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Measuring Quality of Experience for MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Multimedia Content Adaptation

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Christian Timmerer, Víctor H. Ortega, José M. González, and Alberto León, Measuring Quality of Experience for MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Multimedia Content Adaptation, Proceedings of the 1st ACS/IEEE International Workshop on Wireless Internet Services (WISe'08), Doha, Qatar, April 1-4, 2008.

Published in: Technology, Business
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Measuring Quality of Experience for MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Multimedia Content Adaptation

  1. 1. Measuring
Quality
of
Experience
for
MPEG‐21‐based
 Cross‐Layer
Mul>media
Content
Adapta>on
 Chris&an
Timmerer
 Klagenfurt
University
(UNIKLU)

Faculty
of
Technical
Sciences
(TEWI)
 Department
of
Informa&on
Technology
(ITEC)

Mul&media
Communica&on
(MMC)
 hBp://research.>mmerer.com

hBp://blog.>mmerer.com

 mailto:chris>an.>mmerer@itec.uni‐klu.ac.at
 Co‐Authors:
Chris>an
Timmerer
(University
of
Klagenfurt,
Austria),
Víctor
H.
Ortega
(Tecsidel,
Spain),
José
M.
 González,
and
Alberto
León
(Telefonica,
Spain)
 Acknowledgment:
This
work
is
supported
by
the
European
Commission
in
the
context
of
the
ENTHRONE
project
 (IST‐1‐507637).
Further
informa>on
is
available
at
hBp://www.ist‐enthrone.org.

  2. 2. Outline
 •  Overview
and
Context
 •  Probing
Quality
of
Service
/
Experience
 •  MPEG‐21
Overview
(Digital
Item
Adapta>on)
 •  An
Interoperable
QoS
Model
for
Video
 Transmission
Exploi>ng
Cross‐Layer
Interac>ons
 •  Conclusions
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 2

  3. 3. Overview
and
Context
 Content
Adapta&on
 for
Universal
Access
 Heterogeneous
Networks,

 Diverse
Set
of
 Dynamic
Condi&ons
 Rich
Mul&media

 Terminal
Devices,

 Content
 User
Preferences
 Growing
mismatch
 ⇓
 Need
for
scalable
content,
descrip&ons,
nego&a&on,
adapta&on
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 3

  4. 4. Overview
and
Context
 Content
Adapta&on
 for
Universal
Access
 ...
but,
where‘s
the
 Heterogeneous
Networks,

 (end)
user?
 Diverse
Set
of
 Dynamic
Condi&ons
 Rich
Mul&media

 Terminal
Devices,

 Content
 User
Preferences
 Growing
mismatch
 ⇓
 Need
for
scalable
content,
descrip&ons,
nego&a&on,
adapta&on
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 4

  5. 5. Overview
and
Context
(cont‘d)
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 5

  6. 6. Overview
and
Context
(cont‘d)
 Cross‐Layer
Style
 End‐to‐End
QoS
Management
+
Interoperability
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 6

  7. 7. Probing
Quality
of
Service
/
Experience
 Audio
 •  ETSI/ITU‐T‘s
E‐model:
quot;Psychological
factors
on
the
psychological
 scale
are
addi>vequot;
 •  Factors:
packet
loss,
delay,
equipment
impairment,
packet
loss
 robustness
factors
(depends
on
codec)
 Video
 •  Profiles/Levels
with
diff.
resolu>ons,
frames
per
second,
bit
rates,
 etc.
 •  Peak
Signal
to
Noise
Ra>o
(PSNR),
Mean
Opinion
Square
(MOS),
 Video
Quality
Metric
(VQM)
 •  Various
models
exist,
e.g.,
perceptual
impression
of
packet
loss,
 frame
rate
varia>on
and
sync.
w/
audio
 
need
for
interoperable
solu&ons
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 7

  8. 8. The
MPEG‐21
Mul>media
Framework
 MPEG‐21
Vision
 •  ...
to
enable
transparent
and
augmented
use
of
mul>media
resources
 across
a
wide
range
of
networks,
devices,
user
preferences,
and
 communi>es,
notably
for
trading
(of
bits)
 What
?
–
Digital
Items
(DIs)
 •  A
Digital
Item
(DI)
is
a
structured
digital
object
with
a
standard
 representa>on,
iden>fica>on,
and
metadata
within
the
MPEG‐21
 framework
 •  Digital
Items
are
“the
content”
 Who
?
–
Users

