Theoretical Perspectives on Development


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Theoretical Perspectives on Development

  1. 1. Melody L. Calicoy Prof. Catherine DG. SantosBEEd 2nd year – Section A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DEVELOPMENTObjectives: At the end of the discussion, the student will be able to: - Identify some theoretical perspectives on development as the main focus of this topic - Explain structural-organismic perspectives - Identify and explain the Psychoanalytic and Psychosexual Stages of Development by Sigmund Freud - Identify and explain the Psychosocial Stages of Development by Erik Erikson - Differentiate and correlate the two theories as part of the structural-organismic perspectives - Identify and explain the Cognitive Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura - Identify and explain the other approaches theoretical perspectives concerning developmentSubject Matter: Topics: - Theoretical Perspectives on Development  Sigmund Freud‟s Psychoanalytic and Psychosexual Development  Erik Erikson‟s Psychosocial Stages of Development  Albert Bandura‟s Social Cognitive Learning Theory  Other approaches that emphasizes theoretical perspectives on development – an overview only  Information Processing approaches  Dynamic Systems  Contextual Perspectives  Historical Approaches  Ethological Theory  Evolutionary Psychology  Urie Brofenbrenner‟s Ecological Theory References: - Acero, Victorina D. et al. Child and Adolescent Development. Rex Publishing, 2010 - Kahayon, Alicia H. and Aquino, Gaudencio V. General Psychology Fourth Edition. National Bookstore, 1999 - Internet Materials: visual aids and handouts 1TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  2. 2. Lesson Content:  Theories serve two functions. First, they help explain the knowledge about how children develop, and second they encourage further researches about behavior that can be tested and evaluated. While they take varied positions on the issue or concept of development, they are seen as being complimentary to each other.  Structural-organismic perspectives consider the quality of various changes in the stages of human development. Sigmund Freud‟s Psychoanalytic and Psychosexual Development and Erik Erikson‟s Psychosocial Theory belongs to this category. They assert that a child responds to a set of biological drives. SIGMUND FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC AND PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY Short Biography of Sigmund Freud Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, who created an entirely new approach to the understanding of the human personality. He is regarded as one of the most influential and controversial minds of the 20th century. Freud parents were poor, but they ensured his education. Interested in law as a student, he moved instead to medicine. Sigismund Schlomo Freud (later changed to Sigmund Freud) was born on May 6, 1856 in Freilberg, Moravia (now Pribor in the Czech Republic). His father was a merchant. The family moved to Leipzig and then settled in Vienna, where Freud was educated. Freud‟s family were Jewish but he was himself non-practicing. In 1873, Freud began to study medicine at the University of Vienna. After graduating, he worked at the Vienna General Hospital. He collaborated with Jose Breuer in treating hysteria by the recall of painful experiences under hypnosis. In 1885, Freud went to Paris as a student of the neurologist Jean Charcot. On his return to Vienna the following year, Freud set up in private practice, specializing in nervous and brain disorders. The same year he married Martha Bernays, with whom he had six children. After World War One, Freud spent less time in clinical observation and concentrated on the application of his theories to history, art, literature and anthropology. In 1923, he published “The Ego and the Id”, which suggested a new structural of the mind, divided into the „id‟, the „ego‟ and the ‟superego‟. In 1933, the Nazis publicly burnt a number of Freud‟s books. In 1938, shortly after the Nazis annexed Austria, Freud left Vienna for London with his wife and daughter Anna. Freud had been diagnosed with cancer of the jaw in 1923, and underwent more than 30 operations. He died of cancer in September 23, 1939 at the age of 83. 2TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  3. 3. Psychoanalytic Theory Freud recognizes the early experiences as determinants of later development. According to him, the three basic element of personality are the following: the id, ego, and the superego. - Id is the primitive side of man, influences by biological, animalistic instincts. Those instincts are sex and aggression. The id operates under the pleasure principle because the id shows no rules, is greedy, demanding and unable to delay gratification. - Ego is the second component of personality, which can identify and consider the realistic consequences of one‟s actions. The ego operates the reality principle, which states that ego seeks to maximize gratification but within the constraints of reality. - Superego is the repository of one‟s abstract morals and values, religion, socialization, being artistic and others. There are two aspects of superego: the ego ideal and the conscience. These are the dos and don‟ts of moral personality.  Ego ideal contains the values and ideals to which one aspires.  Conscience is part of personality that causes one to feel guilty after the violation of a moral principle.Psychosexual Stages of Development  Oral Stage (0-18 months). This stage is characterized by receiving gratification through the mouth: sucking, crying and exploring objects with the mouth. It is characterized by personality traits of passive dependency and aggressiveness. This stage is divided into two phases; the oral-receptive and the oral aggressive phases. This stage is purely Id because the individual is selfish, demanding and delay gratification.  