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SLFC: Scalable Light Field Coding
Hadi Amirpour, Christian Timmerer, and Mohammad Ghanbari
1
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● Introduction
● Light field compression
● SLFC
● Experimental results
● Conclusion
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2
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Introduction
3
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Light field photography
● conventional camera can only record 2D light intensity on an
imaging sensor
● light field camera will capture a 4D light field; that is, the intensity of
light in a scene, and also the direction that the light rays are
traveling in space
4
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Light field photography
5
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Light field photography
u x
v y
6
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Introduction
http://lightfield-forum.com/what-is-the-lightfield/
7
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Introduction
● refocusing
● changing viewport
● depth estimation
● 3D modeling
● synthesizing new views
Post-processing task
8
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Introduction
Refocusing
Lytro Light Field Camera: from scientific research to a $50-million business
9
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Introduction
Changing viewport
10
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Introduction
Changing viewport
11
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● Light field compression and its challenges
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12
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Light field compression
13
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Light field compression
14
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Light field compression
15
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Light field compression
16
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Light field compression
Encoder
Decoder
Bitstream
17
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Light field compression
Encoder
Decoder
Bitstream
Dependency between views
18
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Light field compression challenges
● encoding efficiency
● viewport scalability
● quality scalability
● random access
● uniform quality distribution
19
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Viewport scalability
To increase compatibility with:
● display
● capturing device
● network condition
● processing power
● storage capacity
20
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Viewport scalability
To increase compatibility with:
● display
● capturing device
● network condition
● processing power
● storage capacity
21
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Quality scalability
To increase compatibility with:
● network condition
● processing power
● storage capacity
22
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Random access
Navigating between views can increase:
● decoding delay
● bandwidth requirement
● processing power
23
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Random access
Navigating between views can increase:
● decoding delay
● bandwidth requirement
● processing power
24
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Quality distribution
It is undesirable to face different quality levels when navigating
between viewports
25
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Quality distribution
It is undesirable to face different quality levels when navigating
between viewports
26
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● SLFC: Scalable Light Field Coding
All rights reserved. ©2020
27
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SLFC
● light field image views are divided into seven layers
○ red view belong to that layer
○ gray views belong to the previous layers
○ black views belong to the next layers
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7
28
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SLFC
● The central view is intra-coded and can be accessed independently.
● Views in the second layer, are encoded independent of each other
but using the central view as their reference image.
● We see encoding of the remaining views as view/frame interpolation
problem.
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7
29
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SLFC
Residual with
target view
Residual with
target view
Residual
with
target
view
30
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SLFC
SepConv: Video Frame Interpolation via Adaptive Separable Convolution
31
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SLFC
● In each layer (3 to 7), two views from the previously encoded layers
are used to synthesize their intermediate view.
● When the intermediate view is synthesized, it is added as a virtual
reference frame to the reference list in the video encoder.
● To encode each intermediate view four references are used for
inter-coding: (i) the most central view, (ii, iii) two views that are used
for interpolation, (v) the synthesized view.
32
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SLFC
33
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Encoding efficiency
Rate distortion curves for Table light field images.
Anchor: JPEG Pleno anchor
WaSP: Hierarchical warping, merging, and sparse prediction for light field image compression
MuLE: A 4D DCT-Based lenslet light field codec
PSB: Pseudo sequence based 2-D hierarchical coding structure for light-field image compression
34
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Viewport scalability
Bitrate allocated to each layer at bpp4 =
0.75
The number of views in each
layer
35
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Quality scalability
SLFC provides two quality levels :
● quality 1: When the most central view and corner views are available,
SLFC can synthesize all remaining views by utilizing SepConv.
● quality 2: SLFC first synthesize a target view, then utilize the
synthesized view for inter-coding at the cost of additional bitrate.
36
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Random access
Ap
for all views of greek light field images at bpp4 = 0.75
37
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Uniform quality distribution
PSNR heatmap plot for greek light field
image
38
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Conclusion
● SLFC utilizes a DNN to synthesize intermediate views.
● Synthesized views are used as virtual references for inter-coding.