 •  A
User
is
any
en>ty
that
interacts
in
the
MPEG‐21
environment
or
makes
 use
of
a
Digital
Item
 •  Users
will
assume
rights
and
responsibili>es
according
to
their
interac>on
 with
other
Users
 •  All
par>es
that
have
a
requirement
within
MPEG‐21
to
interact
are
 categorized
equally
as
Users
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 8

  9. 9. MPEG‐21
Organisa>on
–
Parts
 Digital
 Adapta&on
 Processing
 Systems
 Misc
 Rights
 Pt.
7:
Digital
 Pt.
10:
Digital
 Pt.
9:
File
 Pt.
8:
Reference
 Management
 Item
Adapta>on
 Item
Processing
 Format
 Sosware
 Pt.
11:
Persistent
 Amd.1:
Add‘l
 Pt.
16:
Binary
 Amd.1:
Convers.
 Pt.
4:
IPMP
 Associa>on

 C++
bindings

 Format
 And
Permissions
 Components
 Pt.
12:
Test
Bed

 Pt.
18:
Digital
 Amd.2:
Dynamic
 Pt.
5:
Rights
 Item
Streaming
 and
Distributed
 Pt.
14:
Conform.
 Expression
Lang
 Adapta>on
 Pt.
15:
Event
 Pt.
6:
Rights
 Repor>ng

 Data
Dic>onary
 Pt.
17:
Fragment
 Amd.1:
DII
 Idenfica>on
 rela>onship
types

 Vision,
Declara&on,
and
Iden&fica&on
 Pt.
1:
Vision,
Technologies
 Pt.
2:
Digital
Item
 Pt.
3:
Digital
Item
 and
Strategy
 Declara>on
 Iden>fica>on
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 9

  10. 10. MPEG‐21
Digital
Item
Adapta>on
 •  Sa>sfy
transmission,
storage
and
consump>on
constraints
as
well
as
QoS
 management
 •  Enable
transparent
access
to
(distributed)
advanced
mul>media
content
 by
shielding
users
from
network
and
terminal
installa>on
issues
 Relevant
Tools
(among
other)
 •  Usage
Environment
Descrip>on
(UED)
 –  network,
terminal,
user,
natural
 environment
 •  Universal
Constraints
Descrip>on
(UCD)
 –  limita>on,
op>miza>on
 •  Adapta>onQoS
 –  rela>onship
between
constraints
(i.e.,
the
UED/UCD),
feasible
adapta>on
 opera>ons
(e.g.,
transcoding,
scaling,
etc.)
sa>sfying
these
constraints,
and
 associated
u>li>es
(i.e.,
quali>es
/
PSNR).
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 10

  11. 11. An
Interoperable
QoS
Model
for
Video
 Transmission
Exploi>ng
Cross‐Layer
Interac>ons
 •  AVC
test
content:
frame
rate
[6.25,25]
fps;
bit
rate
 [150,1500]
kbps;
packet
loss
[0,10]
%
 •  Public
survey
(across
EU)
–
boBom‐up
approach
 Impact
of
Packet
Loss
 •  Bernoulli
model
=>
packet
loss
randomly
distributed
 over
uniform
probability
density
func>on
(all
packets
 have
same
probability
to
be
dropped)
 •  Real
world:
packet
loss
==
bursts
of
random
length
 (1)
 
calculate
the
quality
in
short
intervals
 (packet
loss
density
distribu>on
can
be
considered
 uniform
even
if
we
are
inside
a
burst)
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 11

  12. 12. An
Interoperable
QoS
Model
for
Video
 Transmission
Exploi>ng
Cross‐Layer
Interac>ons
 •  AVC
test
content:
frame
rate
[6.25,25]
fps;
bit
rate
 [150,1500]
kbps;
packet
loss
[0,10]
%
 •  Public
survey
(across
EU)
–
boBom‐up
approach
 Impact
of
Packet
Loss
 •  Bernoulli
model
=>
packet
loss
randomly
distributed
 over
uniform
probability
density
func>on
(all
packets
 have
same
probability
to
be
dropped)
 •  Real
world:
packet
loss
==
bursts
of
random
length
 (1)
 
calculate
the
quality
in
short
intervals
 (packet
loss
density
distribu>on
can
be
considered
 uniform
even
if
we
are
inside
a
burst)
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 12

