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Grammar book cc

  1. 1. Grammar Book Cristina Coleman 1st period
  2. 2. Table of Contents!1. Present Tense (ar/er/ir) 14. Future Tense (and irregular)2 Stem Changers3 Irregular „yo‟ verbs4 Saber vs. Conocer5 Reflexives6 „Se‟ impersonal7 Dipthongs with accents ?8 Verbs Like ger/gir, uir/guir, cer/cir9 Hace + time + que + presente/preterite10. Imperfecto11. Preterite (car/gar/zar, Spock, cucaracha, snakey), etc)12. Comparatives13. Superlatives
  3. 3. Presente -ar, -er, -ir-ar -er Io o -iras o You esa es He/She/It eamos e We emosáis imos Them éisan ís en You all en
  4. 4. Stem changers• Stem changing verbs change inside the boot. e -> ie Perder -> Pierdo e -> i Pedir -> Pido o -> ue Dormir -> Duermo u -> ue Jugar -> Juego
  5. 5. Irregulars -go, -zco, -oy-Go -Zco -Oy Ser Oigo (oir) (cer/cir) Estar Hago (hacer) Conozco (conocer) Dar Pongo (poner) Conducir Ver Producir Saber
  6. 6. Saber vs. ConocerSaber is used when you know facts. - Names of books, music, titles, etc.Conocer is used when you know people. - Names, families, etc.
  7. 7. reflexives• Me• Te• Se• Nos• Os• Se These can hook onto infinitives. “El tiene que lavarse.”
  8. 8. se impersonalSe + verb (in 3rd person singular) + singular direct object Ejemple: Se habla inglés en Inglaterra.Se + verb (in 3rd person plural) + plural direct object Ejemple: Se venden zapatos en las zapaterías.
  9. 9. Ser vs. Estar SER Estar ‘ser’ refers to a permanent ‘estar’ refers to a temporary condition, mood, or physical condition, mood, or physical characteristic. appearance. Conjugations:Conjugations: SoyEstoy EresEstás EsEstá SomosEstámos SonEstán“Me llamo Cristina! Soy de Atlanta.” “Estoy muy cansado.”“El chico es muy estupido.” “Lorena estáhumilde y simpatica.”
  10. 10. Dipthongs with accents• These are in the present tense.•Work on this one!!!!!
  11. 11. hace + time + que + present tense
  12. 12. verbs like -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/gir• uir/guir: in present tense, verbs ending in –uir have a ‘y’ except for ‘nos’ and ‘vos’. Constuyo Construyes Construye Construimos Construis Construyen Ger-Gir In present tense, ‘yo’ switches from ‘g’ to ‘j’. Cojo Coges Coge Cogemos Cogeis Cogen
  13. 13. Preterite• Known beginning and/or end.• Past tense• “snapshot” of time.• E I• Aste Iste• O Io• Amos Imos• Aron ieron
  14. 14. Regular Conjunctives
  15. 15. irregular conjunctive
  16. 16. Imperfecto!• Imperfecto is a form of past-tense.• -AR imperfect. • -ER/IR Imperfect• Aba • Ía• Ábamos • íamos• Abas • Ías• Abais • ías• Aba • Ía• Aban • Ían
  17. 17. Preterite : car/gar/zarCar Gar ZarQué Gué CéAste Gaste AsteÓ Ó ÓAmos Amos AmosAsteis Asteis AsteisAron Aron Aron These only change in first person!
  18. 18. Preterite: Spock VerbsIr/Ser Dar/Ver HacerFui D/V I HiceFuiste D/V iste HicisteFue D/V io HizoFuimos D/V imos HicimosFueron D/V ieron Hicieron
  19. 19. Cucarachas-é Andar : anduv--iste Estar : estv- Poder : pud--o Poder : Pus--imos Querer : Quis- Saber : Sup--ieron Tener : Tuv--(“I” verbs -i) Venir : vin- Conducir : conduj- Producir : produj- Traducir : traduj- Decir : dij- Traer : traj-
  20. 20. Preterite: Snakes & Snakey• Snakes and Snakeys are in the past tense.• Snakeys are used when three vowels are in a row. You replace ‘i’ with ‘y’.
  21. 21. trigger words• Words that elude to the use of a preterite term.• ayer• anoche “Ayer, yo comí muchas fresas para la cena.”• anteayer• la semana pesada• cada dia
  22. 22. Comparatives: used to compare one thing to another.Equality: ‘tan’ + adjective/adverb + como Tan = soInequality: mas/menos + adj/adv/noun + que Tanto = so much *When using numbers, use ‘de’, not ‘que’. Tantos/as = so many
  23. 23. SuperlativesEl/la/los/las + Esta es la mujerNoun + MasAdjective + BonitaDe = De todas
  24. 24. El Futuro. • Ir + a + infinitive = -é the immediate -ás future! -á – “Voy a caminar”- -emos I’m going to walk”. -ánHowever, if you “will” do something, there’s a selection of endingsthat refer to the future. “Simpre te amaré.” = I will always love you.
  25. 25. Irregular Future• Decir Dir- to say• Haber Habr- to be, to have (helping verb)• Hacer Har- to make, do• Poder Podr- to be able• Poner Pondr- to put, place, set• Querer Querr- to want, love• Saber Sabr- to know a fact, how• Salir Saldr- to leave, go out• Tener Tendr- to have• Valer Valdr- to be worth• Venir Vendr- to come
  26. 26. Preterite vs. Imperfect (not yet)