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When Worlds Collide: Interlibrary Loan and Special Collections


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Although some academic libraries have successfully lent special collections materials for decades, most still consider it a controversial, even heretical practice. This session will familiarize attendees with newly updated ACRL Guidelines for the Interlibrary Loan of Rare and Unique Materials and current best practices, including recommendations from the OCLC Research/RLG Programs "Sharing Special Collections" advisory group. Panelists will discuss model initiatives showing how special collections and interlibrary loan librarians can build trusting and collaborative relationships.

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When Worlds Collide: Interlibrary Loan and Special Collections

  1. 1. When Worlds Collide: Interlibrary Loan and Special Collections * ACRL National 2011
  2. 2. [placeholder for “When Worlds Collide” trailer]watch it at:
  3. 3. When WorldsCollide:Interlibrary Loanand SpecialCollectionsCase Studies,Reflections andDiscussionwith moderatorChristian DupontAtlas SystemsACRL 2011 National ConferencePhiladelphia – April 1, 2011
  4. 4. 1951 When Worlds Collides wins Oscar for bestspecial effects1961 Wisconsin Area Research Centers networkbegins intercampus lending of archival materials1988 Rare Books & Manuscripts Librarianship issueon ILL and special collections1994 ACRL/RBMS Guidelines for the Interlibrary Loanof Rare and Unique Materials (original)2004 ACRL/RBMS Guidelines for the Interlibrary Loanof Rare and Unique Materials (first revision)
  5. 5. 2005 ACRL/RBMS Guidelines for Borrowing andLending Special Collections Materials forExhibition (original)2009 ACRL/RBMS forms task force to reviseGuidelines for the Loan of Rare and UniqueMaterials and combine them with Guidelines forBorrowing and Lending Special CollectionsMaterials for Exhibition2011 Draft guidelines published for comment:http://rbms.infoApril issue of C&RL News
  6. 6. BarbaraCoopey& Sandy SteltsfromPenn StateUniversity
  7. 7. SHARES Special Collections WorkflowGroup and Penn State’s Efforts to ShareBarbara CoopeySandy SteltsPenn State University LibrariesACRL 2011
  8. 8. SHARES VisionStatement: The successof SHARES is rooted incollaboration among itsparticipants and in therichness of their sharedcollectionsSHARES benefits includeaccess to restricted, non-circulating, and special collectionsmaterials that partners would notnormally lendThis includes reciprocal on-site accessIn reality libraries hesitate to supply special material, but SHARESlibraries make an effort to do so for partner libraries
  9. 9. SHARES Efforts 2002 - 2003Sharing the Wealth Program with specialcollections curators and ILLpractitioners Discussed pros/cons of lendingspecial materialSharing Special Collections WorkingGroupSurvey on the lending of special materialsNot one library had a written policyFew libraries had written procedures, forms, bookstrapsIssues about lending: condition of material, value ofmaterial, reputation of the borrowing institution
  10. 10. SHARES Efforts 2009 - 2010Steering group on maximizing visibility of and access toarchives and special collections materialsProviding input to the RBMS Task Force on the ACRL/RBMSguidelinesSharing Expertise group - interest in workflow process ofsupplying special collections materialTreasures on Trucks and other Taboos: Rethinking theSharing of Special Collections programSpecial Delivery: New Mode of Access to Special CollectionsCreation of Sharing Special Collections Advisory Group
  11. 11. Sharing Special CollectionsAdvisory GroupJennifer Block, PrincetonScott Britton, U of MiamiEleanor Brown, CornellLaura Carroll, EmoryBarbara Coopey, Penn StateMargaret Ellingson, EmoryCristine Favretto, U of MiamiPaul Constantine, U of WashingtonSuzan Hallgren, U of MinnesotaAimee Lind, GettyDennis Massie, OCLCElizabeth Nielson, Oregon StateSandra Stelts, Penn StateShannon Supple, UC Berkeley LawJen Schaffner, OCLCFocus:Streamlining the handling of external requests for specialcollections materialsHow we can establish trust between two institutions sufficient forthe physical loan of special collections
  12. 12. What we KnowSpecial collectionsmaterials arebecoming morediscoverableAccess expectations arerisingCollections are for use –how we can shareCost factor in sharingSome won’t share, somecan’t share, sometimesthe only solution is on-site accessEstablished Interlibraryloan networks havestreamlined deliveryprocesses, feestructures, trustNeed to increase trust -between interlibraryloan and specialcollections in thesame institution andbetween institutions
  13. 13. QuestionsDoes the user know it isin specialcollections?How does the lendinginstitution staffdetermine that therequestor actuallyneeds specialmaterial?Should request go toSpecial Collectionsdirectly – or throughILL?How do we build andestablish trust?What can be loaned –under whatconditions?What can be scannedfor a physical copyor electronicdelivery?What can be digitizedand added to thecollection for othersto use?