  13. 13. An
Interoperable
QoS
Model
for
Video
Transmission
 Exploi>ng
Cross‐Layer
Interac>ons
(cont’d)
 Impact
of
Bandwidth
 •  Different
bandwidth
curves
studied
  rela>onship
between
bit
rate
and
the
packet
loss
 (2)
 Impact
of
Frame
Rate
 •  Classifica>on
according
to
temporal
nature
+
 actual
audio‐visual
content:
[1..7]
(7
is
the
best)
 
Extrapolated
for
VoD
szenarion
with
high
 temporal
nature
 (3)
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 13

  14. 14. An
Interoperable
QoS
Model
for
Video
Transmission
 Exploi>ng
Cross‐Layer
Interac>ons
(cont’d)
 Impact
of
Bandwidth
 •  Different
bandwidth
curves
studied
  rela>onship
between
bit
rate
and
the
packet
loss
 (2)
 Impact
of
Frame
Rate
 •  Classifica>on
according
to
temporal
nature
+
 actual
audio‐visual
content:
[1..7]
(7
is
the
best)
 
Extrapolated
for
VoD
szenarion
with
high
 temporal
nature
 (3)
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 14

  15. 15. An
Interoperable
QoS
Model
for
Video
Transmission
 Exploi>ng
Cross‐Layer
Interac>ons
(cont’d)
 Proposed
Model
 (4)
 
add
interoperability
support
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 15

  16. 16. Adding
MPEG‐21
Support
Enabling
 Interoperable
Cross‐Layer
Interac>ons
 AdaptationQoS Stack Function for MOS (aqos.xml): <!-- Stack Function for MOS calculation --> •  Describe
func>onal
dependencies
of
(4)
 <Module xsi:type=quot;StackFunctionTypequot; iOPinRef=quot;MOSquot;> <StackFunction> –  MPEG‐21
DIA
Adapta>onQoS'
stack
 <Argument xsi:type=quot;InternalIOPinRefTypequot; iOPinRef=quot;F_FRAMERATEquot;/> func>ons
 <Argument xsi:type=quot;InternalIOPinRefTypequot; iOPinRef=quot;F_PACKETLOSSquot;/> –  Range
of
possible
content
frame
rate
and
 <!-- multiply --> <Operation operator=quot;:SFO:18quot;/> bit‐rate
combina>ons

solu>on
space
 </StackFunction> </Module> UCD maximizing the MOS (ucd_provider.xml): <OptimizationConstraint optimize=quot;maximizequot;> <Argument xsi:type=quot;ExternalIOPinRefTypequot; •  Usage
environment:
network
condi>ons
 UED (ued.xml): iOPinRef=quot;aqos.xml#MOSquot;/> </OptimizationConstraint> (bandwidth,
packet
loss)
 <Network xsi:type=quot;NetworkTypequot;> <NetworkCharacteristic –  MPEG‐21
DIA
Usage
Environment
Descrip>on
 xsi:type=quot;NetworkConditionTypequot;> <AvailableBandwidth average=quot;1500000quot;/> <Error packetLossRate=quot;0.03quot;/> </NetworkCharacteristic> </Network> •  Constraints
of
the
probe
(pl,
br,
fps)
+
 UCD for probe constraints (ucd_probe.xml): <!-- packet loss <= 0.1 (10%) --> objec>ve
func>on,
i.e.,
maximize
the
MOS
 <LimitConstraint> <Argument xsi:type=quot;SemanticalRefTypequot; semantics=quot;:AQoS:6.6.5.8quot;/> –  MPEG‐21
DIA
Universal
Constraints
Descrip>on
 <Argument xsi:type=quot;ConstantDataTypequot;> <Constant xsi:type=quot;FloatTypequot;> <Value>0.1</Value> </Constant> </Argument> <Operation operator=quot;:SFO:38quot;/> 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 16
 </LimitConstraint>
  17. 17. Conclusions
and
Future
Work
 •  QoS/QoE:
guarantee
the
quality
of
mul>media
traffic
 experimented
by
the
user
 
translate
network
issues
into
user
perceived
quality
 •  New
model
for
evalua>ng
the
quality
of
video
streams
 proposed
–
extracted
from
RTP
traffic
 •  Interoperability
across
layers
through
MPEG‐21
 •  @TODO
evalua>on
in
large‐scale
pilots
featuring
inter‐ connected
test‐beds
across
Europe

FP6‐IST‐ ENTHRONE
 2008/04/03
 Chris>an
Timmerer
‐
UNIKLU
‐
WISe'08,
Doha,
Qatar
 17


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