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Examples Of Consumer Fanaticism In Apple

The document discusses consumer fanaticism towards the Apple brand. It examines the extraordinary devotion that the "Apple Tribe" of consumers have for the brand, purchasing, following, and strongly identifying with Apple products wholeheartedly. This level of dedication has led to unprecedented brand success for Apple. The paper aims to study this strong brand loyalty and what drives consumers to commit so strongly to a technology company in an industry with constant innovation.

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Examples Of Consumer Fanaticism In Apple
Consumer Fanaticism: Extraordinary Devotion for Brand Apple
Akanksha Srivastava, Indian Institute of Mass Communication, Delhi
Abstract:
This paper is an attempt to study Brand Apple and the extraordinary devotion and brand loyalty
portrayed and practiced by the Apple Tribe – consumers of the brand that purchase, obsess, follow
and identify with the brand wholeheartedly. Reported as one of the most participatory brands, Apple
is carried forth into the future with extreme dedication so much so that it's brand success remains
unprecedentedly high and blooming, making it a brand success story to remember. This paper is an
attempt to bring light to not the brand itself so much as the tribe – the brand loyalty bandwagon and
what drives consumers to swear allegiance to a tech company, in the digital era where no one can
predict the source for the next game changing technological innovation. ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
The 'object' is stated as an object of fascination, which can include a brand, product, person (e.g.
celebrity), television show, or other consumption activities (e.g. sports). Fanatics are inclined to
insist their ideas are the correct ones, ignoring any facts or arguments that may conflict with their
thoughts or beliefs. Brand fanatics often refuse to believe or even consider facts or arguments
conflicting with their worship of brand, regardless of how strong or true the source of the
information maybe, classifying them as biased and certainly unreasonable at most instances. Their
enthusiasm is so extreme it is sometimes considered excessive. Examples of fanaticism to a brand,
product, or activity can be found in seminal studies of extremely loyal, brand–worshipping
consumers, such as core participants of brand communities, brand cults, and various subcultures of
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Examples Of Consumer Fanaticism In Apple
Biofertilizer in Rice
Biofertilizers are becoming widely used in many countries and for many different crops. Based on
Paul et al., 2013 stated that biofertilizer contain free–living organisms associated with root surfaces
include endophytes and microorganisms that are able to colonize the intercellular or intracellular
spaces between plant tissues without harm to the host plant. According to Vessey, 2003 defined
biofertilizer as products containing lively or dormant strains of soil microbes, either bacteria or in
combination with algae or fungi that increase the availability and nutrients uptake on plant. Rice
production in Malaysia usually used high of input chemical fertilizer which can lead soils to be
degraded, polluted and unproductive. According to Mishra and Dash, 2014 increasingly extensive
uses of chemical fertilizers in India assist soils to be degraded, polluted, less productive and
environmental hazards. Soil pollution is caused by the excessive application of chemical fertilizers.
In other words, there is much concern to further preserve environmental through the use of less
intensive and more sustainable agricultural practices by reducing the input of chemical fertilizers.
(Gomiero et al.2011). Mishra and Dash, 2014 stated these issues can be solved by using
biofertilizers to make the ecosystem healthier. Thus, it minimize dependency of farmer on chemical
fertilizers. These biofertilizers are not harmful to crops but facilitate the unabsorbed nutrient in soil
to be
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Examples Of Consumer Fanaticism In Apple
Evolution Of Host Parasite Relationships
Betsy Gladden
Evolution Case Study #1
Dr. Amanda Duffus
The Evolution of Host–Parasite Relationships
Since Darwin's "dangerous" idea in the nineteenth century, the causes and significances of evolution
have been investigated unceasingly. One evident example of evolution is between parasite and host
relationships, in which host and parasite partners maximize their own fitness, by evolving to reduce
the fitness of the other. Parasites are hypothesized to evolve and cause hosts to evolve, as well as
promoting sexual recombination. There are two major hypotheses of evolution pertaining to host–
parasite relationships: the Red Queen hypothesis and the Red King model. The Red Queen
hypothesis claims that there is a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Scientist Van Valen used this as a metaphor for the evolutionary race saying that species keep
running (evolving) to stay in the same place, but if they stop, they become extinct. This theory has
been consistently added to and built upon by G. Bell in 1982, who applied it to host and parasite
relationships, showing how evolution affects genotype frequencies and that changes come from
maintaining sexual reproduction. (Lively, 2010) The Red Queen hypothesis demonstrates how
species rely on competition for initiating evolution, and how there is a domino effect of change
causing change. (Barnett and Hansen, 1996) In studies done by Barnett and Hansen (1996) using an
organizational approach, evidence was found for Red Queen evolution in that organizations
exhibited less failure if there was more competition. The research used banks as a model, and the
results showed that in places only one existed, there was an advantage of a monopoly, but did not
have any experience when exposed to competition. (Barnett and Hansen, 1996) The Red Queen
hypothesis also shows that selection favors hosts that have rare resistance alleles. There also is
research that shows generation time affects selection for sex, in that the longer it takes to reproduce,
the more opportunity there is for evolution. The Red Queen hypothesis suggests that when in regard
to parasite and host relationships, when parasites are low in number, the costs of sex outweigh the
benefits and
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Examples Of Consumer Fanaticism In Apple

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Examples Of Consumer Fanaticism In Apple

  • 1. Examples Of Consumer Fanaticism In Apple Consumer Fanaticism: Extraordinary Devotion for Brand Apple Akanksha Srivastava, Indian Institute of Mass Communication, Delhi Abstract: This paper is an attempt to study Brand Apple and the extraordinary devotion and brand loyalty portrayed and practiced by the Apple Tribe – consumers of the brand that purchase, obsess, follow and identify with the brand wholeheartedly. Reported as one of the most participatory brands, Apple is carried forth into the future with extreme dedication so much so that it's brand success remains unprecedentedly high and blooming, making it a brand success story to remember. This paper is an attempt to bring light to not the brand itself so much as the tribe – the brand loyalty bandwagon and what drives consumers to swear allegiance to a tech company, in the digital era where no one can predict the source for the next game changing technological innovation. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The 'object' is stated as an object of fascination, which can include a brand, product, person (e.g. celebrity), television show, or other consumption activities (e.g. sports). Fanatics are inclined to insist their ideas are the correct ones, ignoring any facts or arguments that may conflict with their thoughts or beliefs. Brand fanatics often refuse to believe or even consider facts or arguments conflicting with their worship of brand, regardless of how strong or true the source of the information maybe, classifying them as biased and certainly unreasonable at most instances. Their enthusiasm is so extreme it is sometimes considered excessive. Examples of fanaticism to a brand, product, or activity can be found in seminal studies of extremely loyal, brand–worshipping consumers, such as core participants of brand communities, brand cults, and various subcultures of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Biofertilizer in Rice Biofertilizers are becoming widely used in many countries and for many different crops. Based on Paul et al., 2013 stated that biofertilizer contain free–living organisms associated with root surfaces include endophytes and microorganisms that are able to colonize the intercellular or intracellular spaces between plant tissues without harm to the host plant. According to Vessey, 2003 defined biofertilizer as products containing lively or dormant strains of soil microbes, either bacteria or in combination with algae or fungi that increase the availability and nutrients uptake on plant. Rice production in Malaysia usually used high of input chemical fertilizer which can lead soils to be degraded, polluted and unproductive. According to Mishra and Dash, 2014 increasingly extensive uses of chemical fertilizers in India assist soils to be degraded, polluted, less productive and environmental hazards. Soil pollution is caused by the excessive application of chemical fertilizers. In other words, there is much concern to further preserve environmental through the use of less intensive and more sustainable agricultural practices by reducing the input of chemical fertilizers. (Gomiero et al.2011). Mishra and Dash, 2014 stated these issues can be solved by using biofertilizers to make the ecosystem healthier. Thus, it minimize dependency of farmer on chemical fertilizers. These biofertilizers are not harmful to crops but facilitate the unabsorbed nutrient in soil to be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Evolution Of Host Parasite Relationships Betsy Gladden Evolution Case Study #1 Dr. Amanda Duffus The Evolution of Host–Parasite Relationships Since Darwin's "dangerous" idea in the nineteenth century, the causes and significances of evolution have been investigated unceasingly. One evident example of evolution is between parasite and host relationships, in which host and parasite partners maximize their own fitness, by