  14. 14. Survey Spring 2010Sent to several listservs88 replies46% SHARESUniversitiesCollegesHistorical societiesNational librariesMuseumsArchivesPublic librariesILL / Doc DeliveryAccess ServicesReferenceLibrary DirectorsArchivistsCuratorsPolicy and ProcessQuestions
  15. 15. Does your institution have written policies orguidelines to direct your external sharing?Yes 36.8%No 63.2%
  16. 16. Does your institution lend returnable itemsfrom Special Collections to other libraries?Yes 10.3%Yes, but only undercertain conditions57.4%No 32.4%
  17. 17. Yes, but only under certain conditions (57.4%)ILL staff "conditionalize" responses to which the borrowinginstitution must agree, including restricting use of ourmaterials to a supervised reading room (noncirc)Must be a service copy of microfilm from Special CollectionsSpecial negotiations between borrower and curatorEach request is considered on a case-by-case basisWill only loan items to SHARES librariesIf they are in good shapeFor exhibition purposes onlyWill only lend microfilm where we also have the negativeAll special collections must be shipped via traceable courierand use within libraryOnly published items. Conditions include physical conditionand scarcity of the item and any special circumstancessuch as the need to compare editions
  18. 18. YES: What are the issues involved inlending special material?Condition of itemRarity of itemValue of itemIdentity of requesterLocation of requesterAge of item
  19. 19. Why Institutions Don’t LendToo riskyItems needed on siteToo expensiveLack staff resourcesNot part of our missionBecause we never haveOther:ValuableIrreplaceableSubject todamage throughshippingNon-circulatingDon’t want tolose them
  20. 20. Nonreturnable Surrogates48% institutions make nonreturnable surrogates ofspecial collections material availableReasons why not:• Risk of damage to material• Lack of staff/equipment• Reduces value36% do so only under certain conditions:• In public domain, no rights problems• Condition of material• Amount of copying required• Item is high in-demand81% of those who do supply, scan and send thecopy as a file
  21. 21. Which department receives therequest?Special Collections 9.5%Interlibrary Loan 57%Both 33%
  22. 22. Primary Modes of CommunicationBetween ILL and Special CollectionsEmailFace-to-faceILLiadTelephonePaper formsOtherOther:A combination ofemail, face-to-face, and phone
  23. 23. Who makes scans or photocopies ofspecial collections material whenfilling ILL requests?Special Collections45%Other29%Interlibrary Loan26%Other:Combination ofILL and specialcollections staff
  24. 24. CommentsHandling requests are time consumingIf we had staff, we could share more of our collectionMaterial is off-site many timesThe stress should be on access, not lending of physical items… digitization on demand is working for us … I hope thetrend continuesRequesting libraries should adhere to special use andhandling conditions
  25. 25. Penn State’s Efforts
  26. 26. CommunicationILL conditional reply:“Special CollectionsMaterial. If you cannotlocate this materialelsewhere, please try usagain” (Cornell)Helps us to focus onthose requests thatare unique to ourcollectionSandy and/or Lee,Request Type: Loan Request WherePenn State Is The OnlyLocation On The RequestLoan Title: The Jesuit /Loan Author: Smith, J. F. (John Frederick),1806-1890.Call Number: PR5453.S83J47 1832Location: RBR Allison-ShelleyILL Lender String: (symbols)Request is from: (library)Phone:Library Email:Unable to fill the request: Please respondto this email.Able to fill the request: Please respond tothis email when the item is in thetub and ready for pick-up.If the item is being loaned please includeloan period and use restrictions.Thanks, Interlibrary Loan TN#
