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openHPI Exkurs: DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

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openHPI Exkurs: DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

  1. 1. DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol1 Automatisch Konfiguration der Netzwerk-Einstellungen ■ DHCP ist ein Protokoll der Anwendungsschicht und erlaubt □ automatische Zuweisung von IP-Adressen in lokalen Netzwerken □ zentrale Bereitstellung von Netzwerk- Konfigurationsinformationen ■ DHCP ist Erweiterung des Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) ■ DHCP wurde erstmals standardisiert im RFC 1531 (aus dem Jahr 1993), zuletzt vollständig überarbeitet in RFC 2131 (März 1997) ■ DHCP kommt bspw. zum Einsatz, wenn in der Netzwerk- Konfiguration „IP-Adresse automatisch beziehen“ (Windows) eingestellt ist Exkurs: DHCP | openHPI Online-Kurs „Internetworking“ | Christian Willems
  2. 2. DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol2 Ablauf der DHCP Kommunikation (vereinfacht) 1. Client (Gerät) wird gestartet, hat keine statische IP-Adresse 2. Client sendet DHCPDISCOVER Nachricht als Broadcast in lokales Netz um DHCP-Server zu finden 3. DHCP-Server (können mehrere sein) antworten mit DHCPOFFER, bieten eine IP-Adresse an 4. Client wählt DHCP-Server aus und sendet an diesen einen DHCPREQUEST (Bitte um Zuweisung der angebotenen IP-Adresse) 5. DHCP-Server antwortet mit DHCPACK, bestätigt Zuweisung 6. Optional (bei  dynamischer Vergabe): □ Falls zugeordnete IP-Adresse ein Verfallsdatum hat, gibt Client IP-Adresse nach Frist wieder frei (DHCPRELEASE) … □ … oder bittet um Verlängerung der Zuweisung Exkurs: DHCP | openHPI Online-Kurs „Internetworking“ | Christian Willems
  3. 3. DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol3 Bereitstellung von IP-Adressen ■ ... ist die grundlegende Aufgabe von DHCP ■ erfolgt entweder □ manuell: Administrator ordnet bestimmte IP-Adresse einem Gerät zu (identifiziert durch MAC-Adresse). Bei Eingang eine Anfrage von einer dieser MAC-Adressen bietet DHCP-Server die dazu passende IP-Adresse an □ automatisch: DHCP-Server vergibt IP-Adressen aus von Administrator festgelegten IP-Adresspool dauerhaft an Geräte (und merkt sich diese Zuordnung) □ dynamisch: DHCP-Server vergibt (wieder automatisch) IP- Adressen, allerdings nur für einen begrenzten Zeitraum. Diese befristete Zuordnung nennt man DHCP-Lease Exkurs: DHCP | openHPI Online-Kurs „Internetworking“ | Christian Willems
  4. 4. DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol4 Gründe für den Einsatz von DHCP ■ Automatisierung: Nutzer müssen Netzwerk nicht selbst konfigurieren ■ Zentralisierung: IP-Adressen eines Netzwerks können zentral verwaltet werden, Administratoren haben Überblick über genutzte IP-Adressen ■ Wiederverwendung und gemeinsame Nutzung: durch Begrenzung der Nutzungszeit haben nur gerade aktive Geräte eine IP-Adresse  es können mehr Geräte im Netz betrieben werden, als IP-Adressen vorhanden sind ■ Konfliktvermeidung: durch zentrale Vergabe kann (bei konsequenter Nutzung) Mehrfachvergabe (und dadurch entstehende Adresskonflikte) vermieden werden Exkurs: DHCP | openHPI Online-Kurs „Internetworking“ | Christian Willems
  5. 5. DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol5 Informationen für Netzwerk-Konfiguration ■ DHCP ordnet nicht nur IP-Adressen zu, sondern kann alle nötigen Parameter für die Netzwerk-Konfiguration zuweisen, also auch: □ Subnetzmaske für das lokale Netz □ Default-Gateway (i.d.R. Router ins Internet) □ Primärer und sekundärer Nameserver (DNS-Server) □ Proxy-Konfiguration □ Time- und NTP-Server (NTP: Network Time Protocol) ■ DHCP wird bspw. auch von Internet Service Providern eingesetzt, um einem Heim-Router (z.B. Fritzbox) dessen Konfiguration als Teilnehmer des Provider-Netzwerks mitzuteilen ■ Heim-Router fungieren meist als DHCP-Server für das lokale Netz Exkurs: DHCP | openHPI Online-Kurs „Internetworking“ | Christian Willems

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