1340806241 tiempodedesaturacion


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1340806241 tiempodedesaturacion

  1. 1. Comparison of time to desaturation between preoxygenated and nonpreoxygenated dogs following sedation with acepromazine maleate and morphine and induction of anesthesia with propofol Erin M. McNally, DVM; Sheilah A. Robertson, BVMS, PhD; Luisito S. Pablo, DVM, MS Objective—To compare the time to desaturation in healthy dogs that breathed oxygen or room air for 3 minutes before induction of anesthesia. Animals—20 healthy dogs. Procedures—Dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine maleate. Dogs re- ceived a 3-minute treatment of room air or oxygen (100 mL/kg/min) via face mask. Arterial blood samples were collected before and after treatment to determine Paco2, Pao2, pH, and Sao2; propofol (6 mg/kg, IV) was injected during a 7-second period, and the dogs were intubated. A lingual pulse oximeter probe was placed. Dogs remained disconnected from the breathing circuit until Spo2 equaled 90% (desaturation point) and then connected and ventilated until the Spo2 was ≥ 97%. Arterial blood samples were collected and Spo2 was recorded every 30 seconds for 4 minutes and then every minute until the desaturation point. Times to first breath and the desaturation point were recorded. Data were collected at 0, 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 seconds. Results—Mean ± SEM time to desaturation differed significantly between dogs treated with room air (69.6 ± 10.6 seconds) and oxygen (297 ± 42.0 seconds). Lowest mean .8 Pao2 and Sao2 when dogs were breathing room air were 62 ± 6.3 mm Hg and 82.3 ± 4%, respectively, at 30 seconds. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoxygenation for 3 minutes increased the time to desaturation in healthy dogs sedated with acepromazine and morphine in which anesthesia was induced with propofol. (Am J Vet Res 2009;70:1333–1338) H ypoxemia (Pa o 2 < 60 mm Hg or Sa o 2 < 90%) 1 can develop even in healthy human patients during induction of anesthesia. 2 Causes of hypox- A-a Abbreviations Alveolar to arterial Feo2 Fraction of expired oxygen emia include low inspired oxygen concentration, Fio2 Fraction of inspired oxygen alveolar hypoventilation, diffusion abnormalities, FRC Functional residual capacity ventilation-perfusion mismatch, and shunting. 3 Petco2 End-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide Conditions that predispose a patient to hypoxemia Sao2 Saturation of arterial hemoglobin measured at induction of anesthesia include respiratory de- with a co-oximeter pression, reduced FRC, or reduced cardiopulmo- Spo2 Saturation of arterial hemoglobin measured nary function. 4 Apnea or respiratory obstruction with a pulse oximeter during induction can exacerbate preexisting respi- ratory problems. Delivery of oxygen before induction of anesthesia Received October 18, 2008. (preoxygenation) is routine for anesthesia in humans, Accepted December 22, 2008. especially in certain patient populations, including From the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of obese patients, pregnant patients, and patients with ex- Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Dr. McNally’s present address is School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross pected airway difficulties.5,6 In theory, preoxygenation University, Basseterre, St Kitts, West Indies. replaces alveolar nitrogen with oxygen to achieve an Supported by the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medi- intrapulmonary oxygen reserve.7 Hemoglobin becomes cine Resident Grant Competition. fully saturated, and dissolved oxygen increases. The Presented in abstract form at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Ameri- goal is to increase the interval to onset of hypoxemia. Even can College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists, Phoenix, September partial alveolar denitrogenation will increase the safety 2008. The authors thank Dr. Joe Hauptman for assistance with the statisti- margin in preventing hypoxia at induction of anesthesia.8 cal analysis and Dr. Natalie Isaza and Mark Szarowicz for technical Numerous studies2,9–13 have been conducted in hu- assistance. man medicine to determine the general effectiveness of Address correspondence to Dr. McNally (mcnallye@gmail.com). preoxygenation and the effectiveness of specific meth- AJVR, Vol 70, No. 11, November 2009 133308-10-0341r.indd 1333 10/22/2009 1:20:41 PM
