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  2. 2. AGENDA 1. Minutes from September 2007 meeting 2. Additional Points 3. Vital Actions vs Checks –list 4. Main Topic – Human Performance 5. Aircraft Technical – C 152 Ignition System 6. E Learning Ground Training
  3. 3. MINUTES FROM 04 SEPT 2007 MEETING 1. Occurrence Report Feedback 2. Loss of Control 3. Aircraft Technical
  4. 4. VITAL ACTION/CHECKS LIST FORMAT The majority opinion is that the “flip type” format for the VA/Checklist is the most user friendly. There are two types –  Side Tab  Bottom reference
  6. 6. NOTES ON CHECKLIST No two checklists are the same! Proposal : Take VFS checklist and compare to original Cessna checklist to get final checklist
  8. 8. DEFINITIONS Human Performance and Limitations. Recognising and understanding the Physiological effects of flying on the human body and therefore be able to compensate for these effects in the interests of safe flight
  9. 9.  Atmospheriology  The Circulatory System  The Respiratory System  The Effects of Partial Pressure  Sensory Organs – The Eyes  Visual Illusions  Sensory Organs – The Ears  Vestibular Disorientation BASIC PHYSIOLOGY
  10. 10. Composition of the atmosphere. Composition by Volume Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Argon 0,93% Carbon Dioxide 0,03% ATMOSPHERIOLOGY
  11. 11. The circulatory system moves blood around the body transporting oxygen and nutrients to cells and removing waste products. The two most important components are :  The heart.  Circulatory System THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  12. 12. THE HEART
  13. 13. Veins & Arteries. Arteries carry blood from the heart to the body and veins return blood to the heart from the body. Blood. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which binds oxygen in the lungs and carries it to body tissues where it is essential for efficient bodily function. Blood Pressure. Correct blood pressure is essential to ensure efficient blood flow and hence oxygen delivery especially to the brain and eyes, two vital organs for safe flight. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  15. 15. The breathing process introduces oxygen to the body and expels carbon dioxide. The primary part of the respiratory system is the lungs. Two lungs are housed in the chest cavity with a muscular diaphragm beneath them which facilitates contraction and expansion of the lungs. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  16. 16. BREATHING Inhaling Exhaling Diaphragm Down Diaphragm Up InhalingInhaling
  17. 17. Breathing is automatically controlled by the central nervous system. However breathing can be influenced by :  Psychological factors such as fear, excitement, nervousness, etc.  Substances such as aspirin and alcohol cause an increase in breathing rate. Morphine and valium suppress the breathing rate. CONTROL OF RESPIRATION
  18. 18. Sinuses are air filled bone cavities in the facial skull. They are of extreme importance to pilots and passengers because blocked sinuses lead to barotrauma and extreme pain. SINUSES
  19. 19. THE EFFECTS OF PARTIAL PRESSURE BAROTRAUMA Gasses trapped in any body cavity, such as in blocked sinuses, will tend to expand with an increase in altitude. The expansion will cause an increase in pressure causing discomfort and even possible severe pain known as barotrauma.
  20. 20. A pilot should never fly or dive with a head cold as this could result in a ruptured eardrum or severe barotrauma. Decongestant drugs are NOT compatible with flying. DO NOT administer self medication – consult an aviation medical practitioner. BAROTRAUMA
  21. 21. Hypoxia is the condition where the oxygen level in the tissue is less than normal. Anoxia is the condition where there is a total absence of oxygen. These conditions can obviously not be tolerated in flying as optimal oxygen supply to the tissue is essential for effective operation of the body – especially vital organs such as the eyes and brain. HYPOXIA
  22. 22. HYPOXIA - SUMMARY Symptoms :  Involuntary increased breathing rate and yawning.  Dull headache.  Tiredness and sleepiness.  “Blueness” of lips and fingers. Effects on Vision:  At night vision adversely affected from 5000’ upwards.  Peripheral vision adversely affected.  Colour and depth perception vision adversely affected from 10 000’ upwards.
  23. 23. HYPOXIA - SUMMARY Effects on Brain Function :  Feeling of apprehension.  Personality Changes : • “Don’t care” attitude. • Euphoria – “Don’t worry – Be happy!” • Unwarranted irritability.  Loss of judgement.  Lack of co-ordination/clumsiness.  Loss of short term memory.  Difficulty in carrying out routine tasks.  Light-headedness and dizziness followed by confusion.
  24. 24. HYPOXIA – TIME OF USEFULL CONSCIOUSNESS ALTITUDE SITTING QUIETLY MODERATE ACTIVITY 40 000’ 30 secs 18 secs 35 000’ 45 secs 30 secs 30 000’ 75 secs 45 secs 25 000’ 3 min 2 min 22 000’ 10 min 5 min 20 000’ 12 min 6 min NB! As a general rule DO NOT fly above 10 000’ during the day and 5000” at night without oxygen.
  25. 25. HYPERVENTILATION Hyperventilation simply means over breathing, or breathing at a rate in excess of that required to remove carbon dioxide.