1/British is a one country-four nations -England = English -Scotland = Scottish -Northern Ireland = Irish -Wales = Welsh2/Symbols of the nations -Ireland : the sharwonk -Scotland : the thistle -Wales : the leek and the daffodil -England: the rose3/Has been part of Great Britain or the United Kingdom since -1535/42 : Wales -1707: Scotland -1801: Ireland -1921: Northern Ireland
4/Population (2004) -British population = 62,3m people in 2011 for a national territory of 242000km². -British average population density: 256 inhabitants/km² -French population = 65m people in 2011 for a national territory of 675000km²(547000km² for the metropole) -French average population density: 94 inhabitants/km² (112 inhabitants/km²) for themetropole). COUNTRY CAPITALE POPULATION SURFACE England London 5109200 130395 km² Scotland Edinburg 5062000 78782 km² Wales Cardiff 2950000 20779 km² Northern Ireland Belfast 1685000 13843 km²British operate evaluate en 3 levels: -Schools & primary & secondary -Higher education (university) -Adult educationSchools are divided into 2 sectors ofstate followingschools arefunded bypublic moneyorprivate.No comment education organization for the all country.England and wells have different schools systems for Scotland and Northern Ireland.One thing a comment education is compulsory between 5 and 16 years. -Confusing terms -Harrow school 30000 €/an.
LANGUAGES1/Official languageEnglish (spoken monolingual by more than 95% of the UK population).2/Recognized regional languagesWelsh (20% population Wales, around 600000 speakers).Irish (about 7% population of NI, around 110000 speakers).Scottish Gaelic (roughly 1% population of Scotland, around 60000 speakers) and Scots.Ulster Scots ( a dialect of English spoken in NI, around 30000 speakers).Cornish (roughly 3500 people in Cornwall).In all countries, information and platesare marked in thelanguages of the countryand theofficial language. (= bilingualism)3/Constitutional Monarchy -Queen Elizabeth 2 -Parliament = House of Commons and House of Lords = Westminster4/British Prime Minister
David CAMERON: His wife Samantha. He meets the Queen.5/Coalition CabinetConservative and Liberal Democrat.Davis CAMERON (PM) and Nick CLEGG (Deputy 1er Minister).New decked cabinet since May 6th , 2010.6/Westminster and 5 regional/national parliaments -Scotland: Hollyrood -England: Welsh Assembly -NI: Stormont7/Devolution in 98 by Tony Blair’s New Labour GovernmentCreation of the Scottish parliament (at Hollyrood in Edinburg) by the Scotland.Creation of the NI Parliament (at Stormont in Belfast) by the good Friday agreement (10 April98).Creation of the Welsh Assembly (in Cardiff) by the government of Wales Act.8/DevolutionDevolution means a form of autonomy in local affairs (education, the environment,languages, social welfare, sport, tourism, religion, local, taxes…).9/The united Kingdom and EuropeThe UK joined the European Union in 1973.The UK is not part of the “Eurozone” as it kept the pound sterling as its national currency.London is the largest financial center in Europe (and in the world alongside with New York).
10/The pound sterling (coins) 1 sterling= 1,2€11/The city’s emblematic buildings12/RankingsThe economy of the United Kingdom is the sixth-largest national in the world measured byGDP (gross domestic product) and PP (purchasing power parity).The economy of the United Kingdom is the third-largest in Europe measured by GDP (afterGermany and France) and second-largest measured by PPP (after Germany).
13/Main industriesEnergy Resources: very-strong - coal, but eps.oil and gas (exploitation offshore oil).Manufacturing in decline – esp.car markers.Tertiary sector: the dominant sector in the UK today – finance, transports.14/Confusing terms -College = Higher education institution, = University -Public School State school School funded by public money -an independent or private school: where pupil’s parents pay high feesto have their children educated. - (very often) elitist schools -approx. 2,400 public schools in the UK today -6% of all British pupils from 4 to 18. -Eton, Harrow, Winchester15/Public schools
19/Winchester college20/Primary and secondary education3 to 5: Nursery school5 to 11: Primary school (emphasis on the 3 “Rs”: reading, writing andarithmetic).11 to 16: Secondary school 5th from: GCSE 6th from “2 years”: Advanced Subsidiary/ A level21/Subjects3 core Subjects that are compulsory until the age of 16: English, Maths, ScienceA selection of Foundation Subjects that is compulsory until the age of 14:Technology, History, Geography, Music, Art, PE or Physical education, a foreignlanguage.Marks: scale of A to E.
