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Personal perspective:
an HIV-positive family
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDFiAfJC848
Introduction
• This module uses an inquiry-based approach using
video, mathematical modeling, world mapping, and
bioinform...
• A mathematical model will enable them to
compute the intensity of the HIV-AIDS epidemic,
calculate the half-life of dise...
What we need to know?
Potential students questions
• Effectiveness
• Resistance
• Demographics
• Difference
between HIV/AI...
HIV through maps
ucatlas.ucsc.edu
HIV infected people versus income
around the world
http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/04.whostat2005map_hivprevalence.jpg
This map summarizes the global distribution
of HIV-1 strains in 2003
www.pbs.org/.../frontline/aids/atlas/clade.html
Deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2002
http://www.worldmapper.org/display_extra.php?selected=374#
http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map227_ver5.pdf
http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map226_ver5.pdf
http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map225_ver5.pdf
Deaths by STDs Excluding HIV
a Syphilis, Map 375, (87% of deaths).
b Chlamydia, Map 376, (5% of deaths).
c Gonorrhoea, Map...
Module Activities
Sequence Data Set
Protein
Nucleic
Acids
Markham
Sequences
1998
Data Analysis
Alignments Structures
Trees Distance matrices
Sequences
Mathematical
Modeling
Sequence analysis
Sequence
Biology
Workbench
PDB
Consurf
Swiss
Viewer
General Information on HIV
Biology
HIV Infection and AIDS
• An often asymptomatic infection caused
by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV).
• AIDS is the a...
AIDS Definition (CDC)
• HIV+ and a CD4 count of 200/mm3 or less*
• At least one out of 26 defined opportunistic infections...
HIV Transmission
• Sexual transmission
– Through the mucosal membranes: vagina, vulva, urethra,
rectum and mouth.
• Blood ...
HIV is not transmitted through…
• casual contact
• shearing silverware,
towels or clothing.
• saliva
• sweat
• tears
• swi...
• T-helper Lymphocytes (CD4 cells)
are essential for the proper
function of the immune system
helping in antibody producti...
HIV infection depends on the recognition of
surface molecules on the CD4 cell.
• The first step in HIV infection is
the bi...
Resources
• Gap minder
– http://www.gapminder.org/videos/ted-talk-2009-
hans-rosling-hiv-facts/
• Information related to H...
Resources
• Clustal W shape/motif/
• ConSurf http://consurf.tau.ac.il/
• CD4/gp120 3D-model prediction
• Work Bench http:/...
Resources
• Markham RB, Wang WC, Weisstein AE, Wang Z, Munoz A, Templeton A,
Margolick J, Vlahov D, Quinn T, Farzadegan H,...
HIV AIDS MATH BIO.pptx - Slide 1
HIV AIDS MATH BIO.pptx - Slide 1
HIV AIDS MATH BIO.pptx - Slide 1
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HIV AIDS MATH BIO.pptx - Slide 1

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HIV AIDS MATH BIO.pptx - Slide 1