  2. 2. ods of preoxygenation. Methods used have included 1 comfort and seal between the mask and each dog’s face. to 5 minutes of tidal volume breathing or inspiratory Gas samples were collected from the connector end of capacity breaths taken over a certain time period (eg, the face mask and channeled to a patient monitord for 4 breaths in 30 seconds or 8 breaths in 60 seconds). measurement of Petco2, Fio2, and Feo2 during the treat- Although most of these studies have detected a benefit ment. The monitor was calibrated at the beginning and to preoxygenation in guarding against hypoxemia, 1 end of the study by use of a standardized calibration gase study14 performed on critically ill patients revealed only designed for the analyzer. Apparatus dead space was mini- minimal improvement in arterial oxygen tension prior mal, and at no time did the monitor indicate rebreathing to intubation. In other studies, investigators have eval- of carbon dioxide. uated changes in Paco2 with onset of experimentally After the 3-minute treatment, dogs were injected induced apnea and obstruction15 and the formation of with propofol (6 mg/kg), which was administered as a atelectasis at induction of anesthesia,16 which has been rapid IV bolus (50 mg/kg/min) during a 7-second pe- linked to breathing high concentrations of oxygen. riod. Propofol was administered through the cephalic Veterinary medicine has adopted the practice of pre- catheter, and dogs were then intubated with an ap- oxygenation for specific situations, including brachyce- propriately sized, cuffed endotracheal tube. The pulse phalic patients17 and patients undergoing cesarean sec- oximeter was placed on each dog’s tongue as soon as tion.18 However, to the authors’ knowledge, there have possible after induction. Results for the pulse oximeter been no published reports on the outcome of preoxygen- served as the assessment for time to desaturation, with ation in dogs. The optimal time for preoxygenation as well a predetermined end point of Spo2 ≤ 90%. Dogs were as the time until desaturation following preoxygenation not connected to the breathing circuit until the desatu- is unknown. The purpose of the study reported here was ration point was achieved. Another blood sample was to compare the time to desaturation between preoxygen- collected immediately after induction (time = 5 sec- ated and nonpreoxygenated healthy dogs in a controlled onds) and every 30 seconds for 4 minutes, after which setting by use of 3 minutes of tidal volume (spontaneous) blood samples were collected every minute. Once the breathing, which is the most traditional method of preox- desaturation point was achieved, the dogs were con- ygenation in human medicine. In addition, the Pao2, Sao2, nected to the breathing circuit and ventilated with an Paco2, and pH were compared between the 2 groups. oxygen flow rate of 100 mL/kg/min until an Spo2 of 97% was achieved. A final blood sample was collect- Materials and Methods ed at that point; all blood samples were stored on ice and analyzed within 15 minutes after collection. Time Animals—Twenty sexually intact (10 males and 10 to first breath was recorded when applicable. Propofol females) mixed-breed dogs were used in the study. Dogs boluses (0.5 mg/kg, IV) were administered as needed were between 6 months and 3 years of age and weighed during the desaturation period to maintain an adequate (mean ± SEM) 23.0 ± 2.2 kg. All dogs were determined plane of anesthesia, as determined on the basis of lack as healthy on the basis of results of a physical examina- of jaw tone and minimal palpebral reflexes. tion and were scheduled for ovariohysterectomy or cas- tration. No hematologic analysis was performed prior Blood gas analysis—Arterial blood samples were to administration of premedication. The Institutional analyzed for Pao2, Paco2, and pH by use of a blood gas Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of analyzer.f Samples from the final 10 dogs (5 dogs of each Florida approved the experimental protocol. treatment group) were analyzed for lactate content with the same blood gas analyzer. A veterinary co-oximeterg Study design and treatments—Each animal was calibrated for dogs was used to measure hemoglobin premedicated with acepromazine maleate (0.05 mg/kg, and Sao2. The machines were calibrated at the begin- IM) and morphine (0.5 mg/kg, IM). The hair over the ning of each study day. left or right dorsal pedal artery was clipped, and topical Statistical analysis—All data were reported as mean anesthetic creama was applied, which was followed by ± SEM. The errors were distributed normally. Data for application of an occlusive bandage. Thirty minutes af- time to desaturation were analyzed with an unpaired t ter administration of premedication, a 20-gauge, 1.25- test. Because of missing data points after 150 seconds inch