  27. 27. “This is very thin - almost like apamphlet so I will make a copy and putin the bin.”“This has beenphotocopied andhas been placed inthe bin.”“This book is available at morethan 30 other U.S. libraries.Most allow it as a regular loan.In the Big Ten Michigan Stateand Ohio State have this titleas a regular loan. So, I’m goingto say no.”“I will put this book inthe tub so you can scanthe pages the patronwants on the INDUS.There are 19 pages.Please be careful of theloose cover on thespine.”“I think our copy of this is too fragile to send out. There is another copy at theNew York Public, but it is non-circulating as well. I think you could safely make apreservation scan on the Indus for Rare Books, and then we could lend the copy.There is a set of loose pages near the middle of the book. Ill put it in the tuband you can look at it and decide if you feel comfortable with scanning it.” -Lee“Im going to writeto the patron andask him if we canlook in the vols.for the informationhe wants. Ill alsotell him we onlyhave three ofthe four vols.” -LeeCommunication: Email Replies
  28. 28. You have requested TheBlakes and Flanagans: aTale, Illustrative of IrishLife in the United States byMrs. J. Sadlier from PennState University. This bookis in the Rare Books &Manuscripts section at PennState. We would be willingto lend it but want you tobe aware that it can only beused in your Rare Books andManuscripts room during thehours they are open. Youwould not be able to do anycopying from it. We would belend it for three weeks.With this in mind would youstill like us to send it? -LeeI need to read the entirebook. I can try to find inItaly during my next trip.Thank you for yourOh, my goodness! You are just too good!If you wouldn’t mind sending the copies directly to me, I’ll makecertain our patron receives them.Thank you so much for your help – not to mention the fast service.Thank you foryour kindnote. Underthe circum-stances, Ithink I willhold off onasking you tosend thevolume, andwait for alater date(at which Ishall orderit again).Therefore,please cancelthis request.And again,Commentsfrom users
  29. 29. Trust betweenILL and SpecialCollectionsCarolyn and Leediscussing what isbeing supplied
  30. 30. WorkflowLee preparing a book for ILLSpecial tub used for transportingspecial collections material to andfrom ILL for shippingProcess instructions on tub lid
  31. 31. Workflow
  32. 32. Transport tubbetween SpecialCollections and ILLProcess instructionsattached to tub
  33. 33. “This can be copied on the INDUS.Please send the copy as a loan only.There are only four copies in the U.S.,so we can use the INDUS copy for anyfuture requests. The pamphlet is in thetub.” - LeeUsing an overheadscanner to protectmaterial(Yelena in ILL)
  34. 34. Processing Special Collections Loans(Lending):• Place green band on volume with ”Rare Books RoomUse Only” stamped on the band• No jiffy bags: place in box with bubble wrap• Insure for $1,000 unless indicated otherwise• Place in tray in Room 504 with “Yes/No” sign turned to“Yes” so Receiving Room staff know to pick up• 30-day loan period unless indicated otherwise• No renewals• No photocopying• “In Library Use Only”
  35. 35. SpecialCollectionsILL Flowchart
  36. 36. Special Collections Reference Deskat Penn State
  37. 37. TrustbetweenlibrariesSecurity:Sandy unlockingthe hold room
  38. 38. Email sent to patron:Restrictions: Special Collections Library Use OnlyThe item above has been received in theInterlibrary Loan office and has been sent directlyto the Special Collections Library for your use.Special Collections Library104 PaternoMonday to Thursday, 8 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.Shelf for ILL booksfrom other institutions
  39. 39. Photocopy room located in theSpecial Collections ReferenceRoom.
