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  1. 1. Life Cycle of Stars
  2. 2. I. Interstellar Medium II. Nebula III. Protostar IV. Main Sequence V. Red Giant VI. Supernova V. White Dwarf
  3. 4. _____________ _____________ is the total mass of the gas and dust between the stars. Interstellar Medium
  4. 5. _____________ a dense cloud of dust and gases. NEBULA
  5. 6. The nebula begins to contract due to __________ and the pressure and temperature increase and becomes a ________________. GRAVITY PROTOSTAR
  6. 7. When the temperature gets hot enough, _______________ begins and a _______ ____________ star is born. FUSION MAIN SEQUENCE
  7. 8. A star loses ____________ during fusion as energy is released. This decreases the star’s gravity. A star will expand, becoming a _________, when the outward force of __________ is greater than the inward force of ___________. mass RED GIANT fusion gravity
  8. 9. As the fuel runs out in a star, _________ slows down. When the ______________ force of fusion is less than the ____________ force of gravity, the star will shrink in size, becoming a _________ _________. fusion outward inward WHITE DWARF
  9. 10. A SUPERNOVA is an EXPLOSION that marks the end of a very massive star’s life.
  10. 11. Small and medium stars become __________________ once they die. Larger stars become novae and die as: ____________ NEUTRON STAR BLACK DWARVES
  11. 13. Hertzprung-Russell Diagram
  12. 14. BRIGHTNESS <ul><li>Variables which affect a star’s brightness: </li></ul><ul><li>Star size </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Star temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent Brightness: The amount of light received on Earth from a star. </li></ul><ul><li>Actual Brightness: How large and hot a star is in relation to other stars. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>A star’s temperature can be determined by its color. </li></ul><ul><li>All objects will glow a different color when heated differently </li></ul><ul><li>Colors hottest to coolest: Blue/white  yellow  orange  red. </li></ul>
  14. 17. GALAXIES <ul><li>Galaxy: A large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Milky Way: Our galaxy which contains about 200 billion stars and many nebulas </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral Galaxies </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Galaxies are grouped together in clusters. </li></ul><ul><li>The cluster the Milky Way belongs to is called the Local Group. </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of galaxies: </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster of galaxies </li></ul>
  16. 19. Elliptical Galaxies <ul><li>Elliptical Galaxies: Most common type of galaxy; large three-dimensional football shaped galaxies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Contain mostly older and dimmer stars. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Spiral Galaxies <ul><li>Spiral Galaxies: Circular galaxies that have arms curve outward from a central hub. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms are made up of stars and dust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two spiral galaxies!! </li></ul>
  18. 21. More Spiral Galaxies <ul><li>Barred spiral galaxies: Have two spiral arms extending out. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Irregular Galaxies <ul><li>Irregular Galaxies: Come in many different shapes and are smaller and less common than elliptical or spiral galaxies. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Life Cycle of Stars