catheter was placed in the left or right cephalic for the room air group (all dogs in the room air group vein. A 20- or 22-gauge, 1.25-inch catheter was placed had desaturated by that point), only data from baseline percutaneously in the prepared dorsal pedal artery. A up to 150 seconds were analyzed for Pao2, Paco2, pH, baseline arterial blood sample (1 mL; time 0) was col- lactate concentration, and Sao2. These measurements lected in a heparinized syringeb and placed on ice until were analyzed with unpaired t tests between dogs and analyzed. At the same time, a baseline pulse oximeterc paired t tests within dogs; values for dogs of each group measurement was obtained from the lip or the area be- were compared with baseline values. A Bonferroni t test tween the toes, depending on patient compliance. Dogs was used for these multiple comparisons over time. were randomly assigned by coin toss to 1 of 2 treatment For unpaired t tests, a value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered groups. The room air group (n = 10 dogs) breathed significant, whereas for the Bonferroni t test, a critical room air through a face mask for 3 minutes, whereas value of P = 0.05/6 = 0.008 was used. the preoxygen group (10) received oxygen (100 mL/kg/ min) through a face mask for 3 minutes. Room air and Results oxygen were delivered by use of a standard anesthetic circle system. A transparent, cone-shaped, medium face Mean ± SEM measured Fio2 of preoxygenated dogs mask was modified with memory foam to improve the at the end of treatment was 0.88 ± 0.020. The Fio2 of 1334 AJVR, Vol 70, No. 11, November 200908-10-0341r.indd 1334 10/22/2009 1:20:41 PM
  3. 3. Figure 1—Mean ± SEM values for Pao2 (A), Sao2 (B), Paco2 (C), and pH (D) over time after induction of anesthesia following a 3-minute treatment via face mask with room air (white circles) or 100% oxygen (black squares). Time 0 = Start of the 3-minute treatment (base- line). *Within a time point, values differ significantly (P ≤ 0.05) between the treatments. room air dogs was 0.21 ± 0.002. The Feo2 of preoxygen- plotted (Figure 1). Significant differences between the ated dogs was 0.82 ± 0.020. The Feo2 of room air dogs 2 groups were detected for Pao2 at 5, 30, and 60 sec- was 0.17 ± 0.003. onds. Because of a large variance, there were no signifi- Except for the short-term hypoxemia, no un- cant differences in Pao2 for the room air group at any toward effects were detected at any point during the time, compared with the Pao2 at baseline. The Pao2 of study. All dogs recovered uneventfully after surgery. the room air group increased after the 30-second time Mean ± SEM baseline hemoglobin concentration was point because most of the room air dogs had desatu- 10.5 ± 0.6 g/dL and 10.2 ± 0.4 g/dL for preoxygen- rated and were being ventilated with 100% oxygen at ated and room air dogs, respectively. There were no that point (range, 40 to 140 seconds). The lowest mean significant differences between the 2 groups at base- Pao2 of the room air group was 62 ± 6.3 mm Hg at the line for Pao2, Paco2, Sao2, pH, hemoglobin concentra- 30-second time point. Values for Pao2 increased signifi- tion, or lactate concentration. Total propofol dose for cantly, compared with the baseline value, for the pre- induction was 6 mg/kg for each dog. No dogs reacted oxygenated group at 5, 30, and 60 seconds. Values for to intubation. No dogs in the room air group received Pao2 then had a downward pattern, but no dogs were additional propofol. One dog in the room air group hypoxemic (Pao2 < 60 mm Hg or Sao2 < 90%) during took a breath immediately after induction, whereas the 150-second interval. 3 room air dogs took their first breaths at 10, 64, Significant differences between the 2 groups for and 77 seconds. The remaining 6 room air dogs were Sao2 were detected at 5, 30, 60, and 90 seconds. There apneic. Several dogs in the preoxygenated group re- were no differences in Sao2 in the room air group at ceived additional doses of propofol, but not during any time points, compared with the baseline Sao2. Val- the first 150 seconds. The total additional amount ues for Sao2 increased significantly, compared with the of propofol for the preoxygenated group was not re- baseline value, for the preoxygenated group at 5, 30, corded. All dogs in the preoxygenated group were and 60 seconds. Mean ± SEM Sao2 of room air dogs was apneic immediately after induction, with a range of ≤ 90% at the 30-second time point (actual value, 82.3 ± 67 to 390 seconds for time until the first spontane- 4%), whereas the time to desaturation based on an Spo2 ous breath. ≤ 90% was 70 ± 11 seconds. Time to desaturation differed