Anal Stage (18 months to about 3 ½ to 4 years). In this stage developed the toilet training. A major developmental milestone in this stage is mastery over one‟s elimination functions. The two phases of this stage are the anal-retentive phases. First is related to tension related to expelling waste; second is related to the pleasurable stimulation from retaining faces. In this stage the ego develops. And this is the time that the parents make demands on the child. If the child satisfies the parent‟s demands, then the child receives praise and approval. If not, then the child experiences parental disapproval.  Phallic Stage (about 3 ½to 6 years or Oedipal Period). The child demonstrates instinctual attraction from the opposite sex parent. This result in fear of the same sex Parent. The attraction and fear brings severe conflict called Oedipus complex. This is the son-mother relationship. The Electra complex represents the daughter-father relationship. It is the stage that libido occurs. The child becomes interested in his body and recognizes his own sexuality. In this stage, the superego develops, also the Castration Anxiety and Electra complex. 3TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  4. 4. - Castration anxiety is the conscious or unconscious fear of losing all part of the sex organs, or the function of such.  Latency Stage (6 year to puberty). Sexual and aggressive urges continue to operate in this stage, but he tends to channel them into age appropriate interests and activities such as academics, sports, and hobbies.  Genital Stage (puberty to death). The child‟s basic interest and sources of erotic satisfaction become centered in heterosexual behavior. The body is physiologically mature and if no major fixations have occurred at an earlier stage of development, the individual may be able to lead a normal heterosexual life. A fixation occurs when there is arrested development or inability to pass the next stage. E.g. oral fixation is characterized by thumb sucking, nail biting, greediness, and fixation, by excessive conformity and self-control and compulsiveness. The phallic character is reckless in behavior and defends his sexual prowess without feelings of love.ERIK ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTShort Biography of Erik Erikson Erik Erikson was born on June 15, 1902 in Frankfurt, Germany. “The common story wasthat his mother and father had separated before his birth, but the closely guarded fact was that hewas his mother‟s child from an extramarital union. He never saw his birth father or his mother‟sfirst husband,” reported Erikson‟s obituary that appeared in The New York Times in 1994. His young Jewish mother raised by herself for a time before marrying a physician, Dr.Theodor Homberger. The fact that Homberger was not in fact his biological father was concealedfrom him for many years. When he finally did learn the truth, he was left with feeling ofconfusion about who he really was. This early experience helped spark his interest in theformation of identity. His interest in identity was further developed based upon his own experiences in school.At his temple school, the other children teased him for being Nordic because he was tall, blonde,and blue-eyed. At grammar school, he was rejected because of his Jewish background. Theseearly experiences helped fuel his interest in identity formation and continued to influence hiswork throughout his life. When he finished high school, Erikson dabbled in art and spent some time travelingthroughout Europe. At the suggestion of a friend, Erikson studied psychoanalysis and earned acertificate from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He also took a teaching position at a school created by Dorothy Burlingham, a friend ofAnna Freud‟s. He continued to work with Burlingham and Freud at the school for several years,met Sigmund Freud at a party, and even became Anna Freud‟s patient. 4TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  5. 5. He met a Canadian dance instructor named Joan Serson who was also teaching at theschool where he worked. The couple married in 1930 and went on to have children. Erikson moved to the United States in 1933 and was offered a teaching position atHarvard Medical School. He also changed his name from Erik Homberger to Erik Homberger-Erikson, perhaps as a way to forge his own identity. In addition to his position at Harvard, healso had a private practice in child psychoanalysis. Later, he held teaching positions at theUniversity of California at Berkeley, Yale, the San Francisco Psychoanalytic Institute, AusterRiggs Center, and the Center for Advanced Studies of the Behavioral Science. He died on May 12, 1994 at the age of 92.  Erikson expanded Freud‟s theories to relations include social and cultural factors as influences on the child‟s development as well as to extend the theory into a lifespan perspective.Psychosocial Stages of Development (Post-Freudian) 1. Infancy (from birth to 1 year). It is characterized by the oral-sensory mode of incorporation, the psychosocial crisis of basis: TRUST vs. MISTRUST, as the basic strength of hope, and core pathology of withdrawal. Infancy covers the first year of life, a time equivalent to Freud‟s oral stage. Hope: Trust in primary caregiver and in one‟s own ability to make things happen. 2. Early Childhood (from 1 to 2 years). It is parallel to Freud‟s anal stage. Anal, urethral muscular psychosexual modes are in ascendance and the conflict of AUTONOMY vs. SHAME & DOUBT produces the basic strength called will or its antithesis, compulsion. Will: New physical skill lead to demand for more choices, most often seen as saying “no” to caregivers; child learns self-care skills such as toileting. 