evolving to reduce the fitness of the other. Parasites are hypothesized to evolve and cause hosts to evolve, as well as promoting sexual recombination. There are two major hypotheses of evolution pertaining to host– parasite relationships: the Red Queen hypothesis and the Red King model. The Red Queen hypothesis claims that there is a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Scientist Van Valen used this as a metaphor for the evolutionary race saying that species keep running (evolving) to stay in the same place, but if they stop, they become extinct. This theory has been consistently added to and built upon by G. Bell in 1982, who applied it to host and parasite relationships, showing how evolution affects genotype frequencies and that changes come from maintaining sexual reproduction. (Lively, 2010) The Red Queen hypothesis demonstrates how species rely on competition for initiating evolution, and how there is a domino effect of change causing change. (Barnett and Hansen, 1996) In studies done by Barnett and Hansen (1996) using an organizational approach, evidence was found for Red Queen evolution in that organizations exhibited less failure if there was more competition. The research used banks as a model, and the results showed that in places only one existed, there was an advantage of a monopoly, but did not have any experience when exposed to competition. (Barnett and Hansen, 1996) The Red Queen hypothesis also shows that selection favors hosts that have rare resistance alleles. There also is research that shows generation time affects selection for sex, in that the longer it takes to reproduce, the more opportunity there is for evolution. The Red Queen hypothesis suggests that when in regard to parasite and host relationships, when parasites are low in number, the costs of sex outweigh the benefits and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. The Hydrologic Cycle : The Water Cycle Water Cycle. The continual movement of rainfall from bodies like land, water and the atmosphere are part of the hydrologic cycle. The water cycle starts with condensation. When the water vapour condenses in the atmosphere it forms clouds, and when the condensation becomes too heavy formed and the clouds release the rain. When rainfall reaches the surface into the soil, it becoming groundwater. The groundwater recharges our aquifers, lakes and rivers. Transpiration is the process where water is soaked up a plant's roots and it evaporates out the leaves. Water... For many reasons, water cycle is important to all life on Earth. The water cycle describes the process of how the water moves through the Earth into human uses and to all living organisms need water to grow and to survive. The water cycle has no starting point, but ocean is where most of Earth's water exists. In an ecosystem, water cycles through the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, soil and lakes. All life dependent upon water. The water makes up to 60–70 percent of all living organism and humans cannot live without drinking water for less than a month. The water cycle or hydrologic cycle distributes a fresh water all over the Earth. Oxygen Cycle. Oxygen is everywhere, but it is most basic, it is an element in the form of gas that makes up the natural formations and Earth's atmosphere. Oxygen is constantly being created and used by different processes on the Earth. Oxygen cycle is how this element moves between ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Assignment 12-1 4.1. Which species in the simulation is capable of nitrogen fixation? Cyanobacteria. 4.2. Members of which species in the simulation are commonly known as "water fleas"? Daphnia 5.1. Briefly describe what happens in the simulation when phytoplankton die. 7.1. Based on your sampling, what do Bosmina in the lake eat? Green Algae. 7.2. Based on your sampling, what do Daphnia in the lake eat? Green Algae. 7.3. Based on your sampling, what do Trout in the lake eat? Daphnia and Bosmina. 8.1. After reading the above statement, did you miss any species in your gut content sampling? If so, which ones? The specie I missed was cyanobacteria. Exercise 2: P in the Water. 3.1. When the simulation stops, record the population ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The dissolved oxygen levels are much higher in this experiment than in the previous experiment. 6.1. Why could having consumers as well as producers present change the amount of dissolved oxygen in the lake? Consumers will consume oxygen and these will take the oxygen from the lake. This in turn will cause the dissolved oxygen level. 8.1. Does the dissolved oxygen continue to drop over time? The dissolved oxygen level continued to drop until it went 2.9. Once it got bottomed out it started to rise again. 8.2. What happens when the dissolved oxygen drops below 2.0? When the dissolved oxygen level drops below 2.0 the trout seem to lose all their coloring. Once they lose their coloring they do not get it back. Toxins 1.1. If mercury biomagnifies, in which of the organisms would you expect to find the highest mercury levels in a lake with mercury contamination? Trout. 2.1. | Population Size | Mercury | Green Algae | 130 | 0 ng/g | Cyanobacteria | 20 | 0 ng/g | Daphnia | 10 | 0 ng/g | Bosmina | 20 | 0 ng/g | Trout | 5 | 0 ng/g | 3.1. Toxin analysis data: Time = 1 year | Population Size | Mercury | Green Algae | 130 | 53 ng/g | Cyanobacteria | 14 | 30 ng/g | Daphnia | 3 | 42 ng/g | Bosmina | 15 | 88 ng/g | Trout | 5 | 29 | Toxin Analysis data: Time = 2 years | Population Size | Mercury | Green Algae | 123 | 60 ng/g | Cyanobacteria | 11 | 40 ng/g ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. The Experiment Of The First Experiment Unlike the first experiment which lasted three seasons, this one lasted only one season, from May to November 2013. Following a seed pre–germination period of 72 hours in the dark (25°C), all treatments were planted in 2.5 L pots filled with a nitrogen free substrate of fine quartz sand. The authors disposed the pots in rows with 15 cm inter–rows. They further fertigated the growing plants every two hours with a complete nutrient solution, excluding nitrogen. Similarly to their first experiment, the authors arranged this one in a slit–plot design with four replicated blocks. This time, they used six treatments per block: 1) alive alfalfa and tall fescue; 2) dead alfalfa and tall fescue; 3) alive white clover and perennial ryegrass; 4) dead white clover and perennial ryegrass; 5) pure tall fescue and; 6) pure perennial ryegrass. These treatments were divided between two randomized sub–blocks with or without a legume. For the dead legumes, the authors previously grew the plants for three months, then cut them right below the taproot collar and further planted the grass species according to the treatments. Four days after the transplant, treatments containing live legumes were inoculated with rhizobia. To do so, the authors collected soil from the 0–20 cm soil horizon of experiment 1. They took several samples, mixed them and dissolved a sub–sample of 10 grams into 1 L of deionized water. The authors then inoculated experiment 2 pots with 10 mL of this solution and further ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. The Importance Of Mutualism Between Animal And Animal Species It is a kind of positive interspecific interaction in which members of two different species favor the growth and survival of each other and their association is obligatory. Species A = (+) Species B = (+) In this interaction, the members have widely different requirements and so interdependent that they cannot survive separately. It is an extreme type of symbiosis in which symbionts have permanent and obligatory close contacts. 1.Mutualism between animal and animal species Cleveland (1926) reported the presence of a multi flagellate protozoan – Trichonympha Campanula as a symbiont in the intestine of white ant – termite. The ant provides food and shelter to the protozoan which in turn secretes cellulase enzymes to digest the cellulose of wood ingested by the ant. Cellulose is hydrolyzed to sugars which are used by both the partners. When the gut lining of Termite is ready for molting, Trichonympha undergoes encystment and are passed out with molting. To ensure infection, the ant eats its molt. Newly hatched termites lick the anus of the older termites to ingest the symbiont. About 11 families and 40 genera of flagellates have been reported from the intestine of termites. Ant–aphid mutualism Some kinds of ants pick up aphids or the aphids eggs from the surface of green plants and shelter them inside their own nest. The ants use the digestive wastes of the aphids as their food while aphids in return get nourishment from the rootlets of the plants ramifying through ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. Research Paper On Rhizobia Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Situational Analysis Soil productivity is an important concern for farmers. Green manuring, crop rotation and mix farming are oftenly used to improve the soil fertility at the same time the nutrients used in plant growth are conserved and returned to the soil to enhance its fertility (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 1993). Green manuring is the plowing under or soil incorporation of any green manure crops while they are green or soon after they flower. Green manures are grown for their leafy materials needed for soil conservation (Boller et al., 2004). Plants are commonly used for green manuring have Rhizobia bacteria for nitrogen fixation similarly crop rotation is alternating legumes and non–legumes plants Most plants need nitrogen from various sources one of which is fixed by a group of bacteria known as Rhizobia (Herridge et al., 2008). Rhizobia have the ability to fix nitrogen in plant and help for their growth. The Rhizobia chemically convert the nitrogen from the atmosphere to make it available in plants. If there is not enough nitrogen available in the soil, plants look pale in color and their growth development is reduced (Ngakou, 2009). Rhizobia are remarkable bacteria because they can live either in the soil or within the root nodules of host legumes and non–legumes plants. When ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Rhizobia can nodulate the string beans and they have a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobia (Johnson et al., 1970). The string bean have a potential health benefits like, improved calcium absorption and reducing urinary excretion of calcium, and prevent cancer because they have a high chlorophyll which can block the carcinogenic effects of heterocyclic amines generated when grilling meats at a high temperature (Ware et.al., ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Environmental Pollution Another key way that humans are destroying (polluting) the environment is through their uncontrolled disposal of water bottles. When a bottle of water is purchased, the cost is primarily for the plastic. However, people tend to overlook the environmental cost. The production process of water bottle from manufacturing to disposing is costly. Most plastic bottles are manufactured from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic, fashioned from crude oil (Schriever, 2013). Oil extraction discharges harm habitats and greenhouse gases, in addition to casting toxins into the atmosphere. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics photodegrade (do not biodegrade), which infers that they over time disintegrate to smaller fragments. The fragments absorb contaminants that pollute the waterways, soil, and sicken animals (that we ultimately consume). Also, plastic trash absorbs organic pollutants such as PCBs and BPA. They take too long to decompose whereas sitting in landfills (Schriever, 2013), resulting in infinite billions of small environmentally toxic time bombs. There are various processes involved from production until the point where it reaches the final consumer (as indicated in the template) (Schriever, 2013). In all these processes, some amount of energy, mostly in the form of fossil fuel, is consumed and its byproducts discharged to the environment, causing pollution. Functioning of the four biogeochemical cycles The Carbon Cycle The carbon cycle comprises a number of inter–related cycles. Generally, the effect is constant recycling of carbon in the continuous dynamic processes in the atmosphere, in the earth's crust, and at the surface. Wood combustion, for instance, deposits carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is absorbed by plants and turned to nutrients for sustenance and growth (Soundry, 2008). Animals consume the plants for food and nutrients, and exhale Carbon dioxide to the atmosphere when breathing. The atmospheric CO2 dissolves in the huge water bodies (ocean) where eventually, it falls in sediments as carbonate. The sediments are sub–ducted by the tectonic plates' activities, liquefied, and later brought to surface through volcanicity. Carbon dioxide is, during volcanic eruptions, deposited in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Potassium 2. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are some of the most essential macronutrients due to their important role in plant growth and function, which plants take up through their roots. When these key macronutrients become depleted in agricultural soils, crops can become stressed, malnourished, and ultimately cause yields to become significantly lower (Sanchez 2002:2019). The following effects that nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium have on plants were reported by Shin et. al. (2005:1350): Nitrogen – Nitrogen plays a key role in regulating the activity of enzymes, affecting the plants ability to perform photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Phosphorus – Phosphorous is a key element of the energy ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The low average yields of these staple crops are persistent across the majority of farmers' fields and when this is met with increasing demands for these grains, food insecurity becomes prevalent. Unlike other developing countries around the world, Africa's food insecurity is directly related to their inability to produce enough food (Sanchez 2002:2019). Some may argue that this issue of low crop yields in Africa can be solved by Figure 4.1 implementing genetically modified crops, ones that are higher yielding and can handle the tougher climate of Africa. These crops have been implemented into Latin America, the Middle East, Latin America and Sub–Saharan Africa and in the past 38 years have resulted in increased crop yields by 66–88% in the first three regions and only 28% in Sub–Saharan Africa (Sanchez 2002:2019). In many countries of the Sub–Sahara, like East Africa and the Sahel, phosphorus deficiency is prevalent and in Western Kenya, 80% of the crop fields of small scale farmers are effected by phosphorus deficiency (Sanchez 2002:2019). This data shows that the potential for genetically modified crops cannot be realized if soil fertility is an issue, as mentioned earlier, plants cannot function property when depleted of key macronutrients. The most common way to combat nutrient depletion is to use mineral fertilizers. In South and East Asia, where mineral fertilizers have been extensively used, crop yield ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Ammonia and Haber Process 7.4 Case Study: The Haber Process: Ammonia for Food and Bombs From: Eros Wang To: Ms. Irumekhai Date: March 30, 2012 1. Suggest five factors that could affect the production of ammonia in the Haber process. Explain the effect of each factor, using rate theory. The Haber process itself is a delicate balancing act because of all the factors that affect the yield of ammonia. In the Haber process, the nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia are in equilibrium. So five factors that affect the production of ammonia would be: a) Temperature. The reaction is an exothermic reaction, meaning it produces heat. The higher the temperature in the reaction chamber, the less ammonia is produced, as the equilibrium shifts to the right to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... [pic] Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) RDX is the main ingredient in plastic explosives. [pic] c) Write the chemical equation that describes a nitroglycerine explosion. Why is this reaction explosive? 1.4 C3H5 (ONO2)3([pic]) [pic]12 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g) + 6 N2(g) + O2(g) Nitroglycerin is a dense, oily liquid that detonates if heated to 218°C or if subjected to mechanical shock. The molecule is explosive for three reasons: 1). Nitroglycerin contains both oxidant and fuel. 2). The decomposition is highly exothermic. Many reactions occur when nitroglycerin detonates, but the overall process can be written 4C3H5(ONO2)3([pic]) [pic]12 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g) + 6 N2(g) + O2(g) The reaction releases an enormous amount of heat because many strong bonds in the product gas molecules replace the fewer, weaker bonds in nitroglycerin. Every mole of nitroglycerin that detonates releases about 1.5 MJ of heat! 3). A large volume of gas is produced d) What is gun cotton? What are its uses? How is it made? Nitrocellulose is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low–order explosive, it is also known as guncotton.
  • 22. 6. a) Using equilibrium principles only, what advice would you give the company regarding the best environment mental conditions for optimal ammonia ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24. Falcata Paraserianthes falcataria – Southeast Asia's Growth Champion By whatever common or scientific names it is known, Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen is a valuable multipurpose tree for the humid tropics. One of the fastest growing of all tree species, it is used for pulp and other wood products, fuelwood, ornamental plantings and shade for coffee, tea and cattle. Potential uses for which it is being tested include alley farming and intercropping in forest plantations. BOTANY: "Falcataria" belongs to the Leguminosae (subfamily: Mimosoideae). It is most widely known by its former name,Albizia falcataria but it also has been called A. moluccana and A. falcata. "Falcate' means "curved like a sickle," referring to its leaflets. Leaves ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... USES: Falcataria is perhaps best known as a pulp crop (NAS 1979, Hu 1987). Other wood uses include fiber and particle board, packing cases, boxes, matches, chop sticks and light furniture. Wood is difficult to saw and not strong or durable. Its thin crown provides partial shade to coffee, tea, and cacao. It also is used as a windbreak for bananas. Trials in Hawaii have indicated its usefulness as an intercrop with eucalyptus, especially in wetter areas. After four years, eucalyptus grown with falcataria in a 50:50 mixture at a spacing of 2 x 2 m were 58% taller and 55% larger in DBH than in pure eucalyptus stands (Schubert 1985). In other trials with 34 and 50% falcataria, total biomass was equal to or better than that of pure stands (Schubert et al 1988). Falcataria also shows potential in alley farming. In a trial on acid soils (pH 4.2) in Indonesia, trees were managed in hedges 4 m apart and produced 2– 3 dry tons of green leaf manure/ha/yr. Application of falcataria green leaf manure doubled upland rice yields and more than quadrupled cowpea yields as compared to control plots (Evensen et al 1987). In 1988, however, concerns surfaced about the longevity of falcataria in alley cropping systems (Evensen, pers. comm.). Falcataria also is grown as an ornamental, although it seldom lives more than 50 years (APCF 1987) and its brittle branches can be a problem in windy areas. Raharjo and Cheeke (1985) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26. Taking a Look at Global Warming Natural and anthropogenic substances like green house gases that alter earth's energy budget are drivers of climate change. Radiative forcing (RF) quantifies the change in energy fluxes caused by changes in these drivers and positive RF leads to surface warming. The largest contribution to total RF is caused by the increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 (1.68 W m–2) followed by CH4, Halo–carbons and N2O since 1750 (IPCC 2013). According to IPCC 2013 the CO2 concentrations will raise unprecedentedly from 391 Parts per million (p.p.m) in 2011 to 550–700 p.p.m. by 2050 and to 670–936 by 2100. Ironically, most of the CO2 is mitigated by plants with photosynthetic reaction that converts solar energy into energy stored in carbohydrates. A lot of research has been done through last few decades, to investigate elevated CO2 induced changes in plants and to identify potential candidate tree species that sequester more CO2 under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces stomatal conductance resulting in a higher amount of plant mass and yield. Photosynthesis and growth of most plants are stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Schortemeyer 2002). The continuous stimulation of photosynthesis in C3 plants by elevated CO2 increases the availability of carbohydrates and in doing so, alters the balance of C and N resources. The main C–N interactions proposed to influence responses to elevated CO2 include down–regulation of leaf N ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. The Effect Of Nitrous Oxide On The Environment Of New... 1. Introduction 1.1 Background and rationale for this study Nitrous oxide is an important green house gas. The global warming potential for nitrous oxide is 298 times higher than that of carbon dioxide over a 100–year time horizon (Ravishankara, Daniel and Portmann, 2009). Nitrous oxide is also contributing the third largest radiative forcing globally (Oenema et al., 1997). With the recent emphasis on control of global warming, ways to reduce nitrous oxide are highly sought. Natural sources account for 62% of total nitrous oxide emission globally. Apart from natural sources, nitrous oxide can also be emitted from anthropogenic activities include: agriculture, industrial, fuel and biomass combustion, and sewage treatment (Sutton et al., 2014; Scheehle and Kruger, 2006; Tsai and Chyan, 2006). Among all sources, agriculture contributes the largest proportion (60%) around the world in recent years (IPCC–Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2008). Agriculture is largely influencing economy and society of New Zealand and agricultural–based products accounts for 53% of the whole merchandise exports (MacLeod and Moller, 2006). In 2007, agricultural land use represented 54.8% of total land area across New Zealand (Statistics New Zealand, 2008). Seeking for ways to reduce nitrous oxide emission for New Zealand is extremely important. The use of carbon based sorbent, which is relatively cheap and with large surface area, to reduce nitrous oxide emission has been studied for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Factors That Affect The Growth And Germination Rates Were... Plants are an essential part of survival for humans and animals and contribute significantly to various areas of the lives of organisms. In order to better understand the different plants and its requirements the growth and germination rates were investigated. The hypothesis stated that if the dicotolydeons and monocotyledons are placed in the same environment and watered regularly, then the dicotyledons will have a faster growth and germination rate. In order for plants to survive, it is a necessity for the process of photosynthesis to occur. Photosynthesis is the process wherein plants create oxygen and food for themselves (glucose) using carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun. Once this process is completed, plants are able to grow using the nutrients provided by photosynthesis. Word equation: carbon dioxide + water (SUNLIGHT AND CHLORYPHYLL) glucose + oxygen There are many factors that affect photosynthesis such as light availability, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Light is a limiting factor as if there is not enough light available, the rate of photosynthesis will decrease. This is because without the light, the chlorophyll (not be created) will be unable to absorb energy from the sun, resulting in no food which is required for survival. Temperature plays an essential role in photosynthesis as well. As the temperature increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis. As it is a chemical reaction, an increase in temperature will cause enzymes and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. The Biogeochemical Cycle : Steps Of The Water Cycle What is a biogeochemical cycle? –A biogeochemical cycle is a process in which a chemical substance moves through stages and eventually makes its way back to the beginning. Why are they important? They allow resources to be recycled such as water which is very important. Water Cycle (H2O) Steps of the Water Cycle Step 1 Evaporation: Process where heat energy turns water into water vapor. Step 2 Condensation: Because of the low temperatures in the atmosphere, as water rises it causes the water vapor to turn into water droplets and ice. Step 3 Sublimation: In this step ice skips the liquid step and changes directly into water vapor. Step 4 Precipitation: Depending on the temperature, the water droplets will come down as water or snow. It comes down as snow if the temperature is less than 0 degrees Celsius. Steps of the Water Cycle (Cont.) Step 5 Runoff: As the water hits Earth it lands and displaces sand, soil, and eventually makes its way to large bodies of water. Step 6 Transpiration: When water gets absorbed into the soil plants actually use it for photosynthesis and the excess water gets pushed out and goes back into the atmosphere as water vapor. Chemical names and formulas –Water= H2O –Photosynthesis= 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy––––––> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Organisms and Forces involved in the Water Cycle –As a result of respiration, plants produce water and oxygen. –The climate of a region also has an effect on the water cycle, depending on the temperature and type of region it could get very little or a large amount of rain. Ways in which humans affect the Water Cycle –Pollution of water –Destruction of marshes and other wetlands –Irrigation –Climate change The Water Cycle is very important because without it water on earth would be very dirty and unusable.
  • 33. Carbon Cycle (CO2) Steps of the Carbon Cycle Step 1 Cellular respiration and combustion: Due to the processes that are burning and breathing, carbon enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Step 2 photosynthesis: Producers absorb the carbon to make carbohydrates. Step 3 Animals: When an animal eats a plant it then exhales carbon dioxide. Step 4 Decomposers: Dead organisms are consumed which release carbon into the ground and into the atmosphere. When it goes ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Haber Process Essay Tejas Gandesha Ms. Rajeev Science 10 Tuesday, October 24, 2017 Haber Process One World Essay The Haber Process, also known as the Haber–Bosch Process, was discovered in the first half of the 20th Century, by a man named Fritz Haber. The Haber could be considered to be a very high on technological advance/discovery in the past 100 years. The world has had many mixed opinions on Fritz Haber and his development of the Haber Process. The manufacture of Ammonia has a lot of history and science behind it, it has impacted our history as well as our present day, mainly in our environment. Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch, two German Chemists, developed the Haber Process, in the early 1900s, as ammonia was very difficult to produce on a high ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Though, 80% of ammonia produced is used in agriculture for fertilizers (Ammonia, Wikipedia), it is also used for refrigerant gas, to purify water supplies, and in the manufacturing of explosives, fabrics, pesticides and many other chemicals (health.ny.gov). Ammonia is a in house hold cleaning supplies. The cleaning solution for bigger projects, industrial use contains larger amounts of ammonia and will cause irritation. There also have been some negative uses, thoughts, and effects of the Haber Process. With the Haber Process, the nitrogen cycle is thrown off track, and it creates an imbalance, due to that large amount of extraction from our atmosphere. To complete the process, there is a high fossil fuel input, as you require 400–550oC and that uses a lot of energy. When ammonia enters the body, due to breathing, it sometimes reacts with water to produce ammonium hydroxide. This is very corrosive chemical and has been known to damage cells in the body that it comes in contact with. During World War 1, the Germans took the research used by the German Chemists, to kill troops that were stuck in trenches, with Ammonia poisoning. Every good thing comes with a side of bad effects, and Haber and Bosch's discovery had almost a full serving of bad. Though we still use ammonia in our day to day lives, as well has for industrial purposes, there are many ways that it has impacted us negatively. One of the biggest subject that has ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Essay Biology 107 Sample Exam 4–Bio 107 1) The layer of the GI tract wall that is responsible for motility is the A) muscularis. B) mucosa. C) serosa. D) submucosa. E) None of the above are correct. Answer: A 2) The process by which undigested material is removed from the gastrointestinal tract is A) secretion. B) urination. C) mechanical processing. D) elimination. E) absorption. Answer: D 3) Once a bolus of food has been formed in the mouth, it is passed by the tongue and jaws to the A) esophagus. B) stomach. C) pharynx. D) nasal passageway. E) small intestine. Answer: C 4) During swallowing, A) the epiglottis bends to close the trachea. B) smooth muscle in the esophagus contracts slightly. C) the tongue flattens ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... B) urethra. C) prostate gland. D) epididymis. E) seminiferous tubules. Answer: E 19) External genitalia of the male reproductive system include(s) A) the ejaculatory duct. B) the urethra and scrotum. C) the penis and scrotum. D) the penis. E) the penis, urethra, and ejaculatory duct. Answer: C 20) The seminal vesicles produce ________, to serve as the energy source to fuel sperm motility. A) fat B) fructose C) glutamine D) prostaglandin E) glucose Answer: B 21) As sperm are produced, they go through several stages. Which stage develops directly into mature motile sperm? A) primary spermatocytes B) spermatogonia C) spermatids D) secondary spermatocytes E) Sertoli cells Answer: C 22) A fertilized egg must embed in this organ for pregnancy to occur. A) vagina B) uterus C) ovaries D) myometrium E) oviduct Answer: B 23) The opening of the uterus is referred to as A) the endometrium. B) the oviduct. C) the cervix. D) the fimbriae. E) the clitoris. Answer: C 24) Prior to the onset of lactation, the mammary glands are prepared for the production of milk by A) the hormonal action of estrogen and progesterone. B) the completion of ovulation. C) degeneration of the corpus luteum. D) deactivation