● SLFC provides:
○ High encoding efficiency
○ Viewport scalability
○ Quality scalability
○ Random access
○ Uniform quality distribution
39
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Thanks for your attention
40
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SLFC: Scalable Light Field Coding

  • 1. All rights reserved. ©2020 All rights reserved. ©2020 SLFC: Scalable Light Field Coding Hadi Amirpour, Christian Timmerer, and Mohammad Ghanbari 1
  • 2. All rights reserved. ©2020 ● Introduction ● Light field compression ● SLFC ● Experimental results ● Conclusion All rights reserved. ©2020 2
  • 3. All rights reserved. ©2020 Introduction 3
  • 4. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field photography ● conventional camera can only record 2D light intensity on an imaging sensor ● light field camera will capture a 4D light field; that is, the intensity of light in a scene, and also the direction that the light rays are traveling in space 4
  • 5. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field photography 5
  • 6. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field photography u x v y 6
  • 7. All rights reserved. ©2020 Introduction http://lightfield-forum.com/what-is-the-lightfield/ 7
  • 8. All rights reserved. ©2020 Introduction ● refocusing ● changing viewport ● depth estimation ● 3D modeling ● synthesizing new views Post-processing task 8
  • 9. All rights reserved. ©2020 Introduction Refocusing Lytro Light Field Camera: from scientific research to a $50-million business 9
  • 10. All rights reserved. ©2020 Introduction Changing viewport 10
  • 11. All rights reserved. ©2020 Introduction Changing viewport 11
  • 12. All rights reserved. ©2020 ● Light field compression and its challenges All rights reserved. ©2020 12
  • 13. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field compression 13
  • 14. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field compression 14
  • 15. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field compression 15
  • 16. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field compression 16
  • 17. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field compression Encoder Decoder Bitstream 17
  • 18. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field compression Encoder Decoder Bitstream Dependency between views 18
  • 19. All rights reserved. ©2020 Light field compression challenges ● encoding efficiency ● viewport scalability ● quality scalability ● random access ● uniform quality distribution 19
  • 20. All rights reserved. ©2020 Viewport scalability To increase compatibility with: ● display ● capturing device ● network condition ● processing power ● storage capacity 20
  • 21. All rights reserved. ©2020 Viewport scalability To increase compatibility with: ● display ● capturing device ● network condition ● processing power ● storage capacity 21
  • 22. All rights reserved. ©2020 Quality scalability To increase compatibility with: ● network condition ● processing power ● storage capacity 22
  • 23. All rights reserved. ©2020 Random access Navigating between views can increase: ● decoding delay ● bandwidth requirement ● processing power 23
  • 24. All rights reserved. ©2020 Random access Navigating between views can increase: ● decoding delay ● bandwidth requirement ● processing power 24
  • 25. All rights reserved. ©2020 Quality distribution It is undesirable to face different quality levels when navigating between viewports 25
  • 26. All rights reserved. ©2020 Quality distribution It is undesirable to face different quality levels when navigating between viewports 26
  • 27. All rights reserved. ©2020 ● SLFC: Scalable Light Field Coding All rights reserved. ©2020 27
  • 28. All rights reserved. ©2020 SLFC ● light field image views are divided into seven layers ○ red view belong to that layer ○ gray views belong to the previous layers ○ black views belong to the next layers L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 28
  • 29. All rights reserved. ©2020 SLFC ● The central view is intra-coded and can be accessed independently. ● Views in the second layer, are encoded independent of each other but using the central view as their reference image. ● We see encoding of the remaining views as view/frame interpolation problem. L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 29
  • 30. All rights reserved. ©2020 SLFC Residual with target view Residual with target view Residual with target view 30
  • 31. All rights reserved. ©2020 SLFC SepConv: Video Frame Interpolation via Adaptive Separable Convolution 31
  • 32. All rights reserved. ©2020 SLFC ● In each layer (3 to 7), two views from the previously encoded layers are used to synthesize their intermediate view. ● When the intermediate view is synthesized, it is added as a virtual reference frame to the reference list in the video encoder. ● To encode each intermediate view four references are used for inter-coding: (i) the most central view, (ii, iii) two views that are used for interpolation, (v) the synthesized view. 32
  • 33. All rights reserved. ©2020 SLFC 33
  • 34. All rights reserved. ©2020 Encoding efficiency Rate distortion curves for Table light field images. Anchor: JPEG Pleno anchor WaSP: Hierarchical warping, merging, and sparse prediction for light field image compression MuLE: A 4D DCT-Based lenslet light field codec PSB: Pseudo sequence based 2-D hierarchical coding structure for light-field image compression 34
  • 35. All rights reserved. ©2020 Viewport scalability Bitrate allocated to each layer at bpp4 = 0.75 The number of views in each layer 35
  • 36. All rights reserved. ©2020 Quality scalability SLFC provides two quality levels : ● quality 1: When the most central view and corner views are available, SLFC can synthesize all remaining views by utilizing SepConv. ● quality 2: SLFC first synthesize a target view, then utilize the synthesized view for inter-coding at the cost of additional bitrate. 36
  • 37. All rights reserved. ©2020 Random access Ap for all views of greek light field images at bpp4 = 0.75 37
  • 38. All rights reserved. ©2020 Uniform quality distribution PSNR heatmap plot for greek light field image 38
  • 39. All rights reserved. ©2020 Conclusion ● SLFC utilizes a DNN to synthesize intermediate views. ● Synthesized views are used as virtual references for inter-coding. ● SLFC provides: ○ High encoding efficiency ○ Viewport scalability ○ Quality scalability ○ Random access ○ Uniform quality distribution 39
  • 40. All rights reserved. ©2020 Thanks for your attention 40 www.athena.itec.aau.at