significantly (P < Significant differences between the 2 groups for 0.001) between the 2 groups. Mean ± SEM time to de- Paco2 were detected at 90, 120, and 150 seconds. Val- saturation based on an Spo2 of ≤ 90% was 288 ± 42.0 ues for Paco2 increased significantly, compared with the seconds (range, 120 to 520 seconds) for the preoxygen- baseline value, for the preoxygenated group at 5, 30, ated group, whereas the mean time to desaturation for 60, 90, and 150 seconds. The Paco2 increased signifi- the room air group was 70 ± 11 seconds (range, 40 to cantly, compared with the baseline value, for the room 140 seconds). Values for Pao2, Sao2, Paco2, and pH were air group at 5, 30, 60, and 120 seconds. AJVR, Vol 70, No. 11, November 2009 133508-10-0341r.indd 1335 10/22/2009 1:20:42 PM
  4. 4. Significant differences between the 2 groups for pH these dogs can be estimated on the basis of the follow- were detected at 30 and 150 seconds. The pH of the ing alveolar gas equation: room air group decreased significantly, compared with the baseline pH, at 5, 30, and 60 seconds. The pH of the Pao2 = ([PB – Ph2o] X Fio2) – (Paco2/R) preoxygenated group decreased significantly, compared with the baseline pH, at 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 where PB is the barometric pressure at sea level (ie, 760 seconds. mm Hg; this study was conducted at sea level), Ph2o is No significant differences were detected between the water vapor pressure at 37°C (ie, 47 mm Hg), and or within groups for lactate or hemoglobin concentra- R is the respiratory exchange ratio, which is assumed tions at any time point. to be 0.9 in dogs.29 The approximate Pao2 of the room air group based on this equation was 100 mm Hg. The Discussion mean measured Pao2 at this time point was 62 ± 7 mm Results of the study reported here indicated that Hg, given an A-a gradient of approximately 38 mm Hg. preoxygenation for 3 minutes prior to induction of an- The typical A-a gradient at an Fio2 of 0.21 during esthesia increased the time to desaturation of hemoglo- conscious, spontaneous breathing is 5 mm Hg.30 This bin in healthy dogs. This finding agrees with findings indicated that the hypoxemia was not attributable to in similar studies2,10,11 conducted on human patients by hypoventilation alone. Typically, the A-a gradient will use of similar methods of preoxygenation. The mean ± increase with right-to-left shunting, low mixed-venous SEM time to desaturation (Spo2 ≤ 90%) in preoxygen- oxygen saturation, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, ated dogs was 297.8 ± 42.0 seconds, whereas the mean or diffusion impairment.30 There is no reason to sug- time to desaturation in dogs that received room air was gest that these healthy dogs had right-to-left shunting 69.6 ± 10.6 seconds. The mean Sao2 of dogs that re- or a low mixed-venous oxygen saturation. Addition- ceived room air was 82.3 ± 4% within 30 seconds. ally, these dogs had Pao2 values within the reference In a physiologic modeling study19 conducted in hu- range prior to induction, which indicated normal gas mans to examine the onset and course of hypoxemia exchange. The most likely explanation is development during apnea after pulmonary denitrogenation, several of a ventilation-perfusion mismatch attributable to re- factors were found to have an impact on time to desatu- duced FRC during induction of anesthesia. ration. Factors that had an effect were increased oxy- The other important variable to consider was Paco2 gen consumption (pyrectic or pregnant patients) and which affects blood pH. In this study, most dogs were reduced FRC. Reduced FRC may be a result of reduced apneic or hypoventilating, as indicated by the increase thoracic compliance, increased intra-abdominal pres- in Paco2 over time in the preoxygenated group. Al- sure, or induction of anesthesia. In 1 study20 in human though not significantly different, preoxygenated dogs patients, investigators found that induction of anesthe- typically had a higher Paco2 than did room air dogs af- sia causes a 50% reduction in FRC. Therefore, we hy- ter induction. Also, preoxygenated dogs typically were pothesize that the rapid onset of hypoxemia in room air more acidotic than were room air dogs, with a signifi- dogs was primarily attributable to reduced FRC from cant difference between groups at 30 seconds. These induction of anesthesia with no intrapulmonary oxy- differences were logical after the 60-second time point gen reserve or increased oxygen dissolved in plasma. when most room air dogs were being ventilated and The cause of reduced FRC as a result of induction of most preoxygenated dogs were not, but even prior to