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# Progressive Waves

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### Progressive Waves

1. 1. Progressive waves
2. 2. <ul><li>“ Looking out into the immensity of the universe, we stand at the shores of the cosmic ocean. Yet our earthly seas are no less beautiful, and the crashing surf reminds us that most of what we know about our world comes from information carried by waves.” </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Sagan </li></ul>
3. 3. Waves <ul><li>A basic concept of physics </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive waves </li></ul><ul><li>Describing waves </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse </li></ul></ul></ul>
4. 4. Graphical representation <ul><li>Displacement - time graph </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse mechanical wave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal wave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Amplitude </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul>
5. 6. Wavelength, frequency and wave speed <ul><li>A wave source vibrates at f vibrations per second  particles of transmitting medium vibrate at same frequency </li></ul><ul><li>1 complete vibration = 1 wave generated </li></ul><ul><li> disturbance =  m from source </li></ul><ul><li>  = f  or c = f  </li></ul><ul><li>Note: this is not on data sheet </li></ul>
6. 7. Phase
7. 8. <ul><li>A and B: in phase </li></ul><ul><li>B and C: in antiphase </li></ul><ul><li>Phase difference  </li></ul><ul><li>Calculating  for x 1 and x 2 </li></ul><ul><li> = 2  ( x 1 - x 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>If x 1 - x 2 integer number  s,  = 2  , 4  , 6  etc </li></ul>
8. 9. Path difference
9. 10. <ul><li>Waves emitted from a and B in phase </li></ul><ul><li>At P: relative phase depends on distance travelled </li></ul><ul><li>Path difference = BP – AP </li></ul><ul><li>Path difference = n   constructive </li></ul><ul><li>Path difference = (n + ½ )   destructive </li></ul>