ASK YOURSELF WHICH ARE THE IMPORTANT KEYWORDS FOR EACH SERCH QUERY
Variations will include plurals, noun form/verb form of your keyword Problem with making a verb a keyword: if it’s general enough, may not work
Broader terms can also help you determine where you may pursue your search, putting it into the context of a larger concept.
Usually used for similar terms, so results will encompass more results that may have varying vocabulary
Not is not always an effective search, in that it can sometimes rid you of some valuable sources, so it should be used judiciously. Can be useful when making distinctions between multiple meanings
These methods allow the searcher to retrieve results with relevant variations of their search terms. Letters are replaced by characters. These are determined by the database or search engine. Use this carefully – it helps to think of all the alternate words you would want to come up with, and think of these when truncating, so you don’t truncate too much Some databases have their own “stemming” feature where they look for word variations for you.
Provides context for your search Otherwise, search engines/databases may pull up these words separate, as well as together, giving you some false hits/useless results Esp. phrase quotes with very common words, such as example, can pull up many results that are inaccurate
You want your ANDS to be with the main concepts, and the ORS to be with the various keywords
Copy into academic search premier
Keyword and boolean
Planning Your Search Strategy:Keywords, Synonyms, and Search Tools
Keywords Using your research question, find the important terms. Should hate speech on the internet be protected by the First Amendment?
KeywordsShould hate speech on the internet be protected by the First Amendment?
SynonymsDetermine variations of your keywords and similar terms for your search query.Should hate speech on the internet be protected by the First Amendment?Defamation PreventionHate Crime RegulateWeb ConstitutionOnline Freedom of Speech
Broader and Narrower TermsAs your search progresses, you may need to change your query to get more or fewer results. Broader and narrower terms can be useful for this purpose. Should hate speech on the internet be protected by the First Amendment? Broader Terms: Libel, slander, civil rights, freedom of expression Narrower Terms: Racism, homophobia, xenophobia
Boolean LogicA method of searching, utilized by catalogs, databases, and online search tools, that allow searchers precision in their research. AND OR NOT
Boolean Logic: AND Narrows your women search query = Fewer results Islam
Boolean Logic: OR Expands your college search query = More results university
Boolean Logic: NOT Narrows your search query = Java Fewer results Indonesia
TruncationShortens a word to find various spellings, word endings religio* = religion, religions, religious, religiously AVOID OVER-TRUNCATION:Ag* = agriculture, agricultural, aggravate…
Quotation MarksUsed when searching proper names or phrases, keeps all search terms together. “John Edwards” “weapons of mass destruction”“The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
NestingUsing parentheses to organize a complex search query which would include multiple keywords, Boolean and other search tools. (Richard OR Dick) Cheney “identity theft” AND (web OR internet)“civil war” NOT (america? OR United States)
Using Keywords, Boolean,Truncation & Nesting What is the relationship between teen drug use and delinquency?TEEN DRUG USE DELINQUENCYTeen* Drug* Delinquen*Adolescen* Marijuana Crim*Youth Meth* Felon*High School* “Prescription Drug*”
Using Keywords, Boolean,Truncation & Nesting What is the relationship between teen drug use and delinquency?(teen* OR adolescen* OR youth OR “high school*”) AND (drug* OR marijuana OR meth* OR “prescription drug*”) AND (delinquen* OR crim* or felon*)