anesthesia is unclear but may involve altered thoracic this point, preoxygenated dogs typically had a higher cage recoil,21 cranial displacement of the diaphragm,22 Paco2 and lower pH. This finding is similar to the find- and redistribution of the intrathoracic blood volume.23 ings of 2 studies15,31 reported in the human literature. Reduction in FRC has been reported with inhalant an- In those studies, although the investigators did not esthetics,24 barbiturates,25 and propofol26 but not when compare preoxygenated and room air groups, the Paco2 ketamine is used as an induction agent.27 of the preoxygenated patients increased faster than ex- In the study reported here, induction of anesthesia pected, as determined on the basis of the contribution was achieved with a rapidly administered bolus of pro- of metabolic carbon dioxide. There was also an increas- pofol, with the end result that most dogs were apneic. ingly positive difference between Paco2 and Pvco2, with This was used to simulate a scenario at induction in- a corresponding decrease in pH.31 These findings were volving an apneic animal in which the intubation and thought to be the result of the Christiansen-Douglas- provision of high concentrations of oxygen are delayed. Haldane effect. Briefly, the Christiansen-Douglas-Hal- In clinical practice, it is recommended that propofol be dane effect states that oxygenated hemoglobin has a injected slowly and to effect. The manufacturers rec- reduced binding capacity for carbon dioxide, compared ommend a rate of 7 mg/kg/min to prevent apnea. In 1 with the binding capacity of deoxygenated hemoglobin. study,28 85% of dogs became apneic when propofol was During the condition of hyperoxic apnea, the Paco2 will injected at a rate of approximately 50 mg/kg/min (ap- not approximate the Pvco2 and will even exceed it. In prox 6 mg/kg during a 7-second period), which was the the study reported here, Pvco2 was not measured, so it rate we used. Therefore, it may be argued that dogs in a is unknown whether this effect was the cause for the clinical setting may be less prone to developing hypox- higher Paco2 values in the preoxygenated dogs. Regard- emia because they are less likely to become apneic dur- less of the mechanism, acidemia of the preoxygenated ing induction. However, the mean Paco2 of the room air dogs was not clinically important during the first 150 group at the 30-second time point was 44.4 ± 2.2 mm Hg. seconds and would have easily been remedied via posi- The alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (ie, Pao2) of tive-pressure ventilation. 1336 AJVR, Vol 70, No. 11, November 200908-10-0341r.indd 1336 10/22/2009 1:20:42 PM
  5. 5. Another possibility for decreased pH that was ex- securely placed until each dog was intubated. Addition- amined in this study was development of lactic acidosis ally, pulse oximeters have an inherent delay in display- from anaerobic metabolism at the tissue level. In the ing a measurement because of signal averaging for each first 10 dogs of this study, the pH of preoxygenated dogs pulse oximeter. The signal averaging time for the pulse was significantly lower than that of the room air dogs at oximeterc used in this study was 6 to 7 seconds.h several time points after induction. This was thought to Reduction in FRC at induction of anesthesia can be attributable to a pattern for an increased Paco2 in the result in airway closure as closing capacity of the lungs preoxygenated dogs, compared with the Paco2 for the is approached.33 This raises an important question re- room air dogs. However, to rule out the possibility of garding the negative aspect of preoxygenation. High lactic acidosis, the lactate concentration was measured concentrations of oxygen will encourage collapse of in the subsequent 10 dogs. No significant differences alveoli with low ventilation-perfusion ratios,33 which were detected in lactate concentration between the 2 leads to atelectasis; however, the incidence of postop- groups. erative complications from development of atelectasis Three minutes of tidal volume breathing appeared is unknown.34 Despite this, preoxygenation with 100% to achieve adequate denitrogenation in the healthy oxygen is still routinely used in anesthesia of humans, dogs used in this study; however, it may not be suf- although it is often followed by ventilation with a lower ficient in patients with pulmonary disease or with a Fio2 in an attempt to stop the progression of atelectasis. reduced FRC. In 1 study,8 the end point for adequate Also, other methods of preoxygenation have been re- preoxygenation was defined as Feo2 of 90%, which cor- searched in human anesthesia patients