22/School uniforms23/School lifeCompulsory religious education.School uniform with special school blazon and special tie or skirt.School assembly every morning.24/Universities90 universities, including the Open University.1.2m full-time students at undergraduate level (2003).207.000 full-time students at postgraduate level (2003). 4 types of universities: -Very old universities: Oxford, Cambridge, St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen,Edinburg. -“Redbrick universities”: Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, and Nottingham. -Universities of the 60s: East Anglia, Sussex, York. -Converted polytechnics (early 1990s).
27/Universities around the country University Nottingham University East Anglia Norwich University Manchester
THE MONDIAL PRESS BRITISH CIRCULATION 1/The print pressThe main national press in Britain is genuinely a London press as most papers have theirheadquarters and printing facilities in the capital. In the past centuries, Fleet Street used toconcentrate all the main press buildings. 2/Newspapers 11 main daily newspapersQuality papers Mid-Market papers Popular papersThe times The Daily Mail The Daily MirrorThe Financial Times The Daily Express The Daily StarThe Guardian The SunThe IndependentThe Daily Telegraph 3/Sunday papers/ editions-The Sim : News of the world-The Guardian: The Observer-The Independent: The independent on Sunday-Daily telegraph: Sunday telegraph-Daily Minor: Sunday Minor-Times: Sunday timesSunday editions are extremely popular because of their “thickness” and diversity, togetherwith the traditional paper. They include color magazines, various supplements (Tv sports,travels, technology, education…) and issues for children. 4/…………………………..
The circulation of times in 3m by day. Since the 1950’s, they have been a gradual decline innewspapers (…) with an acceleration in records years (newspapers writs and (…) editions).50% of people over 15 read a daily paper70% of people over 15 read a Sunday paper(…) circulation of national paper is: -13 million copies on weekdays -14 million copies on Sundays 5/The power of the pressThe British press is really powerful.There is no state-control or censorship.In 1990, a watchdog (organisme de contrôle) was created, though. It is not a governmentbody (organismegouvernemental) but a self-regulatory body (organisme de regulationinterne): It is the PCC or Press Complaints Commission.Introduction of a code of (Good) practice (Code de déontologie). 6/BBC in detail-RadinRADION 1: Pop musicRADIO 2: Music (album oriented Rock), news & comedy-most popular radio un the UK.RADIO 3: Classical Music, opera, jazz, world music, drama and the artsRADIO4: News, drama cultural programs (sciences, history…) & parliamentary coverage, highstarting radio/ high levelRADIO 5: News & live sportsAnd also radio 1Xtra, radio extra, radio 6 music… 7/Broadcasting Media- Private sectorRADIO: There are around 600 licensed radio stations in the UK today. TELEVISION:-ITV
-Channel 4 = Canal +-FIVE = Arte, France 5-B stays B (Sky News, Sky Movies, Sky Music…) on satellite/ cable 9/TV Channels-BBC one -BBC World News-BBC Two -BBC Prince 10/The “ofcom”The Office of Communication or “ofcom” was created in 2003.It’s the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcastingtelecommunication and postal industries.Ofcom has wide-ranging power across the TV & Radio sectors.
POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS 1/Founding principlesNo written constitution but a series of key constitutional documents.The constitution is flexible and may be altered by a decision of parliament.PARLIAMENT is sovereign:Parliament the Queen + Two Chambers A bicameral parliament with a maximum duration of 5 years. 2/Founding texts MAGNA CARTA 1215 The Charter limited the king’s powers to raise taxes and guaranteed feudal rights and theliberties of the cities. HABEAS CORPUS 1679It guarantees the rights of the individual arbitrary arrests are banned. BILL OF RIGHTS 1989It defines the rights of Parliaments and the people, against the rights of the king. It alsostresses the legislative role of Parliament. ACT OF SETTLEMENT 1701It specifies that no catholic king or queen can inherit the crown. 3/Altogether…History has established in the UK a limited monarchy where the power lies with the monarchin Parliament, i.e. the monarch and two chambers of Parliament: the upper chamber (Houseof Lords) and the lower chamber (House of Commons). 4/The monarchyThe Monarchy is hereditary.
The power of the monarch is limited: the Queen reigns but does not rule.The Queen has a Royal Prerogative.The Queen has formal constitutional roles: 1- Head of state 2- Head of the executive, judiciary and legislature 3- Supreme governor’ of the Church of England 4- Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. 5/The Queen’s functionsThe Queen has EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS: She appoints the Prime Minister and confers titles.The Queen has LEGISLATIVE FUNCTIONS: She opens Parliament every year (Queen’s Speech)and gives her Royal Assent to acts of Parliament.The Queen has JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS: She appoints senior judges. 6/Symbolical more than actual powers… 1- The Prime Minister is necessarily leader of the majority party 2- The Queen doesn’t write her annual speech to Parliament; she reads a speech written by the PM 3- Many of her decisions (dissolving Parliament, granting titles, appointing judges or high civil servants, etc) are taken on the advice of the PM or ministers. 4- Her Royal Assent on Laves in purely symbolical. 7/A few additional elements… -The Queen is mostly a symbol of the nation’s unity. -Her expenses are paid by Parliament through the Civil List. Other costs incurred bythe monarch as a private individual or a sovereign come either from the Privy Purse (financereceived from the revenues of some royal estates) or from the Crown’s own investments. -The Queen is supposed to be politically neutral, so she is not allowed to vote. -The Queen is helped by a private advisory council called the Privy Council (400 Privycouncilors).
8/The governmentThe Prime Minister (PM) lives and works at 10 Downing Street. He has great power withinthe British system of government.The Cabinet-presided over by the PM-usually comprises 21 seniors ministers among whom:5 secretaries of State at the head of 5 Offices (key ministries) 1- HOME SECRETARY = HOME OFFICE 2- FOREIGN SECRETARY = FOREIGN OFFICE 3- CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER = FINANCE MINISTER 4- LORD CHANCELLOR = MINISTRY OF JUSTICE 5- SCOTTISH SECRETARY = SCOTTISH OFFICE 9/The civil servants 1- The house of Lords is also called the UPPER CAHMBER. It currently has around 830 members. 2- It comprises: 26 Lords Spiritual (The Archbishops of Canterbury and York and 24 senior bishops of the Church of England). Circa 800 Lords Temporal (some 92 peers and peeresses with hereditary titles and about 700 life peers and peeresses appointed by political parties and an independent Appointments Commission). 3- It has relatively limited powers: it is mostly a revising chamber. Yet, it is the highest Court of Appeal in the land.UK government departments are staffed by the Civil Service, consisting of careeradministrators or “civil servants”.Whitehall is the world commonly applied to the government’s administrative machine as it isthe street in central London where almost all government departments are located. 10/theHouse of LordsThe judicial of the House of Lords as the highest appeal court in the UK has ended.From 1 October 2009, the Supreme Court of the UK assumed jurisdiction on points of law forall civil law cases in the UK and all criminal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.The Supreme Court comprises 12 Law Lords or Lords of Appeal in Ordinary.
11/the House of CommonsIt comprises 659 Members of Parliament (MPS) who are elected for 5 years in theirrespective constituencies.There are about 520 MPS for England, about 40 for Wales, about 75 for Scotland and 15 forNorthern Ireland.The function of the House is to debate and legislate. 12/ Inside the House of Commons (CTN D) 13/General elections-The British electoral system is a simple majority system. It means that there is only oneround of election. The candidate with moist votes gets elected.-This system is often called “First-past-the-post” system.-Election day in the UK in not Sunday but a weekday normally Thursday.