Philo sc itina


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Philo sc itina

  1. 1. Itis the part of philosophy that studies sciences.Itis a branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical foundations, presumptions and implications of science both of the natural sciences and the social sciences.
  2. 2. It seeks to explain such things as: a.the nature of scientific statementsand concepts;b. the way in which they areproduced;c. how science explains, predictsand harnesses nature;
  3. 3. d. the means for determining thevalidity of information;e. the formulation and use of thescientific method;f. the types of reasoning used toarrive at conclusions;
  4. 4. g. the implications of scientificmethods and models for thelarger society, and for thesciences themselves.
  5. 5. The origins of Babylonian philosophy, in the popular sense of the word, can be traced back to the wisdom of early Mesopotamia, which embodied certain philosophies of life, particularly ethics.
  6. 6. Reason is a term that refers to the capacity human beings have to make sense of things, to establish and verify facts, and to change or justify practices, institutions, and beliefs.
  7. 7. It is closely associated with suchcharacteristically human activitiesas philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normallyconsidered to be a definitivecharacteristic of human nature.
  8. 8. Reason, like habit or intuition, isone of the ways by whichthinking comes from one idea toa related idea.
  9. 9. For example, it is the means bywhich rational beings understandthemselves to thinkabout cause and effect, truth and falsehood, and what is good orbad.
  10. 10. Deductive reasoningDeduction is generally an inferenceby reasoning from the general to thespecific.Premise 1: All humans are mortal.Premise 2: Socrates is a human.Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.
  11. 11. Inductive reasoningInduction is a form of inferenceproducing propositions aboutunobserved objects or types, eitherspecifically or generally, based onprevious observation.Premise: The sun has risen in theeast every morning up until now.Conclusion: The sun will also rise inthe east tomorrow.
  12. 12. Abductive reasoningAn argument to the bestexplanation, is a form of inductivereasoning, since the conclusion inan abductive argument does notfollow with certainty from itspremises and concerns somethingunobserved.
  13. 13. For example, when a patientdisplays certain symptoms, theremight be various possiblecauses, but one of these ispreferred above others as beingmore probable.
  14. 14. Analogical reasoningIt is reasoning from the particularto the particular.An example follows:Premise 1: Socrates is human andSocrates died.Premise 2: Plato is human.Conclusion: Plato will die.
  15. 15.  It is the exercise of reason.It is the manner in which people derive conclusions when considering things deliberately.
  16. 16. The dependence on evidence.Empiricism is the view that knowledge derives from experience of the world.Inthis sense, scientific statements are subject to and derived from our experiences or observations.
  17. 17.  It was believed that Egyptian philosophy had been there even before the existence of Greek Philosophies. Ancient Egyptian philosophy has been credited by the ancient Greeks as the beginning of philosophy.
  18. 18. It is characterized by beingflexible, pragmatic, and givingattention to emotion.
  19. 19. Ancient Egyptian answers to philosophical questions were flexible. Rather that offering definite answers, Egyptian philosophy was pluralistic, and several explanations for the origin of the world were considered equally true.
  20. 20. Ancient Egyptian philosophy was pragmatic, and considered real-life situations without abstracting to general laws
  21. 21. While Egyptian philosophy recognized the power of emotion, it advised against giving in to transitory feelings.