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12.08.2014
Summer School
Harz University
Light Pollution
and LED Lighting
Christian Reinboth
Dipl.-WiInf.(FH)
HarzOptics GmbH
Wernigerode
Agenda
Topics for today:
● (I) A (very) short introduction
● (II) Light and the environment
● (III) LED lighting – a solution?
● (IV) Light pollution in the Harz
Please feel free to ask questions
during or after the presentation
(II) Light and the Environment
Street Lighting -
an environmental problem?
Energy consumption
● In Germany ~ 4.000.000.000 kWh/year
● ...which releases 2,5 million tons of CO2
● In Europe ~ 35.000.000.000 kWh/year
● ...or roughly the output of 17 Biblis NPP
Other ecological problems
● Steady increase of light pollution
● Disposal of outdated mercury arc lamps
Boulder Glacier,
Washington State
Photo © www.globalwarmingart.com
Increase of extreme
Weather Events
Photos © NOAA, DoD
Economic damage from floods in the United States:
22 billion US$ in the 1960s; 234 billion US$ in the 1990s
Predicted Sea Level Rise
Graphics © www.globalwarmingart.com
Recent predicions suggest a sea level rise of
between 0,5m and 1,5m during the next 100 years
The Loss of the Night Sky...
Identical view of the night sky with and without light pollution
Photo © Jeremy Stanley
...all over the World
Photo © Dark Skies Switzerland
„Urban Sky Glow“
Photo © Norbert Heinze
Milky Way? Many Germans
have never seen it...
1/3 of all Germans has never seen the band of the Milky Way
Among Germans under 30 this ratio is 44% (Emnid, 2002)
When will the Milky Way become invisible in Germany?
Photo © Dan Duriscoe, US National Park Service
Loss of Cultural Heritage
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Wernigerode: 4-5
(Bortle Scale)
Lighting has Consequences
Photos © flagstaffotos.com.au
Street Lights as Death Traps
A mercury arc light kills about 100-250 insects per night
Photos © Prof. Dr. Eisenbeis, Uni Mainz
Domestic Insects threatened
by too much Light at Night
Eichenspinner
(Lasiocampa quercus)
Eulenfalter
(Noctuidae)
Photos © www.entomat.be
A Danger to Human Health?
„The analysis yielded an estimated 73% higher breast
cancer incidence in the highest LAN (light at night) exposed
communities compared to the lowest LAN exposed communities.“
Kloog, I., Haim, A; Stevens, R.G.; Barchana, M. & Portnov, B.A.: Light at night co-distributes with
incident breast but not lung cancer in the female population of Israel, in: Chronobiology International
2008 Feb;25(1):65-81
Photos © Südwestdeutsches PET-Zentrum Stuttgart
Published on July 31st
2014
(III) What are the Solutions?
Targeted use of Lighting
Way too much
light pollution
“Normal”
light pollution
Minimal
light pollution
Graphic © Florian Schweidler
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
„Insect-friendly“
Street Lighting?
Graphics © Institut für Hydrobiologie & Gewässermanagement Wien
Mercury arc lamp Sodium vapor lamp
Clocked LED lighting is even more insect-friendly
- but can environmentalists really welcome LED lighting?
LED Lighting in Wernigerode
AuLED lights have saved 46,4% energy compared to NA lighting
Marklingeröder Straße
The Dark Side of LEDs
Photo © www.wikipedia.de
Frontage lighting at the Art Museum Linz
The Dark Side of LEDs
Photo © Rolf Kaiser
Light from a hardware store in Obergrombach (16.000 LEDs)
DIALux 4.12 and QGIS 2.2
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
DIALux simulation with TRILUX 9701
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
DIALux simulation with TRILUX 9701
DIN EN 13 201 (since 2004)
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Entwicklung optischer KomponentenStep 1 – Generating a map of the locale with open source geodata (e.g. OSM)
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Step 2 – Geomapping of all street lights in the area using GPS systems and software
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Step 3 – Inclusion of geodata on bus stops, pedestrian crossings, hazard spots etc.
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Step 4 – Classification of streets according to DIN EN 13 201 using all available info
10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
Data can be transferred to other GIS such as Google Maps or Google Earth
Interior lighting design (St. Andreasberg Observatory)
Interior lighting design (St. Andreasberg Observatory)
Simulation of a bus stop with DIALux (Wieck am Darß)
Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (teaching scenario)
Hydrogen-powered LED lighting (ZIM project AUBELE)
Hydrogen-powered LED lighting (ZIM project AUBELE)
Hydrogen-powered LED lighting (ZIM project AUBELE)
Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
0 18 37 56 75 93 112 131 150
ULR = 6%
(Upward Light Ratio)
0 18 37 56 75 93 112 131 150
ULR = 43%
(Upward Light Ratio)
0 18 37 56 75 93 112 131 150
ULR = 99%
(Upward Light Ratio)
Light = Security?
