space station called the International Space Station is the ideal environment to study the long-term effects of space. It started in 2000. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Spinoffs <ul><li>Space-exploration programs have benefited our society far beyond our increased understanding of space. </li></ul><ul><li>Spinoffs - technologies have been passed on to commercial industries for common use. </li></ul><ul><li>1400 different NASA technologies have been passed on to commercial industries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordless tools, pumps for artificial hearts </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Earth Science “ The Moon”
  16. 16. Reaching for the Moon <ul><li>Astronomers have learned much about the Moon from telescopic observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of our knowledge comes from explorations by space probes and astronauts. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lunar Properties <ul><li>Our moon is unique to all the moons in the solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is one of the largest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farther from earth than most moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid and rocky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only large moon of the inner planets </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Lunar Surface <ul><li>Albedo - the amount of sunlight that the surface reflects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon 7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth 31% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No atmosphere, so sun heats surface to 127 degrees C. Absences of sunlight temp plummets to -173 degrees C. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Lunar Surface <ul><li>Different from the Earth in that there is no erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands - light in color, mountainous, and heavily covered with craters </li></ul><ul><li>Maria - dark, smooth plains, which onb average are 3 km lower in elevation than the highlands </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lunar Surface <ul><li>Impact craters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All craters on the Moon are impact craters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed when objects from space crashed into the lunar surface. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Lunar Surface <ul><li>Ejecta - the materials blasted out during these impacts fell back to the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Rilles - which are meandering, valleylike structures as illustrated in Figure 28-8D on page 754. </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the Moon have many craters, while Earth has few? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Composition <ul><li>The moon is made up of minerals similar to those of Earth - mostly silicates. </li></ul>
  23. 23. History of the Moon <ul><li>Radiometric dating of lunar rocks from the highlands indicates an age between 3.8 and 4.6 billion years </li></ul><ul><li>Regolith - layer of loose rocks on the surface of the moon. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Tectonics on the Moon? <ul><li>Mountain ranges around maria were not formed tectonically, as mountain ranges on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>The crust varies in thickness and is thickest on the far side. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper mantle if solid </li></ul><ul><li>The moon is not tectonically active </li></ul>
  25. 25. Formation Theories <ul><li>Capture Theory - The large object floated to close to the Earth’s gravitational pull and became trapped. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous formation theory - Moon and Earth formed in the same general. </li></ul><ul><li>The impact theory - computer models indicate that the Moon formed as the result of a gigantic collision between Earth and a Mars-sized object about 4.5 billion years ago. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Earth Science “ The Sun-Earth-Moon Relationship”
  27. 27. Sun-Earth-Moon <ul><li>Relationship between the three are important for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun provides light and warmth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun provides most of the energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon raises tides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon illuminates sky with monthly cycle of phases </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Daily Motions <ul><li>The Sun, Moon, planets, and stars do not orbit around Earth everyday. It only appears that way to us because we observe the sky from a planet that rotates once everyday, or 15 degrees per hour. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Earth’s Rotation <ul><li>2 ways to demonstrate Earth’s rotation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foucault pendulum - long wire and a heavy weight. As the Earth turns the pendulum knocks down pegs in the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coriolis effect - diversion of the flowing air and water are diverted from north-south direction to an east-west direction. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Finish… </li></ul>

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