3. Play Age or Early Childhood (from 3 to 5 years). A time corresponding to the Phallic or Oedipal period, the child experiences genital-loco motor psychosexual development and undergoes the crisis of INITIATIVE vs. GUILT. Either the basic strength of purpose or the pathology of inhibition may emerge. Purpose: Ability to organize activities around some goals; more assertiveness and aggressiveness (Oedipus or Electra conflict with parent of same sex may lead to guilt). 4. School Age or Middle to Late Childhood (from 6 to 11 years). The child experiences the crisis of INDUSTRY vs. INFERIORITY, from which arises the basic strength of competence or the core pathology of inertia. The school-age child expands relations between the family to include peers and teachers who serve as models. Competence: cultural skills and norms, including school skills and tool use (failure to master these lead to sense of inferiority). 5TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  6. 6. 5. Adolescence (from 7 to 18 years). A crucial stage because one‟s clear and consistent image of self-ego IDENTITY – should emerge from this period. However IDENTITY or ROLE DIFFUSION may dominate the psychosocial crisis, thereby postponing identity. Fidelity is the basic strength of adolescence, role repudiation its core pathology. Fidelity: Adaptation of sense of self to pubertal changes, consideration of future choices, achievement of a more mature sexual identity, and search for new values. 6. Young Adulthood (from 19 to 30 years). Characterized by genitality, a psychosexual mode than can exist in the absence of intimacy. Ideally, however, INTIMACY should win out in its conflict with ISOLATION and produce the basic strength of love. If the psychosocial crisis is not completely resolved, the core pathology of exclusivity results. Love: Person develops intimate relationships beyond adolescent love. 7. Adulthood (from 31 years to old age). A time not only of procreation but also of productive work and social commitment. The dominant crisis is GENERATIVITY vs. STAGNATION, while care is the basic strength and rejection, possible core pathology. Care: People rear children, focus on occupational achievement or creativity, and train the next generation; turn outward from the self toward others. 8. Old Age (until death). The crisis of INTEGRITY vs. DESPAIR, wisdom, as the basic strength, as opposed to disdain, the core pathology marks this final stage. Wisdom: Person conducts a life review integrates earlier stages and comes to terms with basic identity; develops self-acceptance. This psychosocial theory is based on the most important tasks both personal and socialthat the individual must accomplish at a particular stage. Erikson‟s concept of humanity is generally optimistic and idealistic. People canovercome early pathologies, but crisis, anxiety and conflict are a normal and necessary part ofliving.ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORYShort Biography of Albert Bandura Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925 in a small Canadian town. The last of sixchildren, Bandura‟s early education consisted of one small school with only two teachers.According to Bandura, because of this limited access to educational resources, “The students hadto take charge of their own education” Bandura soon became fascinated by psychology after enrolling at the University ofBritish Columbia. He had started out as a biological science major, his interest in psychologyformed quite by accident. While working nights and commuting to school with a group ofstudents, he found himself arriving at school much earlier than his course started. To pass the 6TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  7. 7. time, he begat taking “filler classes” during these early morning hours, this led to him eventuallystumbling upon psychology. Bandura explained, “One morning, I was wasting time in the library. Someone had Iforgotten to return a course catalog and I thumbed through it attempting to find a filler course tooccupy the early time slot. I noticed a course in psychology that would serve as excellent filler. Itsparked my interest and I found my career.” In 1949, he graduated from the University of British Columbia with a degree inPsychology. Bandura earned his Master of Arts degree in 1951 and received his Doctor inPhilosophy degree in Clinical Psychology from the University of Iowa in 1952. After earning his Ph.D., he was offered a position in Stanford University. Banduraaccepted the offer (even though it meant resigning from another position he had alreadyaccepted) and has continued to work at Stanford to this day. It was during his studies onadolescent aggression that Bandura became increasing interested in vicarious learning, modelingand imitation. In 1953, he began teaching at Stanford University. In 1974, he served as President of theAPA. In 1980, he received the APA‟s Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions. In 2004,he was recognized as an outstanding lifetime contributor in psychology by AmericanPsychological Association.History of Social Cognitive Learning Theory Social cognitive learning theory stemmed out of work in the area of social learning theoryproposed by Neal E. Miller and John Dollard in 1941. Identifying four key factors in learningnew behavior: drives, cues, responses, and rewards, they posit that if one were motivated tolearn a particular behavior, then that particular behavior would be learned through clearobservations. By imitating these observed actions the individual observer would solidify thatlearned action and would be rewarded with positive reinforcement. The proposition of sociallearning was expanded upon and theorized by Albert Bandura from 1962 until the present. Social cognitive learning theory which was proposed by Albert Bandura has become themost influential theory of learning and development.  His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people known as observational learning or modeling.  