of FSH, LH and GnRH. E) synthesis of FSH. Answer: A 25) Nourishment is provided to a primary oocyte via A) the endometrium layer in the uterus. B) the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. The Grand Challenge Of Engineering On Nitrogen Cycle Essay The Grand Challenge of Engineering on Nitrogen Cycle: Is it Ethical or Not? Engineers have revolutionized the world. Not one person, living or dead, has escaped the benefits of their works let alone the animals, or microorganisms, or basically everything that constitutes the physical world. They have made life easier and provided other professionals the tools necessary to discover and better understand existence. They found ways of breaking into another dimension of any known discipline and have continually advanced the society to a more global and prolific understanding. Then again, like any other areas in this world, there is a whole different side to this story. Engineers may have brought the wonders people enjoy today but at the expense of other life forms, like the environment, as well as of the general view on what is ethical. As stated in the code of ethics for engineering practice, it is of paramount importance to consider the environment, as well as public safety, health, and welfare when performing professional duties [1]. Since the pioneering advancement in technology entailed environmental crisis and affected public health, it cannot therefore be entirely considered ethical and is in need of a more profound understanding and creativity to address such issues. One of the many grand challenges of engineering considered by the National Academy of Engineering is the management of nitrogen cycle. Indeed, nitrogen is the most common gas in the atmosphere and is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41. The Crystal Clear Water Feels Refreshing To The Touch. The crystal clear water feels refreshing to the touch. As you look around and see the life that is surrounded by this natural place of beauty. Though it may look like a haven for all who dwell there, like anything it has a dark side. The ocean can be a cruel and unforgiving force that should not be reckoned with. Filled with what scientists believe to be millions of aquatic species. Sea Algae is one of those species that is a plant and not that cool. Cool animals are whales, dolphins, sharks, and fish. They are all amazing and are the kings of the oceans. The ocean covers about 75% of the Earth's surfaces. The climate of the ocean depends on where you are i the world. In the NorthEast of North America the seas are choppy and filled with ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is why it is so vital to the survival of the ocean population. Like nitrogen, Carbon is absorbed and dissolved into the surface of the ocean. Tiny marine plants called phytoplankton use photosynthesis to turn much of the carbon dissolved into the ocean into organic matter. Some organisms use it to make the material used for shells and skeletons, calcium carbonate. By using up carbon through chemical and biological processes, there is more allowance for carbon dioxide to enter the water from the atmosphere. The nickname "carbon sink" has been given to the ocean because it absorbs more carbon than it lets out. The relationship between humans and the ocean could once be categorized as commensalism, where the human was helped, and the ocean was neither helped nor harmed. Now, it has some of the same characteristics of parasitism. Humans continue to fish, sail, and explore in the ocean. One of the largest impacts humans have on the ocean is pollution. Beaches across the world are littered with trash and toxic materials, in and out of the water. Since every ocean connects, a piece of trash could start in Cuba, and end up somewhere on the coast of Madagascar. To try and reverse the damage done, there are clean up attempts all around the world to try and make the ocean what it once was. Trash left over isn't the only problem going on. Every once in awhile, there will be a large boat, transferring oil from one continent to another. The BP oil spill in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43. Clovers NAME Review of "Highlighting the threat from current and near–future ozone pollution to clover in pasture," by D.K.L. Hewitt, G. Mills, F. Hayes, S. Wilkinson, and W. Davies Overview Considering clover serves as an essential component in pasture systems by improving the nutrition level of forage growth and providing benefits to soil structure and fertility through Nitrogen fixation, the authors of this paper assesses the sensitivity of clovers response to current and near– future tropospheric ozone concentration. The potential losses in quality and quantity in pasture system resulting from the decrease of nodulation and N–fixation ability, which caused by the current and near–future ozone damage, formed the motivation for this study. Major objective ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Because one of the objectives is to compare if there are differential effects caused by the different ozone conditions. Results Five figures and 1 table are correctly labeled and clearly presented in this study. As expected, with the ozone treatment increase, the leaf injury increase and biomass decrease. Through reduction of ethylene and nodule growth at specific time interval or in specific cultivar was detected, further studies on the effects of nodule growth, biomass and N–assimilate ability are needed, because the mechanism behind these effects is also partly unclear. Conclusions In general, this paper successfully completes its objective: updated and expanded studies of the influence of ozone on nodulation and N–fixation in current clover. I do believe the conclusion part made a great prediction in based on the summary of the discussion section. The conclusion part raised a new incentive for controls of ozone emission which was also implied in the introduction part as impact on pasture ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45. Trophic Categories Etc.. Trophic Categories: 1. Producers 2. Consumers 3. Detritus feeders and decomposers Producers = organisms that capture energy from the sun or from chemical reactions to convert carbon dioxide to organic matter Organic Matter vs. Inorganic Matter –Matter that makes up the bodies of living things generally characterized by the presence of carbon and hydrogen bonds. Most producers are green plants. 1. Autotroph i. Chemosynthetic bacteria ii. Green plants iii. Algae 2. Heterotroph i. Animals ii. Fungi iii. Protists (some) Consumers Primary consumers = {herbivores} {omnivores} secondary consumers, tertiary consumers etc. = {carnivores} Predator Prey Relationships: Predator: organism which does the feeding ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... • nearly colorless, tasteless, and an odorless liquid. • the universal solvent; (rarely clean) • Water is the only common, pure substance found naturally in all three states of matter • Highest density at 4˚C due to hexagonal crystal structure & hydrogen bond. • Polar nature The importance of this property cannot be overemphasized for its role on the ecosystem of Earth. If water were more dense when frozen, lakes and oceans in a polar environment would eventually freeze solid (from top to bottom). This would happen because frozen ice would settle on the lake and riverbeds. an important advantage for freshwater life in winter. • Surface water chills increases in density and sinks • convection currents form that cool the whole water body, • when the temperature of the lake water reaches 4 °C, water on the surface gains density and eventually forms ice. • downward convection of colder water is blocked by the density change, • coldest water forms near the surface, away from the riverbed or lakebed. Lithosphere: All other elements and minerals found in lithosphere Mineral: hard crystalline inorganic material of a given chemical composition Organic compounds: carbon–carbon, carbon–hydrogen bonds Inorganic compounds: have no C–C, or C–H bonds Natural organic/ synthetic organic Biogeochemical Cycles Carbon ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47. Nitrogen Essay Nitrogen Nitrogen, symbol N, gaseous element that makes up the largest portion of the earth's atmosphere. The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. Nitrogen is in group 15 (or Va) of the periodic table. Nitrogen was discovered by the British physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772 and recognized as an elemental gas by the French chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoiser about 1776. Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless tasteless, nontoxic gas. It can be condensed into a colorless liquid, which can be compressed into a colorless, crystalline solid. Nitrogen exists in two natural forms, and four radioactive forms (artificial). Nitrogen melts at – 210.01 degrees C, (–349.02 F), boils at –195.79 C (320.42 F), and has a density of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Nitrogen compresses about 4/5ths by volume of the atmosphere. Nitrogen is inert and serves as a diluent for oxygen in burning and respiration processes. It is an important element in plant nutrition; certain bacteria in the soil convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form, such as nitrate, that can be absorbed by plants, a process called nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen in the form of protein is an important constituent of animal tissue. The element occurs in the combined state in minerals, of which saltpeter (KNO ) and Chile saltpeter (NaNO ) are commercially important products. Nitrogen combines with other elements only at very high temperatures of pressures. It is converted to an active form by passing through an electronic discharge at low pressure. The nitrogen so produced is very active, combining with alkali metals to form azides; with the vapor of zinc, mercury cadmium, and arsenic to form nitrides; and with many hydrocarbons to form hydrocyanic acid and cyanides, also known as nitriles. Activated nitrogen returns to ordinary nitrogen in about one minute. In the combined state nitrogen takes part in many reactions; it forms so many compounds that a systematic scheme of compounds containing nitrogen in place of oxygen was created by the American chemist Edward Franklin. In compounds nitrogen exists in all the valence states between –3 and +5. Ammonia, hydrazine, and hydroxylamine represent compounds