● Home Office Crime Prevention Unit (2004)
● Installation of particularly bright street lights
● An analysis of mission data by police and rescue
services showed no effect on crime and security
● A survey of the residents found that their feeling
of safety had, however, increased significantly
● Polizei-Fachhochschule Rheine (2007)
● Total blackout between 1:00 and 3:30 at night
● The measure had no impact on public safety
● The city saved 72.000 EUR and 420t CO2
(IV) Light Pollution in the Harz
Photo © Michael Schomann
The visible band of the Milky Way over Sankt Andreasberg
Photo © Oliver Maiwald
The 2012 Transit of Venus observed from Sankt Andreasberg
Types of Dark Sky Parks
● International Dark
Sky Association
● Dark Sky Communities
● Dark Sky Reserves
● Dark Sky Parks
● Royal Astronomy
Society of Canada
● Dark Sky Preserves
● Urban Stark Parks
● Starlight Initiative
● Human Habitats
● Starlight Landscapes
● Starlight Natural Sites
● Starlight Heritage Sites
● Starlight Astronomy Sites
● … & Mixed Starlight Sites
● Potential World Heritage
Status through UNESCO
Permanent Measurements
Astronomical Heritage
Outreach and Education
Problems and Obstacles
Photo © Dr. Andreas Hänel
Wendelstein ski resort after deactivation of slope lighting
Photo © Christopher Ries
Wendelstein ski resort before deactivation of slope lighting
Photo © Christopher Ries
Wurmberg Illumination
Suggested illumination levels for ski slopes according to DIN EN 12 193:
Class Illumination level Illumination equability
I 100 lx 0,5
II 30 lx 0,3
III 20 lx 0,2
Class I: Facilities for high performance sports and international sporting events
Class II: Facilities for important national sporting events with many spectators
Class III: Facilities for leisure sports, school sports and general training
The investor has proposed a 150 lx floodlighting.
Some concessions were made: The lighting system will only be in use during
three days per week for a maximum duration of four months per year.
Additionally, the lighting will be shut off after 22:30 p.m.
Dark Skies!
Photo © Dan Duriscoe (Dark Sky Park Flagstaff, Arizona)

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Light Pollution and LED Lighting

  • 1. 12.08.2014 Summer School Harz University Light Pollution and LED Lighting Christian Reinboth Dipl.-WiInf.(FH) HarzOptics GmbH Wernigerode
  • 2. Agenda Topics for today: ● (I) A (very) short introduction ● (II) Light and the environment ● (III) LED lighting – a solution? ● (IV) Light pollution in the Harz Please feel free to ask questions during or after the presentation
  • 3. (II) Light and the Environment
  • 4. Street Lighting - an environmental problem? Energy consumption ● In Germany ~ 4.000.000.000 kWh/year ● ...which releases 2,5 million tons of CO2 ● In Europe ~ 35.000.000.000 kWh/year ● ...or roughly the output of 17 Biblis NPP Other ecological problems ● Steady increase of light pollution ● Disposal of outdated mercury arc lamps
  • 5. Boulder Glacier, Washington State Photo © www.globalwarmingart.com
  • 6. Increase of extreme Weather Events Photos © NOAA, DoD Economic damage from floods in the United States: 22 billion US$ in the 1960s; 234 billion US$ in the 1990s
  • 7. Predicted Sea Level Rise Graphics © www.globalwarmingart.com Recent predicions suggest a sea level rise of between 0,5m and 1,5m during the next 100 years
  • 8. The Loss of the Night Sky... Identical view of the night sky with and without light pollution Photo © Jeremy Stanley
  • 9. ...all over the World Photo © Dark Skies Switzerland
  • 10. „Urban Sky Glow“ Photo © Norbert Heinze
  • 11. Milky Way? Many Germans have never seen it... 1/3 of all Germans has never seen the band of the Milky Way Among Germans under 30 this ratio is 44% (Emnid, 2002) When will the Milky Way become invisible in Germany? Photo © Dan Duriscoe, US National Park Service
  • 12. Loss of Cultural Heritage
  • 13. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Wernigerode: 4-5 (Bortle Scale)
  • 14. Lighting has Consequences Photos © flagstaffotos.com.au
  • 15. Street Lights as Death Traps A mercury arc light kills about 100-250 insects per night Photos © Prof. Dr. Eisenbeis, Uni Mainz
  • 16. Domestic Insects threatened by too much Light at Night Eichenspinner (Lasiocampa quercus) Eulenfalter (Noctuidae) Photos © www.entomat.be
  • 17. A Danger to Human Health? „The analysis yielded an estimated 73% higher breast cancer incidence in the highest LAN (light at night) exposed communities compared to the lowest LAN exposed communities.“ Kloog, I., Haim, A; Stevens, R.G.; Barchana, M. & Portnov, B.A.: Light at night co-distributes with incident breast but not lung cancer in the female population of Israel, in: Chronobiology International 2008 Feb;25(1):65-81 Photos © Südwestdeutsches PET-Zentrum Stuttgart
  • 18. Published on July 31st 2014
  • 19. (III) What are the Solutions?