  40. 40. Special Collections Reading Roomat Penn State
  41. 41. ReferencesSHARES Program Special Collections“Sharing the Wealth” 2002 RLG Members Forum“Taking Our Pulse”: The OCLC Research Survey of Special“Treasures on Trucks and Others Taboos” webinar recording“Special Delivery: New Mode of Access to Special Collections” recording Guidelines for Borrowing and Lending Special CollectionsMaterials Task Force
  42. 42. withKristineShrauger &Lee DotsonUniversity of CentralFloridaElizabethKonzakStanfordUniversity
  43. 43. Worlds of Possibilitiesat theUniversity of Central FloridaLibrariesDeveloping Points ofFill Rates and Access
  44. 44. … In the year 2004 …ILL/DDS• New Department Head• Increase Fill rate for Lending• Implemented ILLiadSC/UA• New University Archivist• New Goals for Department• Providing Access2004 ACRL/RBMSGuidelines
  45. 45. 2004: Established SC/UA Local Guidelines• Only libraries withsupervised reading roomswere eligible to borrow.• If library was within 50miles, patron must visitUCF• Certain collectionsineligible for borrowing• Shipping via UPS/FedEx.• Designed colorful bookbands with instructionson how to handlematerials (i.e., use undersupervision only, nophotocopying, wear withgloves, etc.).
  46. 46. 2004 - SC/UA Review• Email received from ILL• Item pulled andreviewed for lending• Evaluation of itemcondition and fragility• Ability of item towithstandtransportation• OCLC and Antiquarianbookseller searches toassess rarity
  47. 47. Initial Policies / Procedures – ILL/DDS• Email Special Collections within ILLiad• No copyright restrictions = digitize– Hand deliver from SC/UA to Digital ServicesDepartment• Copyright restrictions = FedEx/UPS• Block libraries from future ILL-SC/UA requests
  48. 48. 3-year Study of ILL-SC/UA Requests2004-2007Items Filled UnfilledArticles 49 33 16Loans 254 71 183Total 303 104 199
  49. 49. Geographic Interest2004-2007Florida 136Consortium (outside of Florida) 80Non-Consortium 76International 11
  50. 50. Institutional Type2004-2007Filled Unfilled Post-1935 Pre-1935Academic 83 113 149 47Govt 1 3 3 1Public 12 77 63 26Special 8 6 13 1104 199 228 75
  51. 51. Holdings via OCLC2004-2007Less than 25 holdings 139Between 26-50 65Between 51-100 38Between 101-125 49Over 126 holdings 49
  52. 52. Types of Requests submitted2004-2007
  53. 53. Reasons for Cancellations2004-2007No Reading Room 57 19%Material too Fragile 32 11%Within 50 Miles 25 8%Book Art Collection 19 6%Closed for Renovations 17 6%
  54. 54. ILL Concerns from Statisticsin 2007The FILL rate was increasing, but….• We were not providing equal access to all• The FILL rate could increase further if…• Some libraries were not following UPS/FedExdirections / or did not have UPS/FedEx ability
  55. 55. Moving to Digital Access in 2006-2008• ILL Statistics showedsome demand• ILL Statistics showedSC/UA what patronswere needing• Statewide initiative• Worked with New SCdepartment head toexpand digitizationproject
  56. 56. Timing, Trust, and TIFFs• Reaching in – ILL, Special Collections, andDigital Services• Reaching out – Florida Atlantic University(2007)• Copyright and scanning (2008-)• Website planning & development (2008-2009)• PRISM digital collection goes live (Fall 2009)
  57. 57. … Collaboration …
  58. 58. Hoover Institution Library & Archives
  59. 59. Hoover Institution Library & Archives• Standard ILL procedures for circulatingcollections•
  60. 60. Now it’syourturn!