  1. 1. Personal perspective: an HIV-positive family http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDFiAfJC848
  2. 2. Introduction • This module uses an inquiry-based approach using video, mathematical modeling, world mapping, and bioinformatics to follow the progression and understanding of HIV-AIDS. • The problem is designed for undergraduate students in the life sciences and mathematics. • Using global health cases, visualization data, and mathematical models, students working collaboratively will share what they know about HIV-AIDS.
  3. 3. • A mathematical model will enable them to compute the intensity of the HIV-AIDS epidemic, calculate the half-life of disease progression, and measure the effects of interventions. • Based on Markham data (as referenced by Sam Donovan), students will be able to design questions to correlate, classify, and compare CD4 counts and various HIV clones as well as build phylogenetic trees. Introduction (cont.)
  4. 4. What we need to know? Potential students questions • Effectiveness • Resistance • Demographics • Difference between HIV/AIDS • What kind of virus is HIV? •Education •Transmission •Vaccines Prevention What is HIV? Treatment Cost
  5. 5. HIV through maps ucatlas.ucsc.edu
  6. 6. HIV infected people versus income around the world
  7. 7. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/04.whostat2005map_hivprevalence.jpg
  8. 8. This map summarizes the global distribution of HIV-1 strains in 2003 www.pbs.org/.../frontline/aids/atlas/clade.html
  9. 9. Deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2002 http://www.worldmapper.org/display_extra.php?selected=374#
  10. 10. http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map227_ver5.pdf
  11. 11. http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map226_ver5.pdf
  12. 12. http://www.worldmapper.org/posters/worldmapper_map225_ver5.pdf
  13. 13. Deaths by STDs Excluding HIV a Syphilis, Map 375, (87% of deaths). b Chlamydia, Map 376, (5% of deaths). c Gonorrhoea, Map 377, (1% of deaths). d Other STDs, no map, (7% of deaths). http://www.worldmapper.org/display_extra.php?selected=375
  14. 14. Module Activities
  15. 15. Sequence Data Set Protein Nucleic Acids Markham Sequences 1998
  16. 16. Data Analysis Alignments Structures Trees Distance matrices Sequences Mathematical Modeling
  17. 17. Sequence analysis Sequence Biology Workbench PDB Consurf Swiss Viewer
  18. 18. General Information on HIV Biology
  19. 19. HIV Infection and AIDS • An often asymptomatic infection caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). • AIDS is the advanced state of the disease characterized by a series of opportunistic infections occurring due to an immunosupressed state.
  20. 20. AIDS Definition (CDC) • HIV+ and a CD4 count of 200/mm3 or less* • At least one out of 26 defined opportunistic infections such as: – Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCP) – Kaposi’s Sarcoma – Systemic Candidiasis * For people 13 year of age or older
  21. 21. HIV Transmission • Sexual transmission – Through the mucosal membranes: vagina, vulva, urethra, rectum and mouth. • Blood or blood products – Diminished risk by blood transfusions. • Syringes – Intravenous drug users. • Vertical transmission from mother to child – Depends on the delivery method.
  22. 22. HIV is not transmitted through… • casual contact • shearing silverware, towels or clothing. • saliva • sweat • tears • swiming pools • telephones • toilets • door knobs • insect bites
  23. 23. • T-helper Lymphocytes (CD4 cells) are essential for the proper function of the immune system helping in antibody production against infectious agents. • The HIV virus targets CD4 lymphocytes destroying them as the newly made viruses exit the cell. • As the amount of virus (viral load) increases in a subject, the number of viable CD4 cells (CD4 count) decreases. The HIV virus infects and destroys CD4 cells
  24. 24. HIV infection depends on the recognition of surface molecules on the CD4 cell. • The first step in HIV infection is the binding of the CD4 molecule in the lymphocyte surface with the viral receptor protein GP120. • The HIV-CD4 complex then binds the CCR5 molecule that serves as a co-receptor for HIV infection. •The viral GP120 binds to the co- receptor through a specific protein domain known as the V3 loop. •Differences in the viral DNA gene sequence encoding the V3 loop may affect viral recognition of the target cell. • Differences in the viral DNA sequence accounts for different strains of the HIV virus. An infected individual often has several viral strains.
  25. 25. Resources • Gap minder – http://www.gapminder.org/videos/ted-talk-2009- hans-rosling-hiv-facts/ • Information related to HIV statistics around the world • World mapper – http://www.worldmapper.org/ • NCBI – http://www.nlm.nih.gov
  26. 26. Resources • Clustal W shape/motif/ • ConSurf http://consurf.tau.ac.il/ • CD4/gp120 3D-model prediction • Work Bench http://seqtool.sdsc.edu/ • NCBI BLAST http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov • Mathematica http://wolfram.com.
  27. 27. Resources • Markham RB, Wang WC, Weisstein AE, Wang Z, Munoz A, Templeton A, Margolick J, Vlahov D, Quinn T, Farzadegan H, Yu X-F. 1998. Patterns of HIV-1 evolution in individuals with differing rates of CD4 T cell decline. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 12568-12573. The original paper presenting and analyzing the data on which this problem space is based. • Burks J, Ward L, Hota S, Gunasekaran G. Mathematical Modeling of HIV/AIDS Epidemic; In Press for publication in NCUR Proceedings • AVERT: AVERTing HIV and AIDS: http://www.avert.org • Kuby Immunology, 6th Ed. 2007 W.H. Freeman and Co. • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/DAIDs/dtpdb/graphics/cellbin.gif

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