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  1. 1. Midterm review JMC59 | Fall 2008
  2. 2. Digital cameras
  3. 3. Three ways to control light Aperture: how much light gets in Shutter speed: how long light is let in ISO: sensitivity of image device
  4. 4. Aperture F-stop is the measurement of the opening F1 is very wide opening letting in lots of light F32 is a small opening letting in little light
  5. 5. Aperture Your camera likely has F2.8-F8 A full F-stop change either doubles or halves the amount of light coming into the camera Involved in depth of field, which we will cover shortly
  6. 6. Shutter speed Determines how long light comes in 1/15th of a second would be a long exposure letting lots of light into the camera 1/2000 would be a short exposure, letting in very little light Slow shutter speeds allow blurring of the subject Fast shutter speeds stop the action
  7. 7. ISO The sensitivity of light of a photosensitive surface Film is measured in ISO, and better digital cameras have this adjustment Low ISO indicates low sensitivity to light, but generally higher resolution with less “noise” or “grain” A 100 ISO setting is twice as sensitive to light as a 50 ISO
  8. 8. 100 ISO
  9. 9. 1600 ISO
  10. 10. Depth of field How much of the photo is in focus Controlled by... Aperture Subject’s distance from the camera Focal length
  11. 11. DOF: Aperture The more wide open the aperture, the less the depth of field
  12. 12. F11 aperture
  13. 13. F2.8 aperture
  14. 14. DOF: Distance from camera The closer the subject, the less depth of field The farther away, the more depth of field
  15. 15. Focal length The greater the focal length (zoomed or telephoto), the less the depth of field Therefore, for the greatest depth of field you would need a wide angle lens, with a closed aperture, and a subject at a good distance
  16. 16. Photography
  17. 17. 5 tools all great photographers use •Light •Composition •Portraiture •Action •Moment
  18. 18. Light • Light has four properties: quantity, quality, direction and color. • A successful photographer can discern between front light and back light. • Shoot in the first and last two hours of daylight because of the direction and warmth of the sunlight. • Cloudy days allow you to shoot during all daylight hours, because the clouds diffuse the light. • Color of light is controlled by the source: daylight, incandescent and fluorescent are the three main sources (flash is basically the color of the sun).
  19. 19. Front light
  20. 20. Back light
  21. 21. Back light
  22. 22. Composition • Capturing the attention of the viewer and the movement of the eye through the photograph. • Rule of thirds • Leading lines • Juxtaposition • Emphasizing the foreground or background by changing camera angles
  23. 23. Rule of thirds
  24. 24. Leading lines
  25. 25. Leading lines
  26. 26. Leading lines
  27. 27. Juxtaposition
  28. 28. Camera angle
  29. 29. Portraiture • Formal • Informal • Environmental
  30. 30. Formal
  31. 31. Informal
  32. 32. Environmental
  33. 33. Action • Three ways to deal with action • Stop action • Pan shot (moving the camera with the subject so the background blurs) • Blur shot (camera stays still, subject blurs against background)
  34. 34. Stop action
  35. 35. Pan shot
  36. 36. Blur shot
  37. 37. Moment • You must do two things to be a successful photographer... • Truthfully and accurately portray a subject, scene or event. • Evoke an emotional response in the viewer. • We accomplish this by capturing moments, those life-telling gestures and juxtapositions, the action and reaction of subjects, scenes and defining moments of events.
  38. 38. Photoshop • resolution for print, web, tv • how to convert to BW • Burn and dodge - define • Patch tool - what it does
  39. 39. Type • serif • sans serif
  40. 40. Photo ethics • what questions would you ask yourself before running a questionable photo
  41. 41. To use or not to use • Virginian-Pilot photo usage rules... • When in doubt, use common sense. Know privacy rules and laws. Shooting the photo usually is not the problem. Publishing the photo may be. Using sound judgment, the photographer should almost always shoot the picture. The editing process will determine whether the photo will be used. The photo editor, page editor and news editor will also help determine publication. Some photos should be approved by a deputy managing editor, managing editor or the editor.
  42. 42. Some Red Flags • Virginian-Pilot... • Death • Nudity or sexual content • Exaggerated grief • Blood or other body fluids • Photo is too good to be true (it may be set up) • Vulgar words or gestures (these may be hidden in a photo) • Cheap shot (zipper open, food on the face) • Unflattering expression not related to the event or situation • People performing dangerous acts • Violence • Racial stereotypes • Photos that may otherwise shock or appall readers
  43. 43. To use or not to use • Virginian-Pilot cont’d... • GUIDING QUESTIONS • Is the photo appropriate to the story? • Is the news value worth upsetting the reader? • Is the photo from this community or from far away? • What are the paper’s general standards of taste? • Do you need to pass the photo through the top editor? • Does it pass the “breakfast table” test?
  44. 44. Design • hierarchy • elements of good hierarchy and good design • grids • the design process • alternative ways to tell stories
  45. 45. Hierarchy • Dominant image • Dominant headline • Things get smaller as you go down the page to draw your eye through the page
  46. 46. Grids
  47. 47. Giant pig threatens mankind
  48. 48. Giant pig threatens mankind
  49. 49. Design process • What is the story I am trying to tell? • How do I tell that story through design? • What elements do I have to tell the story?