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Haematology 1 - Slide 1


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Haematology 1 - Slide 1

  1. 1. BIO2203BIO2203 HAEMATOLOGYHAEMATOLOGY 1.1. Nicki LawsNicki Laws
  2. 2. COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969 WARNING This material has been copied and communicated to you by or on behalf of The University of Southern Queensland pursuant to Part VA of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice.
  3. 3. ObjectivesObjectives describe the composition & general characteristics ofdescribe the composition & general characteristics of blood (Chapt 18.1)blood (Chapt 18.1) describe erythrocytes & their life cycle (p669)describe erythrocytes & their life cycle (p669) Understand blood gas transport (Respiratory lecturesUnderstand blood gas transport (Respiratory lectures and p670)and p670) explain the anaemias & polycythemiaexplain the anaemias & polycythemia discuss the blood groups (p674)discuss the blood groups (p674)
  4. 4. Blood CharacteristicsBlood Characteristics 8% body weight (5.5L men)8% body weight (5.5L men) Connective tissueConnective tissue pH 7.4 (7.35-7.45)pH 7.4 (7.35-7.45) Plasma: 90% water, solutesPlasma: 90% water, solutes Formed elements: erythrocytes,Formed elements: erythrocytes, leukocytes, plateletsleukocytes, platelets
  5. 5. PlasmaPlasma Water (90%)Water (90%) Proteins: albumin, globulins, fibrinogenProteins: albumin, globulins, fibrinogen Waste products: urea and lactic acidWaste products: urea and lactic acid Nutrients : glucose, lipids, aasNutrients : glucose, lipids, aas ElectrolytesElectrolytes Respiratory gasesRespiratory gases
  6. 6. Germann & Stanfield 16.1
  7. 7. HaematopoiesisHaematopoiesis Bone marrowBone marrow Derived from type of stem cellDerived from type of stem cell – Pleuripotential haematopoietic stem cellPleuripotential haematopoietic stem cell Controlled by cytokines / hormonesControlled by cytokines / hormones – Colony stimulating factors for leukopoiesisColony stimulating factors for leukopoiesis – Thrombopoietin for thrombopoiesis (platelets)Thrombopoietin for thrombopoiesis (platelets) – Erythropoietin for erythropoiesisErythropoietin for erythropoiesis
  8. 8. ErythrocytesErythrocytes 7-87-8 µµm diameterm diameter 5 000 000/5 000 000/µµll Biconcave discs,Biconcave discs, flattened inflattened in centrecentre DeformableDeformable No nucleus orNo nucleus or organellesorganelles Fig 18.2 Marieb, Fig 17.2
  9. 9. Haemoglobin (Hb)Haemoglobin (Hb) Globin, haemeGlobin, haeme contains ironcontains iron 1 O1 O22 binds to 1binds to 1 haemehaeme Approx 280 000 000Approx 280 000 000 molecules Hb /molecules Hb / erythrocyteerythrocyte Germann & Stanfield Fig 16.3
  10. 10. Hb combinationsHb combinations OO22 on haemeon haeme – Oxyhaemoglobin (Hb.[OOxyhaemoglobin (Hb.[O22]]44)) Reduced HbReduced Hb – Deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb)Deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) COCO22 on globinon globin – Carbaminohaemoglobin (HbCOCarbaminohaemoglobin (HbCO22)) Acidic HAcidic H++ from COfrom CO22 Nitric oxide (vasodilator )Nitric oxide (vasodilator ) CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3 _ carbonic acid
  11. 11. ErythropoiesisErythropoiesis Pluripotent heamatopoietic stem cell Committed proerythroblast Ribosome synthesis Hb synthesis Ejection of nucleus Reticulocyte Erythrocyte Normal 1-2% of RBC Indicates rate of RBC production
  12. 12. EPO Control of ErythropoiesisEPO Control of Erythropoiesis Sherwood 2001, Fig 11.4
  13. 13. Dietary Needs for ErythropoiesisDietary Needs for Erythropoiesis Protein, fats, carbohydratesProtein, fats, carbohydrates IronIron – For Hb synthesisFor Hb synthesis – Transported to liver bound to transferrinTransported to liver bound to transferrin – Excess stored in liver as ferritinExcess stored in liver as ferritin Vitamin BVitamin B1212 Folic acidFolic acid DNA SYNTHESIS
  14. 14. Erythrocyte agingErythrocyte aging Lose deformability, survive 120 daysLose deformability, survive 120 days Old are removed by spleenOld are removed by spleen HaemeHaeme – Iron to liver, recycled to bloodstream for use in newIron to liver, recycled to bloodstream for use in new RBCRBC – Bilirubin to liver, secreted into intestine in bile andBilirubin to liver, secreted into intestine in bile and excreted through faecesexcreted through faeces GlobinGlobin – Amino acids recycled to bloodstreamAmino acids recycled to bloodstream
  15. 15. Marieb Fig 17.7
  16. 16. AnaemiasAnaemias Low OLow O22 carrying capacitycarrying capacity CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION NutritionalNutritional AplasticAplastic RenalRenal HaemorrhagicHaemorrhagic HaemolyticHaemolytic
  17. 17. PolycythemiaPolycythemia Excess erythrocytesExcess erythrocytes Primary: polycythemia veraPrimary: polycythemia vera Secondary: physiological polycythemiaSecondary: physiological polycythemia
  18. 18. Blood GroupsBlood Groups Erythrocytes have surface antigensErythrocytes have surface antigens Develop antibodies to destroy foreignDevelop antibodies to destroy foreign antigensantigens – Agglutination: block small blood vesselsAgglutination: block small blood vessels – Haemolysis of foreign erythrocytes:Haemolysis of foreign erythrocytes: release of Hb & kidney failurerelease of Hb & kidney failure Blood groups Jenkins Fig 18.7
  19. 19. Blood groupsBlood groups ABO: based on type A & B antigensABO: based on type A & B antigens – AB - type A & B antigens (& neither antibody)AB - type A & B antigens (& neither antibody) – B - type B antigen (& anti-A antibodies)B - type B antigen (& anti-A antibodies) – A - type A antigen (& anti-B antibodies)A - type A antigen (& anti-B antibodies) – O - neither antigen (& both antibodies)O - neither antigen (& both antibodies) Rhesus (Rh) factor: based on presence or absence of Rh factorRhesus (Rh) factor: based on presence or absence of Rh factor – Rh-positive or Rh-negativeRh-positive or Rh-negative