  • 48. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50. Environmental Effects Of Cadmium Environmental pollutants are becoming increasingly present throughout the world as industrial progress has expanded in countries like China. Among these environmental pollutants, Cadmium has been characterized as the most dangerous heavy metal ion because of its resiliency and numerous negative health effects (Kermani et. Al., 2010). Growing dependence on chemical fertilizer, wastewater irrigation, and uncontrolled discharge of industrial waste from activities, such as mining and smelting, has led to large amounts of Cadmium in soil (Nazar et. Al., 2012). Cadmium has adverse effects on plant life. Cadmium competes with nutrients, such as Calcium, Magnesium, and Iron, that are also trying to get through the cell membranes of plant cells (Nazar et. Al., 2012). Specifically, disruption of the Calcium channel in plants with Cadmium can lead to an altered plant–water relationship, causing, "stomatal closure in many plants, leading to lower transpiration rate, and inhibitions of photosynthesis through an adverse effect on chlorophyll metabolism." (Nazar et. Al., 2012) Because Cadmium replaces the space that plants have for Calcium, the plants overall function is worsened because it changes the plant's relationship with water, causing the stomata, which oversee a plants respiratory function, to close. The plants then begin to transpire less and photosynthesis in plants decrease as a result. Decreased photosynthesis leads to growth inhibition of plants and an imbalance in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52. Human Impacts on the Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus... Human Impact on the Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycles Danielle Abbadusky Everest University Human impact on the cycling matter in ecosystems can change a lot of things. Humans can either help or hurt things. The carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles are the three cycles of matter in ecosystems. What are these cycles? How do humans effect each one of these individual cycles? What are some examples of humans effecting these cycles? What is the carbon cycle? "Sequence of processes through which carbon compounds move from one carbon reservoir or sink (such as forests and oceans) to another (such as atmosphere) and back. Since more carbon dioxide is being released into the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels and less ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These compounds are taken up by plants as nutrients from the soil and converted into plant proteins (amino acids). Plant proteins become animal proteins when eaten and metabolized by herbivorous animals, and when carnivorous animals eat the herbivorous. These proteins return to the soil through animal excrement and the decomposition of dead animals and plants, and are converted into carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia (gaseous compound of nitrogen and hydrogen) by a set of bacteria in the soil. A portion of this ammonia is converted into soil nitrogen (fixed nitrogen) by another set of bacteria and the balance is released into the atmosphere as free nitrogen (N2)." (nitrogen cycle, n.d.) Human impact on this cycle is very significant. Farmers plant crops such as; peas, beans, and alfalfa. These crops pull nitrogen from the air which helps raise the rate of nitrogen fixation on the land. Farmers also plant corn and wheat which are sprayed with nitrogen derived from industrial fixation. All of these crops help humans to survive. Having these crops benefiting humans we are more than doubling the amount of nitrogen that's moved from the atmosphere to the land. When sulfur is released by burning fossil fuels, which humans do, this is killing and polluting our lakes and ponds and killing our forests. With these and other chemicals being put into our land, these are reaching our oceans and big areas of water and this will ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54. Climate Change : A Global Threat For The Population Climate change is viewed as new global threat for the population all around the world. Climate change can be define as "Disturbance in environment and climate patterns with respect to increased level of atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen ratio". Climate change is now tagged as critical security problem for present and upcoming generations with the passage of time. It is now predicted that these climate changes will increase the risk of violent conflict. Climate change is not only affecting the quality of life, but it is also causing limited access to natural resources that are essential in sustaining human life. It is also restricting access to opportunities and services that are helping people to retain standard quality living conditions. Disturbance in ecological and social system is a threat to living lives that have greater dependency on natural resources. These negative changes are dangerous and sudden transitions are threatening basic relationship between human security and social system. Every human being is not equally susceptible for climate change problems. The people who are less dependent on social forms and economic benefits of the capital are likely to be influenced by the change more drastically. On the other hand, the extent of dependency on natural resources and ecosystem makes people more sensitive of climate change. The less dependency can make people less effective of the risks (S. Bachu, 12 May 2003). In other words, the extent to which ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56. What Makes A Fertiliser? Also in the production of fertilisers there is corrosive and highly toxic therefore the pumps and pipes used need to be made of a resistant material to ensure longevity of the infrastructure. Furthermore the sealant need to properly selected to avoid toxic steam escaping and causing possibly lethal circumstances (Sulzer Pumps Ltd, 2010). Application A fertiliser is usually in the solid either as a prill or a granule; in some circumstance the liquid form is more useful. Forms of fertilisers The form in which the fertiliser is used is based on the crop, there are two main forms in which fertilisers are used solid granules/ prills and fluid. Granules/ prills Granules and prills are homogeneous they have contain a uniform amount of each nutrient and this is distributed is to the soil, which allows the crop to grow with uniformity. Fluid There are two types of fluid fertilisers 1. Clear solution – which is the fertiliser dissolved in water, these fluids are used because handling the fluid is simple, however when distributing the fluid there is no uniformity of the nutrients and analysis of the fertiliser is difficult. 2. Suspension–, which is when the fertiliser becomes insoluble and clay, is added to stop separation of the fertilizer occurring. The main advantage of this method is that it can be handled like a fluid and analysis is easier than the clear solution. However suspension requires constant stirring even in storage (Douglas, 2015). Distribution 1. Broadcast ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58. The Importance of itrogen in the Growth and Development of... Nitrogen is the most important nutrient required for growth and development of plants. Earth's atmosphere contains about 78% nitrogen gas but majority of this remains unavailable to the plants. An important feature of our planet ecosystem is the nitrogen cycle, by which nitrogen is converted into different several other forms. The process of conversion involves both biological and non biological processes. Nitrogen cycle consists of nitrogen fixation, assimilation, mineralization, nitrification and denitrification (Postgate 1998). The process of conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is known as nitrogen fixation. Biological nitrogen fixation is the mechanism of reduction of atmospheric nitrogen to a metabolically active form exclusively by microorganisms. Biological nitrogen–fixation (BNF) involves the enzymatic reduction of N2 to ammonia (NH3–). Conversion of N2 to ammonia is catalyzed by a metalloenzyme called nitrogenase. Reaction has a high activation energy because molecular N2 is an unreactive gas with a triple bond between the two N2 atoms. Therefore, N2 reduction requires at least 8 electrons and 16 ATP moles, 4 ATPs per pair of electrons. N2 + 8H+ + 8e¯ + 16 ATP = 2NH3 + H2 + 16 ADP + 16 P Three genetically distinct nitrogenase systems have been found in diazotrophs, namely Nif, Vnf and Anf in which the active–site central metals are Mo, V, and Fe, respectively (Zhao et al 2006). The enzyme contains two components that are named according to their metal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60. Population Dynamic of the Legume-Rhizobium System Nitrogen is essential for all forms of life in that it is required to biosynthesize basic building blocks of plants, animals and other life forms. Atmospheric nitrogen is relatively inert; however, the fixation process can free up the nitrogen atoms from their diatomic form (N2) to compound form (NH3) so they could be used in many ways. Biological nitrogen fixation provides about 65% of the biosphere's available nitrogen, and most of this is done by the cooperation between legume and rhizobia. In fact, symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legume root nodules injects approximately 40 million tonnes of nitrogen into agricultural systems each year. The symbioses is achieved through a series of intricate interactions. And rhizobia are found as bacteroids in infected legume hosts' root nodules, where they would perform nitrogen fixation and obtain sources of energy (like photosynthate) from the plant. Were there no oppurtunity cost in the fixation process, natural selection among rhizobia would favor those strains whose bacteroids fix the most nitrogen. However, nitrogen fixation is energy–intensive. In the case of multiple infection, it is mots likely that the "free–rider" scenario would take place. "Cheating" rhizobia would exploit plant resources for their own reproduction rather than nitrogen fixation, resulting in their outcompeting the fixing rhizobia and the symbioses' falling apart. Thus, host monitoring of symbiont performance and the imposition of sanctions on ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62. Crop Yield And Juice Quality 4.1 Crop yield and juice quality Soil sickness of sugarcane monoculture, expressed as a reduction of cane yield, stalk diameter and biomass when sugarcane is cultivated on the same soil sequentially, is one of the foremost problems in sugarcane production, particularly in field conditions (Li et al. 2015; Li and Yang, 2015). Sugarcane is an important crop in Guangxi, China, but due to its long duration annual economic returns tend to be lower than some other crops. Intercropping of short duration crops with sugarcane could increase benefits. Our result showed that lower sugarcane yield under monoculture system in both the locations, but intercropping systems had minor enhancement although it is not statistically significant. Moreover, sugarcane with soybean intercropping had higher productivity than monoculture and sugarcane with peanut. These results indicated that intercropping sugarcane with soybean was beneficial for sugarcane yield and soil sickness relieving. The same yield promoting effect had also been observed in sugarcane–potato (Singh et al. 2010), soybean–sugarcane intercropping (Yang et al. 2013) and sugarcane–cassava intercropping (Li et al. 2015). Thereafter, quality of cane juice was also showed no significant effect with intercropping and these results also correlated with previous research on sugarcane intercropping (Yang et al. 2013). However, intercrops selection should carefully consider the excessive risk of inter–specific competition. Kaur et al. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64. Legumes Advantages And Disadvantages USES AND BENEFITS OF LEGUMES IN AGRO–ECOSYSTEM Legumes: Forage legumes can be defined as "monocarpellary fruit that contain only a single row of seed and dehisces along both structure and ribs". Legumes are the member of plant family Fabaceae but in the past legumes belongs to leguminosae. There leaves are trifoliate in nature and have tape root system. Legumes are grown generally in agriculture for the food grain that are edible in nature like pulses, beans, pea, lentil, soya bean about 500 genera and 1100 species 'of legumes are known. Legumes associated with nitrogen fixing bacteria that have ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. This nitrogen makes the plant seed full of protein and carbohydrates which are rich component ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Legumes have rich source of fiber that increase the energy of the animal. Fiber also help animal in up taking of forage in digestibility. Protein content in them is too high due to N–fixation which helps animal to provide high ratio of protein in their nutrition. Legumes are also source of other minerals like Ca, Mg, Zn, Co, Cu. According to survey of scientist (Wilman, Mtengeti and Moseley) that feeding values of legumes and grasses are different due to the cell structure and anatomy of the plants. Energy feedstock: Legumes are also the source of electrical energy generation. For example alfalfa production used in the feeding of ruminant and electricity generation as the leaves are used for grazing purpose and stem of the plant are used. Therefore legumes are used for many purposes in the agro–ecosystem. Soil and Water conservation: When we planted legumes than the soil erosion and water logging conditions will be less as compared to other crops. It is due to precipitation and runoff water level. Soil organic matter concentration increases in this way. It is the main benefit of legume to use as cover crop that reduces soil erosion and water level increases mineral content in the soil. Water up taking level of the plant also increases that helps in soil water holding capacity of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66. Analysis of Symbiosis Between Medicago Truncatula and... 1. This work aims to analyze the existence of both partner choice and plant sanctions in Medicago truncatula– Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis by performing split–root experiments with natural strains (Gubry–Rangin et al. 2010). Noë & Hammerstein (1994) described symbiosis as 'biological market' since the plants are able to exchange the nutrients with different species which will create the conflict. The strains with different fixation level in natural rhizobia populations were described by Miller & Sirois (1982) and Rangin et al. (2008). Bull & Rice (1991) and Simms & Taylor (2002) suggested that rhizobia symbiosis is likely explained by the partner choice model as the bacteria are not transmitted vertically between plant generations. In ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The bacterial fitness was then measured using different parameters including the number of nodules, biomass per nodule, and the number of rhizobia per nodule. Figure Number What method(s) gave these data? What do these data show? 1(a) split–root experiment Measurements of aerial biomass obtained in the split–root experiment: – The N2–fixing strain appears efficient in nitrogen fixation than non–fixing strain 1(b) split–root experiment Measurements of nodule number obtained in the split–root experiment: – The nodule number was significantly higher in roots inoculated with the non–fixing strain than the N2–fixing strain. This supports the pre–infection partner selection. – There are restrictions of nodule formation in the non–limiting side of the plant when one side of the plant is nitrogen deficient in order to maintain the optimal nitrogen content. 1(c) split–root experiment Measurements of nodule biomass per nodule obtained in the split–root experiment: – The biomass per nodule significantly higher for the N2–fixing strain compared with the non– fixing strain – The mean biomass per nodule was higher in the N2–fixing strain which indicates that M. truncatula plants might be able to limit the nodule development of inefficient strain in order to avoid wasting resources. – In the mixed treatment, a significantly higher biomass per nodule was measured for the N2–fixing strain than the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68. The And Its Effects On The Environment Conclusion Many animals influence their local habitat by energy and material uptake and waste production while many other organisms changes the chemical balance and alter the local infrastructure. Through a variety of mechanisms, animals are equipped to modify their local community but animals that change a habitat's structure through the physical process of engineering and consumption of plant material indirectly regulates an ecosystem's infrastructure and dynamics. (Wright and Jones, 2006; Davidson and Lightfoot, 2008). These engineers increase and shape landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity by creating unique patches of habitat that differ from the surrounding landscape (Wright and Jones, 2006; Davidson and Lightfoot, 2008). While ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... From the continuous grazing, canopy height of the mid–height grasses are directly affected and rarely reaches its full size. One important observation of the perennial plants when under heavy grazing are morphological changes due to its genetic differentiation plasticity (Whicker and Detling 1988) . Intensive grazing can shift the dominance from traditionally large, tall plants to dwarf morphs that are either more grazing tolerant or preferentially less intensively grazed than their taller counterparts (Whicker and Detling 1988). Thereafter, mid–height grasses are replaced with shortgrass species and annual forbs. Grazing by burrowing mammals also enhances plant nitrogen uptake, resulting in increased forage quality on their colonies (Whicker and Detling 1988; Villarreal et al. 2008). By increasing forage quality, it attracts ungulates like bison to prairie dog colonies which further increases forage quality and decreases vegetation height (Davidson, Detling, and Brown 2012). As a result, the ungulates and prairie dogs can have mutualistic relationship (Davidson et al. 2010). In figure 1, the total nitrogen yield aboveground was greater in the presence of prairie colonies compared to uncolonized areas. This tells us that because both prairie dogs and the larger herbivores are able to remove sizable quantities of nutrients they directly influence the nutrient recycling resulting in a more rapid turnover of readily available nutrients near the soil surface. Along with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70. Karenia Brevis Have you ever heard about the redness of water in coastal region of West Florida and Gulf of Mexico? Even though this redness in water makes beautiful scene for many of us, it is actually harmful to many of the aquatic species and humans on earth. One of the organisms which is responsible for the discoloration of water is Karenia Brevis. This is commonly known as Red tide in many parts of the world. Karenia brevis (formally known as Gymnodinium breve and Ptychodiscus brevis) is marine dinoflagellate Protista, commonly known for its toxin, is responsible for the Florida and Texas Red tide ( Global Biodiversity). Scientists also refers to K. brevis as Harmful algae blooms as it produces series of bretoxins (neurotoxins) which contributes to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... brevis's growth. A group of scientists conducted 3 year on West Florida Shelf in October, when the amount of K. brevis is high. First, they sampled the concentration of K. brevis's cells from different environmental regions such as offshores, estuaries, and coastal. Then, they sampled the water from different regions, and checked nutrients availability in each region. Scientists also take previous studies data into consideration to confirmed the amount of nutrients, especially nitrogen, and phosphorous. After sampling K. brevis and water, scientists focused on the needs of this organism. They grouped K. brevis blooms into three categories: small, medium, and large; and worked in laboratory to confirm the amount of nitrogen, and phosphorous needed by each separated blooms. After researching for three year, a team of scientists concluded that the amount of nutrient sources vary depending on toxicity, biomass, and bloom's locations. In estuaries, Most of Nitrogen and phosphorous source comes from Nitrogen Fixation, decay of Fishes related to Red tide, and photochemical nutrient production. In coastal regions, majority of the large blooms is supported by mix trophic consumption of Picoplankton, and nutrient releasing from detritivores in