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Dec 6 renewable nonrenewable energy


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Dec 6 renewable nonrenewable energy

  1. 1. Renewable and Non-renewable Energies Prepared by: Ms. Llupo
  2. 2. Non-Renewable vs. Renewable• Non-renewable – resources that cannot regenerate quickly, takes thousands or millions of years.• Renewable – resources that regenerate quickly within decades.
  3. 3. Energy Efficiency and Energy ConservationEnergy efficiency – the amount of useful energy produced compared to the amount wasted as heat (2nd Law of Thermodynamics); built into the device or system, unavoidable wasteExamples of levels of energy efficiency: human body: 20-25% incandescent light bulb: 5% internal combustion engine: 20-25% steam turbine: 45%Energy conservation – the effort to reduce the amount of energy used, some waste can be avoided
  4. 4. Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation Map
  5. 5. Energy conservation and energy efficiency are presently the mostpowerful tools in transition to a clean energy future.As shown in the Energy Pyramid, renewable energy is an importantpiece of our future energy, but the largest opportunities are currentlyin energy conservation and efficiency.
  6. 6. Where does the electricity come from?Renewables•Wind•Solar•Hydropower•Geothermal•Tidal•Biomass•Wave
  7. 7. Non- renewables• Fossil fuels Coal Natural gas Oil• Nuclear reaction
  8. 8. Wind PowerAdvantages•No fossil fuels are generated•Take up less space than the average power station. Windmillsonly have to occupy a few square meters for the base, this allowsthe land around the turbine to be used for many purposes, forexample agriculture.•Extraction of wind energy is much more efficient. The wind is free•Represents a great energy source when combined with solarpanels•45%–55% efficiency
  9. 9. Disadvantages:• Less electricity than the average fossil fuels• Construction can be very expensive and costly too Rotating blades are a danger to birds• Wind turbines can spoil the view and the rotating blades are noisy• It is unreliable, since wind speed can change at any time
  10. 10. Solar PowerDisadvantages:•Electricity cannot be produced when the Sun is notshining•Solar cells are only about 33 percent efficient.
  11. 11. Solar PowerThe four technologies employed to make use ofsolar energy are:•Daylighting•Passive Solar Heating•Active Solar Heating•Concentrating Solar Thermal•Photovoltaic(PV)
  12. 12. Solar Technologies• Daylighting• Passive Solar Heating• Active Solar Heating• Concentrating Solar Thermal• Photovoltaics (PV)
  13. 13. Daylighting: the use of natural sunlight tobrighten the building’s interior.
  14. 14. Passive Solar Heating: takes advantage of Sun’swarmth and materials that absorb that warmth during theday/release it at night when heat is needed.
  15. 15. Active Solar Heating: solar collectorsconcentrate the sun’s power on dark color platesthat absorb heat. Air or liquid flows through tubesand warmed by the plates. Flat Plate Collector Evacuated Tube Collector 16
  16. 16. Concentrating Solar Thermal: mirrors direct sunlighton one point. Water is turned into steam with this heat.The steam turns a turbine to create electricity.
  17. 17. Photovoltaic(PV): converts sunlight directly toelectricity.
  18. 18. Hydro PowerAdvantages•There are no combustion emissions•Operating costs are low and it is about 90%efficient•95% efficiency
  19. 19. Disadvantages:•Flooding - large areas of land are flooded tocreate dams and reservoirs.•Consequent impacts on people, animals andvegetation. When submerged vegetationdecays, it produces methane and releasesmercury.•Impact stream flow•Traps sediments and nutrients•Decreases dissolved oxygen in water
  20. 20. Geothermal PowerAdvantages•Less costs•Consumes less electricity•More efficiency than gas and oil furnaces•A highly acceptable solution as greenhouse gases and airpollutants levels are less•Cools and operates quietly•15%–20% efficiency
  21. 21. Disadvantages•High installation costs•Requires lots of space•Needs a bedrock base•Installation is tricky
  22. 22. Tidal PowerTidal energy is hydropower which converts theenergy of tides into electricity or other forms ofpower. Tides are more predictable than wind energyand solar power.