It emphasizes the concept of imitation as a form of learning. Learning according to this theory results from the ability of the child to select the pattern of behavior to imitate.Basic Social Learning Concepts 1. People can learn through observation Observational learning In his famous Bobo doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated thatchildren learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in 7TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  8. 8. Bandura‟s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children werelater allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actionsthey had previously observed. Three basic models of observational learning:  A live model which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.  A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior.  A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, televisions, programs, or online media. 2. Mental states are important to learning He describes intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. 3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior Observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process:  Attention – in order to learn, you need to be paying attention.  Retention – the ability to store information.  Reproduction – it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skills advancement.  Motivation – in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play important role in motivation.  In addition to influencing other psychologists, Bandura‟s social learning theory has had important implication in the field of education. Today, both teachers and parents recognize the importance of modeling appropriate behaviors. Other classroom strategies such as encouraging children and building self-efficacy are also rooted in social learning theory.  Self-efficacy – the course wherein the learner improves his newly learned knowledge or behavior by putting it into practice.In the Social Cognitive Theory, we are considering three variables: o Person – Environment Interaction – It is the human beliefs, ideas and cognitive competencies are modified by external factors such as supportive parent, stressful environment or a hot climate. 8TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  9. 9. o Person – Behavior Interaction – The cognitive processes of a person affect his behavior; likewise, the performance of such behavior can modify the way he thinks. o Environmental – Behavior Interaction – External factors can alter the way you display the behavior. Also, your behavior can affect and modify your environment.  This model clearly implies that for effective and positive learning to occur an individual should have positive personal characteristics, exhibit appropriate behavior and stay in a supportive environment. The Three Variables in Social Learning Theory Behavior Personal Environmental Factors factors These three variables in Social Cognitive Theory are said to be interrelated with eachother, causing learning to occur. An individual‟s personal experience can converge with thebehavioral determinants and the environmental factors.OTHER APPROACHES ON THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DEVELOPMENT The early behaviorists proposed that learning is regulated by environmental factors that define and modify patterns of behavior. They may either be classical or operant conditioning. Information-processing approaches have been applied in studies dealing with cognitive development and social behavior. They focus on how a child processes information and uses this as guide in adapting a particular behavior pattern. Dynamic systems theories look at individuals as members of a system and that this dynamic interaction contributes to their development. Behavior is shaped by their constant relations with the members that make up the system. 9TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development
  10. 10. Contextual perspectives take into the account in the matter of psychological development, the contributions of cultural factors. According to Vygotsky, a child interacts with his social environment. Development then as the child ages, is guided by the more matured skilled others with whom the child establishes a continuous relationship. Brofenbrenner’s Ecological theory underscores the importance of the various environmental systems to development. These include the family, school, community and culture. These are reffered to as ecological system – the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and the chronosystem. In the ecological theory perspective, a child acquires experiences from the environment, adds such experiences to the built-in knowledge, and modifies his understanding of the environment.  Microsystem focuses on the ways children live and relate to people include institutions with the most number of interactions like family, peers and school.  Mesosystem is the interrelations among the components of the microsystem.  Exosystem is the actual situation a child is in that included the settings that influence the development of the child and where the child is not directly a participant.  Macrosystem is the system that surrounds the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem; represents the values, ideologies, and laws of society or culture.  Chronosystem is the time-based dimension that can alter the operation of all other systems in Brofenbrenner‟s model, from microsystem through macrosystem. Historical approaches acknowledge the contributions of historical events to human development. Psychologist view development from a life-span development. Ethological development describes development from a biological-evolutionary approach. It concerns itself with the observation of behavior including distinguishing features that cut across human societies, human cultures, and even intra human species. Evolutionary psychology touches on the cognitive development and how cognitive capabilities and constraints influence the process of human evolution and meeting the survival needs. 10TCC 001 | Child and Adolescent Development