water. As ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72. What Was The Relationship Between The Neolithic And... The Neolithic and Industrial Revolutions The two changes in the use of the earth's resources that had the greatest effect on the world population were the Neolithic and the industrial revolutions. The Neolithic revolution (a.k.a. agricultural revolution) was a change in the way of life of our ancestors. It took place about 8000 years ago among various tribes in Asia and the Middle East. It included a transition from foraging and hunting to the domestication of animals (most probably starting with the dog) and to farming. Tribes settled in fertile areas and formed agricultural communities many of which grew into villages and cities. This relatively stable way of life and the more reliable food supply (and surplus) led to the development ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Biogeochemical cycles In the carbon cycle, the key events are the complementary reactions of respiration and photosynthesis. Respiration takes carbohydrates and oxygen and combines them to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Photosynthesis (6CO + 12H O + Light Energy C H O + 6O +6H O) takes carbon dioxide and water and produces carbohydrates and oxygen. The outputs of respiration are the inputs of photosynthesis, and the outputs of photosynthesis are the inputs of respiration. The reactions are also complementary in the way they deal with energy. Photosynthesis takes energy from the sun and stores it in the carbon–carbon bonds of carbohydrates; respiration releases that energy. Both plants and animals carry on respiration, but only plants and other producers can carry on photosynthesis. The chief reservoirs for carbon dioxide are in the oceans and in rock. Carbon dioxide dissolves readily in water. Once there, it may precipitate as a solid rock known as calcium carbonate. Corals and algae encourage this reaction and build up limestone reefs in the process. On land and in the water, plants take up carbon dioxide and convert it into carbohydrates through photosynthesis. This carbon in the plants now has 3 possible endings. It can be returned to the atmosphere by the plant through respiration; it can be eaten by an animal, or it can be present in the plant when the plant dies. Animals obtain all their carbon in their food, and, thus, all carbon ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74. The Two Arrangements of Water Quality Parameters There are two arrangements of water quality parameters:  Conservative  Non–conservative Conservative parameters of water which are hardness, alkalinity, salinity, and temperature are not affected significantly by activities of microorganisms. [30] Ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, pH, phosphorous, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, and oxygen reduction potential which are affected by biological activity are considered as non–conservative. [30] [31] Now let's discuss the crucial water quality parameters taking into consideration the importance of monitoring them in an aquaculture setting for reusing them for irrigating processes. So at first nitrogen cycle must be discussed. [30] [32] The nitrogen cycle can be described as follows. Figure 1 The graph of nitrogen cycle Boyd, C.E. 1976. Water chemistry and plankton in unfertilized ponds in pastures and in woods.635– 636, Stickney, R.R., 1979. Principles of warm water aquaculture. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Nitrogen fixation is the process by which bacteria, aerobic, anaerobic and photosynthetic transform atmospheric nitrogen to organic nitrogen. [30] Many organisms such as plants also rely on this process for survival. Ammonification is the process by which organic nitrogen is converted to nitrogenous ammonia by heterotrophic microorganisms. Nitrification is the biological conversion of ammonia to nitrate. Nitrifies carry out this process and can be autotrophic ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76. Essay about Nitrogen fixation The growth of all organisms depends on the availability of mineral nutrients, and none is more important than nitrogen, which is required in large amounts as an essential component of proteins, nucleic acids and other cellular constituents. There is an abundant supply of nitrogen in the earth's atmosphere – nearly 79% in the form of N2 gas. However, N2 is unavailable for use by most organisms because there is a triple bond between the two nitrogen atoms, making the molecule almost inert. In order for nitrogen to be used for growth it must be "fixed" (combined) in the form of ammonium (NH4) or nitrate (NO3) ions. The weathering of rocks releases these ions so slowly that it has a neglible effect on the availability of fixed ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We shall deal first with the process of nitrogen fixation and the nitrogen–fixing organisms, then consider the microbial processes involved in the cycling of nitrogen in the biosphere. A relatively small amount of ammonia is produced by lightning. Some ammonia, also is produced industrially by the Haber–Bosch process, using an iron–based catalyst, very high pressures and fairly high temperature. But the major conversion of N2 into ammonia, and thence into proteins, is achieved by microorganisms in the process called nitrogen fixation (or dinitrogen fixation). Biological nitrogen fixation can be represented by the following equation, in which two moles of ammonia are produced from one mole of nitrogen gas, at the expense of 16 moles of ATP and a supply of electrons and protons (hydrogen ions): N2 + 8H+ + 8e– + 16 ATP = 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP + 16 Pi This reaction is performed exclusively by prokaryotes (the bacteria and related organisms), using an enzyme complex termed nitrogenase. This enzyme consists of two proteins – an iron protein and a molybdenum–iron protein, as shown below. The reactions occur while N2 is bound to the nitrogenase enzyme complex. The Fe protein is first reduced by electrons donated by ferredoxin. Then the reduced Fe protein binds ATP and reduces the molybdenum–iron protein, which donates 3 electrons to N2, producing HN=NH. In two further cycles of this process (each requiring electrons donated by ferredoxin) HN=NH is reduced to H2N–NH2, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 78. Organic and Inorganic Constituent in Essential in Plants... ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONSTITUENT IN ESSENTIAL IN PLANTS AND NUTRIENTS REQUIRED TO PLANTS Organic constituent DEFINITION An organ, system, or other discrete element of an organism the part of the plant that carries out photosynthesis. EXPLANATION: The chemical compounds of living things are known as organic compounds because of their association with organisms. Organic compounds, which are the compounds associated with life processes, are the subject matter of organic chemistry. Among the numerous types of organic compounds, four major categories are found in all living things: carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates Almost all organisms use carbohydrates as sources of energy. In addition, some carbohydrates ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Such nutrients are termed macronutrients, where the prefix macro– (large) refers to the quantity needed, not the size of the nutrient particles themselves. Other nutrients, called micronutrients, are required only in trace amounts for plants to remain healthy. Such micronutrients are usually absorbed as ions dissolved in water taken from the soil, though carnivorous plants acquire some of their micronutrients from captured prey. The following tables list element nutrients essential to plants. Uses within plants are generalized. Macronutrients. (Necessary in large quantities) Element Form of uptake Notes Nitrogen NO3–, NH4+ Nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, etc. Oxygen O2 H2O Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds Carbon CO2 Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds Hydrogen H2O Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds Potassium K+ Cofactor in protein synthesis, water balance, etc. Calcium Ca2+ Membrane synthesis and stabilization Magnesium Mg2+ Element essential for chlorophyll Phosphorus H2PO4– Nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP Sulfur SO42– Constituent of proteins and coenzymes Micronutrients. (Necessary in small quantities) Element Form of uptake Notes Chlorine Cl– Photosystem II and stomata function Iron Fe2+, Fe3+ Chorophyll formation
  • 79. Boron HBO3 Crosslinking pectin Manganese Mn2+ Activity of some enzymes Zinc Zn2+ Involved in the synthesis of enzymes and chlorophyll Copper Cu+ Enzymes for lignin synthesis Molybdenum MoO42– Nitrogen ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 81. The Hydrologic Cycle : The Causes And Effects Of The... The biogeological cycle is defined as the movements of matter between and within ecosystems that include the chemical, biological, and geological processes. Their movements are kept track of by pools and the process in which pools move are in flows. Since all of Earth relies on the hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, sulfur, and carbon cycles, humans have managed to change it at least one way. Human interaction within these cycles causes destruction to Earth and can destroy the systems if nothing is done to stop it. The hydrologic cycle is the movement of water within the biosphere. Earth is a closed system, meaning that water can never leave Earth. Due to human interaction, humans have managed to hurt and alter the water cycle. Water that falls on the land does one of three things : evapotranspiration, evaporation and transpiration, be absorbed by the soil and go down into the groundwater, or move as a runoff into rivers and streams and reach the ocean where the water evaporates the cycle starts over again. Humans harm the hydrologic cycle by cutting down trees. By reducing evapotranspiration and its biomass, it causes runoff and percolation to increase. An increase in runoff leads to erosion and flooding. Humans harm the cycle by covering land resources due to paving roads. This decreases the amount of percolation in a specific area and leads to more evaporation and runoff. Humans have the ability to change the water cycle by moving water from area to another for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...