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  • Biochemistry: The troponin-complex is a 1:1:1 complex of three regulatory proteins (TnT, TnI, TnC) exclusively present in striated muscle that regulate the calcium-mediated interactions of actin and myosin. Despite the similar nomenclature the troponins are different proteins structurally not related with each other. There are tissue-specific isoforms of troponin T, I and C. Three different isoforms of troponin T and I are expressed in slow-twitch skeletal muscle, fast-twitch skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle, respectively. In contrast, troponin C has only two (a fast-twitch and a slow-twitch/cardiac) isoforms.
    Cardiac troponin T: cTnT is different from those found in skeletal muscle. These differences allow to generate monoclonal antibodies which recognise only cTnT and can therefore be used for the development of cardiac specific immunoassays. Overall there are 120 differences (58.3 % homology) between the amino acid sequence of cTnT and slow-twitch TnT and 125 amino acid differences (56.6 % homology) between cTnT and fast-twitch TnT (Mesnard L. et al. FEBS Letters 1993; 328:139-144). In the human heart muscle, approximately 5 % of the total cTnT content is found as a soluble cytoplasmic pool, which probably serves as a precursor pool for the synthesis of the troponin complex (Katus H. et al. Am J Cardiol 1991; 67:1360-1367).
    Cardiac troponin I: cTnI found in the myocardium is different from those found in skeletal muscle. cTnI has an extra 13 amino acid residues at the N-terminus and its amino acid sequence shows approx. 60 % homology to the other two isoforms (Wilkinson J.M. and Grand R.J.A. Nature 1978; 271:31-35). In the human heart muscle, approximately 3 - 5 % of the total cTnI content is found as a soluble cytoplasmic pool, which probably serves as a precursor pool for the synthesis of the troponin complex (Adams J.E. et al. Clin Chem 1994; 40:1291-1295).
  • Prions

    1. 1. Blood SciencesBlood Sciences Kieran HayhurstKieran Hayhurst Trainee Biomedical ScientistTrainee Biomedical Scientist Clinical ChemistryClinical Chemistry North Tyneside General HospitalNorth Tyneside General Hospital
    2. 2. Backroom Boys
    3. 3. Science andScience and TechnologyTechnology Na, K, BICARB, UREA, CREAT, ALB, CA, PO4, ALK PHOS, TP, BILIRUBIN, ALT, GGT, CHOL, URATE
    4. 4. Liquid Chromatography Gas Chromatography Drugs – Heroin, Cocaine, methadone Vitamins – B, D, etc. Samples separated due to size A B
    5. 5. The troponin complex is a component of the thin Filaments in muscle • Troponin T Actin Tropomyosin Cardiac myofiber ECG Cardiac MarkersCardiac Markers
    6. 6. ImmunoassayImmunoassay Antibody BoundAntibody Bound Magnetic particlesMagnetic particles Free hormoneFree hormone Thyroids, Steroids, Peptides - hormones
    7. 7. Tumour MarkersTumour Markers Myeloma screening and monitoring Monoclonal Bands
    8. 8. HaematologyHaematology Red cells, White cells Blood Transfusion
    9. 9. What’s good about thisWhat’s good about this profession?profession?  The Science!The Science! - A chance to put knowledge in to practiceA chance to put knowledge in to practice - Carry out real “hands on” procedures.Carry out real “hands on” procedures. - Can apply the results to clinical findingsCan apply the results to clinical findings and enhance patient care.and enhance patient care.  The TeamThe Team -The lab is a dynamic social environment,-The lab is a dynamic social environment, (its actually quite good fun!)(its actually quite good fun!)
    10. 10. TeamworkTeamwork
    11. 11. What’s not so good?What’s not so good?  StaffingStaffing - Laboratory is very poorly staffed, particularlyLaboratory is very poorly staffed, particularly in light of an ever increasing work light of an ever increasing work load. - Consequently, not much time for selfConsequently, not much time for self development or researching newdevelopment or researching new techniques/methods.techniques/methods. - Training, is more difficult in theseTraining, is more difficult in these circumstances.circumstances.
    12. 12. Patient ContactPatient Contact Sweat Testing Diabetic Clinics Point of Care Testing
    13. 13. The FutureThe Future  Where do I want to go with my career?Where do I want to go with my career?  Do an MSc in Clinical Chemistry,Do an MSc in Clinical Chemistry, hopefully leading to a Senior posthopefully leading to a Senior post  New development in the professionNew development in the profession mean Biomedical Scientists can achievemean Biomedical Scientists can achieve consultant status - attractive to thoseconsultant status - attractive to those who want to avoid managementwho want to avoid management positions.positions.