Even using our highly optimized methods, collecting network information is inevitably slow. We will give a personalized 'guesstimate' for networks based on size (above is about fair: 1 minute for 500 friends, using current algorithms).
We use badges to simulate the interview experience and provide a walkthrough without sounding instructional. Some badges will be revealed depending on where someone is in user models, life course or experience.
Banner at top will send user to CollegeConnect profile with separate 'history'. All history items will be stored within CollegeConnect with a 'share on Facebook' and 'Tweet this' button, rather than auto-pushing to wall. We provide minimal guidance about layout and clustering, as user tests indicate people intuitively get it once they mouse over different people.
Badges in the corner show tasks that the user is encouraged to accomplish. These are either reflective (e.g., find friends based on education, search for specific friend) or social (message a friend using a canned or custom question). Time released badges promote repeat engagement. "Design your own Badge" Badge encourages goal-directed social play with ones network.
A separate private history (or 'newsfeed') within the application enables people to control what information they send back to Facebook. This accommodates those who are both very gregarious and those who are very shy (or embarrassed to talk about college). We want to encourage strong integration with Facebook, but also to users to consider CollegeConnect a 'safe space' where college aspirations might explored even if (or especially when) publicly showing college aspirations or apprehensions would not be in keeping with their current online persona.
College connect prototype_final
College Connect Supporting Students Use of Facebookfor Building Social Capital around College Going Nicole Ellison * Christine Greenhow * Bernie Hogan
Social Capital “Social capital” describes the resources (information or social support) we get from our social connections High school students, especially first-generation students, lack informational support about the college-going process in their immediate family network Facebook connects them to a wide array of connections: extended family like cousins, friends of older siblings, students who have graduated from their high school, etc. Studies suggest Facebook use is linked to higher levels of social capital (Ellison et al., 2007; 2011) But how do you know who can help you with which questions? College Connect makes it easier for student to find useful resources in their network and engage with them around relevant topics and questions.
How does it work? The College Connect application: Mines Facebook profile pages to highlight individuals in your network who list or “like” colleges and are more likely to either currently be attending or have attended college Collects and analyzes social network data to identify people who are more likely to be useful sources of info E.g., “Bridges” between two clusters tend to have higher levels of social capital Scaffolds the process of asking for help by providing prompts and sample questions
Why Facebook? Over 75% of teenagers (aged 12-17) have a profile on a social network site (Lenhart et al.,2010) Young people spend an average of nine hours a week on a social network site (NSBA, 2007). Facebook networks often replicate offline networks – they typically consist of “real life” Friends and acquaintances, not strangers Facebook enables users to broadcast requests for information and to engage with “Friends of Friends” who may be useful sources of novel information
Precursor to College Connect is theNameGenWeb Facebook app (shown below)
Sample of Proposed Functionality:College Connect Facebook App
College Connect Walk-through A separate Profile on 1 Step one 2 Step two 3 Step three 4 Step four the College Connect App allows us to (optional) have a separate database for user information. We link using an anonymized FB identifier (provided by GraphAPI). Connect Connect Connect ConnectFirst Name:Joe32324 Anyone pressing Proﬁle “Skip” will be able toLast Name: see and interact withBloggs their network, but the program will forget them as soon as they log out. Skip Continue
College Connect Walk-through Even using our 1 Step one 2 Step two 3 Step three 4 Step four highly optimized methods, collecting network information can be slow. We will give a personalized guesstimate for networks based on size (example above is 1 minute for 500 friends,Check here to be emailed with it is done. which is fair using current algorithms). Continue
College Connect Walk-through We use “badges” to provide support 1 Step one 2 Step two 3 Step three 4 Step four for interacting with network information & signaling actions completed without being too instructional or 100 prescriptive. f Share Some badges will be revealed depending on where someone is in regards to life Pro le course or experience. Visualize Badges also help signal expertise within the College Connect community.
