Cell organelles.ppt


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Cell organelles.ppt

  1. 1. C
  2. 2. Cell Theory• All living things are made up of cells.• Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life• All cells come from preexisting cells
  3. 3. Cell?
  4. 4. Cell composition• Protoplasm – The term "protoplasm," from proto, first, and plasma, formed substance, was coined by the botanist Hugo von Mohl, in 1846, for the "tough, slimy, granular, semi-fluid“ – It was used 1839 by Czech physiologist Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869) to denote the gelatinous fluid found in living cell. – Compose of inorganic and organic compounds like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
  5. 5. Cell Membrane• Plasma membrane / plasmolemma• Bi-lipid layer• Semi permeable• Serves as boundary between the outside environment and the inside environment• Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell
  6. 6. Cell Membrane• Fluid mosaic model – -S.J. Singer and Garth Nicolson in 1972 • - fluid because of I its hydrophobic components • such as lipids and membrane proteins thatmove laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane isnot solid, but more like a fluid.-mosaic that is made up of many different parts the plasma membrane is composed of different kinds of macromolecules
  7. 7. Cell Wall • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria • Supports & protects cells • Made of cellulose
  8. 8. Inside the Cell - cytoplasm
  9. 9. Nucleus• Control center of the cell• Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane/nuclear envelope• Contains genetic material – DNA arranged in thread like structure called chromatin• Also contain RNA and proteins• Nucleolus – distinct part in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis takes place
  10. 10. Nuclear Membrane• Surrounds nucleus• Made of two layers• Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
  11. 11. Chromosomes • In nucleus • Made of DNA • Contain instructions for traits & characteristicshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  12. 12. Nucleolus • Inside nucleus • Contains RNA to build proteinshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  13. 13. Nucleoplasm• Gel-like mixture• Surrounded by nuclear membrane• Contains hereditary material
  14. 14. Mitochondria• Powerhouse of the cell• Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates• Double membrane• Cristae – inner folds• Matrix – fluid part
  15. 15. Plastids-double membrane organelle found mainly in plants • Chloroplast – Site for photosysnthesis – Contain green pigment called chlorophyll
  16. 16. Plastids • Chromoplast – Gives the yellow, orange, red color to fruits and flowers
  17. 17. Plastids • Leucoplast – Non pigmented – Located in roots – Storage for carbohydrates, protei ns and lipids
  18. 18. Ribosomes• Each cell contains thousands• Made up of RNA and protein• Protein systhesis• Attached or free
  19. 19. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Moves materials around in cell • Serves as canal for substances • Smooth type: lacks ribosomes • Rough type : ribosomes embedded in surface
  20. 20. Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum • Branching canal • No ribosomes • Transport for large molecules • Stores calcium ions in muscle cells
  21. 21. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • Contains attached ribosomes • Transport ribosomes
  22. 22. Golgi Bodies• packaging organelle• Move materials within the cell• Move materials out of the cell
  23. 23. Lysosome• Digestive ‘organelle for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates• Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal• Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
  24. 24. Vacuoles• Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal• Contains water solution• Help plants maintain shapehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  25. 25. Cytoskeleton
  26. 26. CytoskeletonThin and fibrousBones and muscles of cellsMicrofilamentsMicrotubules Centrioles and spindle fiberAmoeboid movement of amoeba, cilia byparamecium and flagellum by euglena aremade possible.
  27. 27. Cytoskeleton