Panc Cancer


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Panc Cancer

  1. 1. Pancreatic Cancer: A New Way to Treat the Disease Christie Gwaltney English 302
  2. 2. Pancreatic Cancer <ul><li>“ The American Cancer Society estimates that 42,470 Americans will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during 2009.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Dangers of Pancreatic Cancer <ul><li>only curable when found in its earliest stages, and before the cancer has begun to spread to other organs in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>If the cancer has spread, palliative treatment can improve the patient's quality of life by controlling the symptoms and complications. </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one type of restorative treatment, and that is surgical resection. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Dangers of Pancreatic Cancer, cont’d <ul><li>However, most patients present with advanced stages of this disease are not candidates for surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Even though there are treatments such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, the survival rate is still very slim. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Survival Rates <ul><li>In the local/resectable stage, the median survival rate is 17 months. </li></ul><ul><li>In the local/nonresectable stage, the median survival rate is 8-9 months. </li></ul><ul><li>In the metastatic stage, the median survival rate is only 4-6 months. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chemotherapy <ul><li>Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells, and maybe given by mouth or injection into a muscle or a vein. </li></ul><ul><li>Gemcitabine is a chemotherapy drug often used to treat pancreatic cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been displayed, in many controlled clinical trials, to improve quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Many types of cancer respond well to chemotherapy and are often cured. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hypothesis <ul><li>If chemotherapy works well for other cancers, then it must be effective for pancreatic cancer. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chemotherapy, cont’d <ul><li>Chemotherapy has been used as a treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer for over a decade. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is still ineffective for those suffering with advanced stages of this disease. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chemotherapy, cont’d <ul><li>Unfortunately, there has not been very much progress on the treatment for later stages of pancreatic cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The benefit of single-agent gemcitabine in advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer is small. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding additional chemotherapy agents to gemcitabine has not resulted in significant improvement in survival. </li></ul><ul><li>The randomized trials studying the accumulation of molecular targeting agents to gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone have been insufficient. </li></ul>
  10. 10. New Approach <ul><li>In a recent study, a new approach was reported for pancreatic cancer patients who are in need of chemotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Dave Melisi, an Italian Scientist, has believed for some time that that resistance to chemotherapy has been the greatest challenge in treating pancreatic cancer. So, he put that to test. </li></ul>
  11. 11. New Approach, cont’d <ul><li>Melisi and his collegues began to focus their attention on a distinctive enzyme activated by TGFbeta, called TAK-1. </li></ul><ul><li>Melisi hypothesized that if the TAK-1 enzyme was inhibited, then cancer cells will be more sensitive to treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>The TAK-1 enzyme makes cancer cells sensitive to treatment, and targeting TAK-1 could be a strategy to revert this resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>This would improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. New Approach, cont’d <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Dave Melisi developed a composite competent of inhibiting TAK-1 and tested it both on its own and in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>He also tested it in combination of gemcitabine in mice with pancreatic cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The TAK-1 inhibitor increased the sensitivity of pancreatic cells to the chemotherapeutics researched. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Effects of Inhibiting TAK-1 <ul><li>In comparison with using chemotherapy alone, adding the inhibitor allowed the use of up to 70 times lower doses of the chemotherapeutic drugs to kill the same amount of cancer cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, while gemcitabine therapy alone was unsuccessful in pancreatic cancer-bearing mice, adding the TAK-1 inhibitor moved it up to a 78% reduction in tumor volume and increased median average survival from 82 days to 122 days. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research Design <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>The study proposed will determine whether or not oxalipatin (a chemotherapeutic drug) will be effective once the TAK-1 enzyme is inhibited. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal result: Oxalipatin will be effective and support the proposed hypothesis. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Methods and Procedures: <ul><li>Since mice are used to evaluate the safety of many things, we will use mice to complete the procedure. A fixed number of mice with pancreatic cancer will be used to test the effects of TAK-1 and the chemotherapeutic drug called oxaliplatin. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assessment: <ul><li>The outcome of this experiment will be established by analyzing the results and formulating the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the data is collected, it will be tested against the hypothesis to determine whether or not the expectation of the experiment was correct or incorrect. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Next Steps: <ul><li>With the closing stages of the experiment, a peer reviewed article will be printed and submitted to the American Journal of Nursing and the Cancer Journal for Clinicians. </li></ul><ul><li>The next steps in the project would be to expand and repeat the experiment. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>Problem: Pancreatic cancer is a terminal illness in need of a cute </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: Chemotherapy could be proven effective for pancreatic cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Based on the hypothesis, additional measures will be taken </li></ul>
  19. 19. Citations <ul><li>Michel Vulfovich; Caio Rocha-Lima., (2008) Novel Advances in Pancreatic Cancer:Dietary Fructose Consumption Among US Children and Adults: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy. The Medscape Journal of Medicine .  Vol 8(6):993-1002.  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Pancreatic Cancer.&quot; Pancreatic Cancer . MedicineNet, Inc., 2009. Web. 28 Sept. 2009. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Melisi, David. Inhibiting TAK-1 Renders Pancreatic Cancer Susceptible to Chemotherapy . 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. <Inhibiting TAK-1 Renders Pancreatic Cancer Susceptible to Chemotherapy. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. .>. </li></ul><ul><li>ECCO-the European Cancer Organization (2009, September 25). Pancreatic Cancer: Researchers Find Drug That Reverses </li></ul><ul><li>Chemo Fails to Treat Pancreatic Cancer . Natural News . David Gutierrez, 31 Aug. 2009. Web. </li></ul>