  23. 23. Advantages• More predictable than wind energy and solar power• Doesn’t depend on whether• No pollution• Requires no fuel• Not expensive to maintain• 95% efficiency
  24. 24. Disadvantages• A barrage is expensive to build and affects a wide area• Environment is being affected• Provide power for only 10 hours a day• Cannot be installed everywhere
  25. 25. Biomass PowerAdvantages:•Using plant matter before it decomposes prevents•the release of methane gas•5% efficiency
  26. 26. Disadvantages:• Burning plant matter adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere• A large supply of biomass fuels is not readily available
  27. 27. Fossil Fuels: Oil, Natural Gas, Coal• Fossil fuels originated from the decay of living organisms millions of years ago• 40% efficiency
  28. 28. Advantage: Oil is used in many areas such as
  29. 29. Advantages• Ample supply for 35-84 years• Low cost• High net energy yield• Easily transported within and between countries
  30. 30. Disadvantages• Artificially low price encourages waste and discourages search for alternatives• Air pollution, releases CO2 when burned• Moderate water pollution
  31. 31. Natural Gas – another fossil fuelMixture of gases • 50–90% Methane (CH4) • Ethane (C2H6) • Propane (C3H8) • Butane (C4H10) • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  32. 32. The use of Natural Gas• Produce electricity• Heat homes - inside homes, water heater• Industry - heat for warmth and producing things• Vehicles• Cooking
  33. 33. Advantages• High net energy yield• Low cost• Less air pollution than other fossil fuels• Lower CO2 emission than other fossil fuels• Moderate environmental impact• Good fuel for fuel cells and gas turbines
  34. 34. Disadvantages• Releases CO2 when burned• Leaks of methane – GHG• Shipped across ocean as highly explosive• Sometimes burned off and wasted at low price• Fractioning can cause groundwater contamination and earthquakes
  35. 35. Fossil Fuel Power - CoalAdvantage:Coal is inexpensive
  36. 36. Coal PowerDisadvantages:•High GHG Emissions - it produces carbon dioxide andother gases that contribute to acid rain.•Harmful extraction process•High water demand•Thermal discharge - the process is only 30 percentefficient. That is, about 70 percent of the energyproduced is lost as heat before it reaches theconsumer•Waste created
  37. 37. Acid Mine DrainageAcid mine drainage comes mainly from abandoned coal mines and active mining.
  38. 38. Nuclear Power - UraniumAdvantages•There are no greenhouse gas emissions.•A small amount of nuclear fuel will produce a great amount of energy•20%–50% efficiency
  39. 39. Nuclear power meets more than 50 per cent ofOntarios electricity needs. Energy Output by 2008
  40. 40. Ontario Power Generation owns and operates the Pickeringand Darlington Nuclear Power Stations. The two stations havea combined generating capacity of about 6,600 megawatts. Pickering Nuclear Power Stations is one of the worlds largest nuclear generating facilities. Capacity: 3,100 MW
  41. 41. Darlington Nuclear Power Stations sits on the shores of Lake Ontario,roughly 60-kilometres east of Toronto.Capacity: 3,500 MW
  42. 42. Disadvantages• Thermal Discharge - when cooling water is discharged into the lake, the temperature of water rises.• Radioactive Waste - power plants are very expensive and radioactive waste must be properly stored.
  43. 43. Three Mile Island• March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, plant in Pennsylvania, lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown• 50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled area• Unknown amounts of radioactive materials released• Partial cleanup & damages cost $1.2 billion• Released radiation increased cancer rates.
  44. 44. Chernobyl• April 26, 1986, reactor explosion, Ukraine flung radioactive debris into atmosphere• Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths• Green Peace estimates 32,000 deaths• About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes• ~160,000 Km2 contaminated• > Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivity, causing cancer, tumors, eye cataract, and genetic mutations• Cost of incident > $358 billion
  45. 45. Effects ofChernobylnuclear disaster
  46. 46. Fukushima disaster – Japan, March 2011 beforeEarthquake, followed by tsunami –subsequent loss of power to cool reactors,plus fire at plant
  47. 47. Dec 14 Classroom Electricity Audit- 5 appliances- plug ina Wattmeter to measure the amount of energy it uses