  • 20. Targeted use of Lighting Way too much light pollution “Normal” light pollution Minimal light pollution Graphic © Florian Schweidler
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains
  • 25. „Insect-friendly“ Street Lighting? Graphics © Institut für Hydrobiologie & Gewässermanagement Wien Mercury arc lamp Sodium vapor lamp Clocked LED lighting is even more insect-friendly - but can environmentalists really welcome LED lighting?
  • 26. LED Lighting in Wernigerode AuLED lights have saved 46,4% energy compared to NA lighting Marklingeröder Straße
  • 27. The Dark Side of LEDs Photo © www.wikipedia.de Frontage lighting at the Art Museum Linz
  • 28. The Dark Side of LEDs Photo © Rolf Kaiser Light from a hardware store in Obergrombach (16.000 LEDs)
  • 29. DIALux 4.12 and QGIS 2.2
  • 30. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains DIALux simulation with TRILUX 9701
  • 31. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains DIALux simulation with TRILUX 9701
  • 32. DIN EN 13 201 (since 2004)
  • 33. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Entwicklung optischer KomponentenStep 1 – Generating a map of the locale with open source geodata (e.g. OSM)
  • 34. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Step 2 – Geomapping of all street lights in the area using GPS systems and software
  • 35. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Step 3 – Inclusion of geodata on bus stops, pedestrian crossings, hazard spots etc.
  • 36. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Step 4 – Classification of streets according to DIN EN 13 201 using all available info
  • 37. 10.06.2014 / ISSRM 2014 – GFN Harz e.V. / F. Knolle / C. Reinboth – Winter Tourism and Protected Areas in the Harz Mountains Data can be transferred to other GIS such as Google Maps or Google Earth
  • 38. Interior lighting design (St. Andreasberg Observatory)
  • 39. Interior lighting design (St. Andreasberg Observatory)
  • 40. Simulation of a bus stop with DIALux (Wieck am Darß)
  • 41. Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (teaching scenario)
  • 42. Hydrogen-powered LED lighting (ZIM project AUBELE)
  • 43. Hydrogen-powered LED lighting (ZIM project AUBELE)
  • 44. Hydrogen-powered LED lighting (ZIM project AUBELE)
  • 45. Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
  • 46. Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
  • 47. Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
  • 48. Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
  • 49. Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
  • 50. Complex lighting scenario with DIALux (City of Osterode)
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53. 0 18 37 56 75 93 112 131 150 ULR = 6% (Upward Light Ratio)
  • 54.
  • 55. 0 18 37 56 75 93 112 131 150 ULR = 43% (Upward Light Ratio)
  • 56.
  • 57. 0 18 37 56 75 93 112 131 150 ULR = 99% (Upward Light Ratio)
  • 58. Light = Security? ● Home Office Crime Prevention Unit (2004) ● Installation of particularly bright street lights ● An analysis of mission data by police and rescue services showed no effect on crime and security ● A survey of the residents found that their feeling of safety had, however, increased significantly ● Polizei-Fachhochschule Rheine (2007) ● Total blackout between 1:00 and 3:30 at night ● The measure had no impact on public safety ● The city saved 72.000 EUR and 420t CO2
  • 59. (IV) Light Pollution in the Harz
  • 60. Photo © Michael Schomann The visible band of the Milky Way over Sankt Andreasberg
  • 61. Photo © Oliver Maiwald The 2012 Transit of Venus observed from Sankt Andreasberg
  • 62. Types of Dark Sky Parks ● International Dark Sky Association ● Dark Sky Communities ● Dark Sky Reserves ● Dark Sky Parks ● Royal Astronomy Society of Canada ● Dark Sky Preserves ● Urban Stark Parks ● Starlight Initiative ● Human Habitats ● Starlight Landscapes ● Starlight Natural Sites ● Starlight Heritage Sites ● Starlight Astronomy Sites ● … & Mixed Starlight Sites ● Potential World Heritage Status through UNESCO
  • 66. Problems and Obstacles Photo © Dr. Andreas Hänel
  • 67. Wendelstein ski resort after deactivation of slope lighting Photo © Christopher Ries
  • 68. Wendelstein ski resort before deactivation of slope lighting Photo © Christopher Ries
  • 69. Wurmberg Illumination Suggested illumination levels for ski slopes according to DIN EN 12 193: Class Illumination level Illumination equability I 100 lx 0,5 II 30 lx 0,3 III 20 lx 0,2 Class I: Facilities for high performance sports and international sporting events Class II: Facilities for important national sporting events with many spectators Class III: Facilities for leisure sports, school sports and general training The investor has proposed a 150 lx floodlighting. Some concessions were made: The lighting system will only be in use during three days per week for a maximum duration of four months per year. Additionally, the lighting will be shut off after 22:30 p.m.
  • 70. Dark Skies! Photo © Dan Duriscoe (Dark Sky Park Flagstaff, Arizona)