VIRGINIA FLIGHT SCHOOL
30 OCTOBER 2007
1. Minutes from September 2007 meeting
2. Additional Points
3. Vital Actions vs Checks –list
4. Main Topic – Human Performance
5. Aircraft Technical – C 152 Ignition System
6. E Learning Ground Training
MINUTES FROM 04 SEPT 2007 MEETING
1. Occurrence Report Feedback
2. Loss of Control
3. Aircraft Technical
VITAL ACTION/CHECKS LIST FORMAT
The majority opinion is that the “flip type”
format for the VA/Checklist is the most user
There are two types –
Human Performance and Limitations.
Recognising and understanding the
Physiological effects of flying on the human
body and therefore be able to compensate
for these effects in the interests of safe flight
The Circulatory System
The Respiratory System
The Effects of Partial Pressure
Sensory Organs – The Eyes
Sensory Organs – The Ears
Composition of the atmosphere.
Composition by Volume
Carbon Dioxide 0,03%
The circulatory system moves blood around
the body transporting oxygen and nutrients
to cells and removing waste products.
The two most important components
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Veins & Arteries. Arteries carry blood from the heart to
the body and veins return blood to the heart from the body.
Blood. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which binds
oxygen in the lungs and carries it to body tissues where it
is essential for efficient bodily function.
Blood Pressure. Correct blood pressure is essential to
ensure efficient blood flow and hence oxygen delivery
especially to the brain and eyes, two vital organs for
The breathing process introduces oxygen to the body and
expels carbon dioxide. The primary part of the
respiratory system is the lungs.
Two lungs are housed in the chest cavity with a muscular
diaphragm beneath them which facilitates contraction and
expansion of the lungs.
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Diaphragm Down Diaphragm Up
Breathing is automatically controlled by the central
nervous system. However breathing can be influenced
Psychological factors such as fear, excitement,
Substances such as aspirin and alcohol cause an increase
in breathing rate. Morphine and valium suppress the
CONTROL OF RESPIRATION
Sinuses are air filled bone cavities in the facial skull.
They are of extreme importance to pilots and
passengers because blocked sinuses lead to barotrauma
and extreme pain.
THE EFFECTS OF PARTIAL PRESSURE
Gasses trapped in any body cavity, such as in
blocked sinuses, will tend to expand with an
increase in altitude.
The expansion will cause an increase in
pressure causing discomfort and even possible
severe pain known as barotrauma.
A pilot should never fly or dive with a head
cold as this could result in a ruptured
eardrum or severe barotrauma.
Decongestant drugs are NOT compatible with
flying. DO NOT administer self medication –
consult an aviation medical practitioner.
Hypoxia is the condition where the oxygen level
in the tissue is less than normal. Anoxia is the
condition where there is a total absence of
These conditions can obviously not be tolerated
in flying as optimal oxygen supply to the tissue
is essential for effective operation of the body –
especially vital organs such as the eyes and
HYPOXIA - SUMMARY
Involuntary increased breathing rate and yawning.
Tiredness and sleepiness.
“Blueness” of lips and fingers.
Effects on Vision:
At night vision adversely affected from 5000’ upwards.
Peripheral vision adversely affected.
Colour and depth perception vision adversely affected
from 10 000’ upwards.
HYPOXIA - SUMMARY
Effects on Brain Function :
Feeling of apprehension.
Personality Changes :
• “Don’t care” attitude.
• Euphoria – “Don’t worry – Be happy!”
• Unwarranted irritability.
Loss of judgement.
Lack of co-ordination/clumsiness.
Loss of short term memory.
Difficulty in carrying out routine tasks.
Light-headedness and dizziness followed by
HYPOXIA – TIME OF USEFULL CONSCIOUSNESS
ALTITUDE SITTING QUIETLY MODERATE ACTIVITY
40 000’ 30 secs 18 secs
35 000’ 45 secs 30 secs
30 000’ 75 secs 45 secs
25 000’ 3 min 2 min
22 000’ 10 min 5 min
20 000’ 12 min 6 min
NB! As a general rule DO NOT fly above 10 000’ during the
day and 5000” at night without oxygen.
Hyperventilation simply means over
breathing, or breathing at a rate in excess
of that required to remove carbon dioxide.