Image Banner at top will send user to the College Connect profile with its separate history.’ All history items will be stored within College Connect App 1 Step one 2 Step two 3 Step three 4 Step four with a share on Facebook and Tweet this button, rather than auto-pushing to the FB wall to support user choice/control. We provide minimal guidance about layout and clustering, as user tests indicate people intuitively Okay understand the visualization once they mouse over different people.
Badges will showtasks that the user isencouraged toaccomplish. May bereflective (e.g., findfriends based oneducation, interest,major, etc.)or social (e.g.,message a friendusing a pre-populatedquestion suggestionto scaffoldinteraction or acustomized one).Time-released badgespromote repeatengagement."Design your ownBadge" encouragesgoal-directed socialplay with onesnetwork.
Image Mousing over a person’s “dot” reveals their name (as does searching or zooming in). Clicking on a person reveals a side panel showing colleges attending, colleges liked, etc. Next to each is a bubble. When clicked, the bubble expands showing a series of pre-defined questions based on the college experience, etc. and an entry field for entering a customized question. Questions are sent through FB messaging. Question sets will adapt based on our lit review, user testing, and project goals.
Modify Info Pane for College Connect The College Connect Profile’s Info Pane will include info related to college- going (e.g., colleges liked, college attending, graduate d from, major, high school, & more)
Image A separate private history (or newsfeed) within the application enables people to control what information they send back to Facebook. This accommodates those who are gregarious and those who are shy (or embarrassed to talk about college). We want to encourage strong integration with Facebook, but also want users to consider College Connect a safe space where college aspirations might be explored even if (or especially when) publicly showing college aspirations or apprehensions would not mesh well with their current online persona.
Scenario: Rosita Rosita is a first-generation, Latina teen in LA. None of her current friends are applying to 4-year colleges. She logs into College Connect and looks for Friends who have posted about 4-year colleges. It identified a good prospect for questions - a high school friend of her older brother currently at UCLA with a high friend count. The app encourages her to send him a private message by highlighting the things they have in common and proposing a template for a message which she personalizes. She writes him a note asking about scholarships for Latina students interested in science. Although he doesn’t know the answer, he puts her in touch with one of his Friends who does.
Scenario: Joe Joe isn’t really interested in going to college, but he likes the idea of seeing how his friends are connected to each other. He loads the College Connect app and starts playing around with it. He notices that about 15 of his Friends all are connected – people he didn’t think knew each other. By exploring their profiles, he sees that they are all fans of the school newspaper. He realizes that working on the newspaper is also a social activity. One of his friends points out that it also looks good on college applications. Joe starts to think more about college. He also joins the newspaper and finds he enjoys reporting, prompting him to look into journalism programs at a local community college.
Are there privacy concerns? The College Connect app adheres to all privacy settings set by users and their Friends. Any research using server-level data will be approved by the Human Subjects Review boards of the relevant institutions. Users will have control over what is posted to their profile or Wall from the app, and will be able to send either private messages or public Wall posts.
College Connect is… Bernie Hogan, PhD Oxford Internet Institute Nicole Ellison, PhDChristine Greenhow, PhD School ofCollege of Education, Information, University ofMichigan State University MichiganCo-founder College Possible
Selected References Ellison, N. B., Wohn, D.Y., Khan, M. L. & Fewins-Bliss, R. (2012). Reshaping access: An overview of research on access to higher education, social media and social capital [White paper]. Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12, 1143-1168. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C. & Lampe, C. (2011). Connection Strategies: Social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices. New Media & Society, 13, 873-892. doi: 10.1177/1461444810385389 Greenhow, C. & Burton, L. (2011). Help from my “Friends:” Social capital in the social network sites of low-income high school students. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 45, 223-245. Wohn, DY, Ellison, N., Khan, ML, Fewins-Bliss, R., & Gray, R. (working paper). The Role of Social Media in Shaping First-Generation High School Students College Aspirations: A Social Capital Lens.