in an attempt to responds to an alveolar nitrogen concentration of 5% prevent the initial development of atelectasis.17 Use of a (with 5% Petco2). In that study,8 the authors calculated lower Fio2 during preoxygenation may prevent atelecta- that by ensuring an Feo2 of 90% and assuming a value sis formation, but it reduces the margin of safety when within the reference range for human FRC, the oxygen a potentially long period of apnea may develop because store would be approximately 2 to 2.5 L. With a mean of difficulties in airway management. oxygen consumption of 250 to 300 mL/min, this may Patient compliance is an important factor in the provide adequate oxygenation during apnea for up to success of preoxygenation in dogs. Unless adequately 5 minutes. However, in that study with human pa- sedated, some dogs do not tolerate a face mask for pre- tients undergoing routine surgical procedures, 23% oxygenation. If a dog becomes agitated and struggles, of the patients required > 3 minutes for adequate this may actually increase oxygen consumption and preoxygenation, with 4% of the patients requiring further decrease the time to desaturation. Modification > 5 minutes. The investigators in that study attempt- of the face mask with memory foam subjectively made ed to use assessment of patient factors to determine the mask more tolerable to the study dogs. All dogs tol- preoxygenation time. The patient characteristics erated application of the face mask. used included age, sex, weight, and height (all of Preoxygenation can be beneficial in healthy dogs which could be used to calculate FRC), but only a premedicated with acepromazine and morphine and weak correlation was found. They concluded that pa- induced with propofol by increasing the time to de- tients undergoing routine surgical procedures do not saturation, which is useful when a delay in intubation follow the expected patterns of alveolar denitrogena- is encountered. Dogs receiving room air for 3 minutes tion. However, alveolar denitrogenation of 95% may desaturated quite rapidly, with some dogs becoming hy- not be necessary because even partial alveolar deni- poxemic within 30 seconds. However, critical periods of hypoxemia may be missed in clinical situations in trogenation will delay the onset of hypoxemia. In the which an animal is quickly attached to a breathing cir- study reported here, the mean Feo2 of preoxygenated cuit after intubation and ventilated with 100% oxygen dogs at the end of preoxygenation was 0.82 ± 0.02, before a pulse oximeter is placed. The negative clini- and a significant difference in time to desaturation cal outcome of this brief episode of hypoxemia is un- was still detected. known. Preoxygenation may also contribute to a slight The values for time to desaturation in our study increase in Paco2 and pH, although these changes are were based on Spo2 measurements, which admittedly minor and not likely clinically important. On the ba- may have been altered by factors such as poor periph- sis of the rapidity with which dogs receiving room air eral perfusion, patient movement, extraneous light in- desaturated in this study, the use of preoxygenation in terference (such as from external fluorescent lighting), dogs with an expected decrease in FRC (eg, obese pa- or patient pigmentation.32 The criterion-referenced tients or pregnant patients), expected airway difficul- standard for arterial oxygen saturation is considered to ties (eg, brachycephalic breeds), and decreased cardio- be results obtained by co-oximetry. Therefore, in addi- pulmonary function is recommended. tion to Spo2 measurements obtained by use of a pulse oximeter, a co-oximeter was used in this study to mea- a. LMX4, Ferndale Laboratories Inc, Ferndale, Mich. sure Sao2. By use of this measurement, the mean Sao2 b. Portex arterial blood sample syringe, Smiths Medical ASD Inc, of the room air group was ≤ 90% at the 30-second time Keene, NH. point (actual mean value, 82.3 ± 4%). Therefore, use of c. Nellcor Oximax, NPB-40, Nellcor Puritan Bennett, Pleasanton, the pulse oximeter missed a potentially critical period Calif. d. Datex Ohmeda, S/5, Datex Ohmeda Division, Instrumentarium, of hypoxemia in the room air group because the time Helsinki, Finland. to desaturation based on Spo2 was 69.6 seconds. Part e. DOT-39NRC 300/375 M1014, Datex Ohmeda Division, Hel- of this difference can be explained by a delay in place- sinki, Finland. ment of the pulse oximeter probe because it was not f. Radiometer ABL-700, Radiometer Medical ApS, Denmark. AJVR, Vol 70, No. 11, November 2009 133708-10-0341r.indd 1337 10/22/2009 1:20:42 PM
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