Chromium, Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Selenium and Iron levels and ...
OGUNBILEJE J.O1, FOLARIN B.O2, RAHAMON S.K1, NWOBI N.L1,OYELAKINT.A 3
and AKINOSUN O.M 1
1Chemical pathology and Immunology department ,University of Ibadan
2+3 Haematology and Orthorpaedic department , Federal medical centre, Abeokuta
A presentation @ the 2nd annual Scientific conference in Health researches in
Nigeria, Lagos. 14th -16th , December,2009
It has recently been reported that
workers in cement factory are exposed
to some trace metals in excess of the
general population and these have been
implicated in diseases incidence in
cement factory workers (ATSDR, 2000,
Isikli et al, 2005, Abimbola et al, 2006
Gbadebo and Bankole, 2007).
Of all the trace elements only ten are
considered to be essential for the proper
functioning of the human body (Xiu, 1999). A
dietary deficiency of any of these elements
poses health problems, while an excess of
any of these elements may lead to toxicity
and associated health problem, thus, the
need to control the rate of exposure to trace
The major pollution problem in
cement factory is cement dust
emission into the environment from
various points of the production
process such as the crusher, rotary
kiln, cranes, mills, storage silos and
packaging sections (ILO, 1999).
To determine the serum levels of Chromium,
Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Selenium and Iron
and blood differential leucocyte differential
count ( eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte
and basophils of cement factory workers
working in different sections of cement
Forty-five (45) males for the study were selected among
the workers of LAFARGE cement factory situated in
Ogun State, Nigeria. Personnel working at the
crusher, milling, and packing sections were selected
after filling informed consent form.They were
grouped according there sections; group 1(crusher
section (13)), group 2 (milling section (19)) and group 3
(packing section (13)) with a mean years of exposure
of 11.6years, 5.3years and 4.8years respectively.
The blood and sera of the subjects were collected for
the analysis of the leucocytes differential and trace
metals levels respectively. Smokers and chronically ill
patients are exempted from the study.
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Buck
Scientific,Germany) and standard manual
method were used for determination of trace
metals and leucocyte differential count
F-test was used to compare the groups
mean±SD using SPSS version 15.0. p<0.05
value was considered significant.
Cement making is inevitably a dusty operation as it is
much concerned with hot dry powder.Various operations
where stone or raw materials are crouched in the cement
factory produce fugitive dust emissions(Jude et al,2002).
The high metal concentration and their attendant health
problem were due to the raw materials used by the
cement factory and from active industrial discharge from
this same factory (Abimbola et al, 2007).
These raw materials are been added at the milling level of
These tend to have adverse effects on various organs and
the immune system (Abimbola et al, 2007 and Ogunbileje
et al, 2009).
Workers in Parking and milling sections of the
factory should be specifically placed on routing
monitoring of exposure rate.
Cr(III) is an essential mineral in human nutrition,
but Cr(VI) which cement workers are exposed to
is toxic .The target organ of inhaled chromium is
the lung but the kidney, liver, skin and immune
system may also be affected (ASTDR,
Ogunbileje et al,2009), thus, workers in the
milling section are more likely to come down
with the toxic effects of trace metals.
Abimbola A.F , Olusegun O., Philips K. , Olatunji A.S.(2007),The SagamuCement factory ,SW
Nigeria :Is the dust generated a potential health hazard?Evironmental Geochemistry and Health
Agency for toxic substances and Disease Registry(ATSDR)(2000).Chromium toxicity and
physiologic effects.Agency for toxic substances and Disease case studies in Enviromental
medicine (CSEM)Web document.
GbadeboA.M, Bankole O.M (2007):Analysis of potentially toxic metals in airborne cement dust
around Sagamu ,Southwestern Nigeria .Journal of Applied Sciences 2007;7(1):35-40.
JudeA.L.C. , Salikala K ., kumar R.A. , Sudha S. , Rachel J.(2002). Haematological and
cytogenetic studies in workers occupationally exposed to cement dust .int.j.Genet,2,(2):95-99.
International LabourOrganisation (ILO), 1999.Encyclopedia of occupational health and safety
.Swithzerland International Labour Organisation ,4;3:44-46.
Ogunbileje J.O, Akinosun O.M, Arinola O.A, Akinduti P.A (2009): Immunoglobulin Classes (IgG , IgA,
IgM and IgE) and Liver FunctionTests in Nigerian Cement FactoryWorkers . (5TH Biennial Scientific
Conference of Association of Clinical Chemists of Nigeria and Inauguration of African Federation of
Clinical Chemistry, 25-28 oct.2009 )
Xiu,Y. M. (1996).Trace elements in health and diseases.Biomedical and Environmental Sciences.
Department ofTrace Element Nutrition. Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, China: Beijing,