IERC Salzburg MBA Polymers


Published on

Presentation Conference IERC Salzburg on different interpretations of Waste Shipment Regulation and brominated flame retardants.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

IERC Salzburg MBA Polymers

  1. 1. A discussion around how flame retardants might endanger reaching the WEEE targets - EU Regulation is choosing between options? - Chris Slijkhuis
  2. 2. Agenda The origin of the problem Why recycling of tech plastics from WEEE and ELV‘s Why exporting of plastics to China? Raw Materials from E-Waste Flame retardants – the EU ENV discussion and options Processing plastics in China by MBA Polymers Conclusions & final comments Plastics and Electronics are Global businesses
  3. 3. Stopped containers in the Antwerp Harbor Suddenly S dd l containers were stopped i th A t t i t d in the Antwerp h b harbor Stoppings based upon a statement of the Flemish OVAM Statement of Flemish OVAM to Inspection • E-Waste plastics can have Br-FR‘s • These plastics with Br-FR‘s are hazardous p • No export out of Flanders, unless notification • No export when recycling for electronics • No export at all outside EU Containers were returned to origin Argumentation prepared on basis • 1013/2006 Link
  4. 4. Mixed WEEE plastics can always have Br-FR‘s
  5. 5. Export was allowed after local inspections We W were able t lib bl to liberate all containers placed at custody t ll t i l d t t d But huge costs and efforts were needed So we have decided to ask the EU for clarification that • E-Waste plastics are green listed plastics • Export is allowed within and outside the EU p • Only group of Polybrmonicated Biphenyls (PBB) is hazardous • That shredded plastics cannot follow the EU code 16 02.. • That shredded plastics are to be exported as B3010 and 19 12 04 Correspondents meeting EU 1013/2006 took place in September And discussions still ongoing • At the moment that this presentation is made • Correspondents meeting to take place on Jan. 15th 2009
  6. 6. Why recycling of tech plastics from/for electronics Without plastics recycling EU recycling targets impossible • WEEE and ELV directives are clear in their targets • WEEE – 65 % for Small Domestic Appliances • ELV – 85 % as from 2015 Increasing pressure from the market and environment • NGO‘s like Greenpeace are putting industry under pressure to act • Consumers increasinlgly become aware • EU Frame Work and other directives support this • REACH helps to create the framework Replacing virgin plastics with recycled makes sense • Recycled plastics were traditionally „down-cycled down cycled“ • Best available technology now exists to recycle to high standards Plastics recycling... huge environmental benefit recycling
  7. 7. The environmental benefit approx. 900 liter crude oil approx. 2 tons e-waste approx. 14.000 kWh approx. 1000 kWh pp OR <10% of the water consumption <10% of the energy consumption gy p 2-3 kg reduction of CO2 emissions per kg of recycled plastic
  8. 8. Electronics is Global, so MBA Polymers is also Global
  9. 9. The E-Waste Supply Cycle focussing on plastics De-Pollution Shredder Ferrous-Metals Size d i Si reduction, liberation and Non-FE Non-Ferrous-Metals separation Separations Smelters S lt Separate Non- Plastic Items Further Separation Plastic/non-Plastic Mixed Plastic Rich E-Waste
  10. 10. Options for Plastics-Rich Streams after Recycling Landfilling: df ll banned in some countries, costs increasing, questions about pollution, lose important raw material and impossibility to reach targets for recycling of E- Waste and ELV’s Incineration: (in (i many forms) costly and b f ) tl d becoming more-so, questions about air pollution, i ti b t i ll ti capacity issues, lose important raw material and impossibility to reach targets for recycling of E-Waste and ELV’s Recycling in line with the European Standards: large customers require a more reliable and dependable solution, customers for t ese plastics can push eedstoc these plast cs ca pus feedstock to e cycle suppliers, but need la ge volu es a d e-cycle suppl e s, eed large volumes and ideally global presence to do this successfully. All MBA Polymers plants worldwide work on the basis of the same technologies and separate Br-FR’s. Let‘s have a closer look at the materials
  11. 11. The Raw Materials Small domestic appliances Fridges ICT Plastics (with Br-FR‘s) CRT Plastics (with Br-FR‘s)
  12. 12. The avg. composition of the Sourcing Material EU Ferrous & N-Ferrous 1% Fluff/Foam Other Plastics Wires & Elect Parts 17% 4% 1% Wood Other Non-Plastics Non Plastics Rubber 3% 1% 3% Fines 1%PP PVC 3% 1% POM 1% PC-ABS & PC 6% HIPS PE 27% 1% ABS-FR 3% PPO 2% ABS HIPS-FR 24% 2%
  13. 13. Brominated Flame Retardants Those Br-flame retardants that are Substances of Concern • PBB Polybrominated Biphenyl – POP and PIC listed • PBB is the only Br-FR that is nominatively mentioned in 1013/2006 • PBB is chemically a different family of substances than PBDE‘s • Octa-Poly Brominated Diphenylether PBDE – not yet POP or PIC listed • Penta- Poly Brominated Diphenylether PBDE – not yet POP or PIC listed One Br-Flame retardant with some level of discussion • Deca PBDE – not POP nor PIC listed • Has been in use for a long period of time • Controversial EU court decision earlier this year • EU Stakeholder Consultation (RoHS) has been started, outcome will take time All other Brominated Flame Retardants are of no concern • These involve most of the Brominated Flame retardants found in E-Waste Most Br FR‘s are of no concern Br-FR‘s
  14. 14. TAC guidelines regarding Annex II – Br- FR‘s WEEE Directive Annex II requires separation Br-FR‘s Guidance Document TAC Annex II WEEE Directive • Manual, mechanical or other separation of Br-FR‘s • To result in environmentally safe treatment • Not necessarily at first stage of treatment • To result in an identifyable stream at end of process
  15. 15. Brominated Flame Retardants and new products Brominated Flame Retardants are accepted to be used • Br-FR’s are required In many applications – not only electronics The l B FR‘ li t d in Th only Br-FR‘s listed i REACH as restriced are: t i d • PBB Polybrominated Biphenyl • Octa-Poly Brominated Diphenylether PBDE at a level of > 1000 ppm & • Penta Penta- Poly Brominated Diphenylether PBDE at a level of > 1000 ppm So all other Br-FR‘s should be allowed to be transported • And these Br-FR‘s are the majority of the Br-FR‘s found in E-Waste plastics j y p • This is what is the basis of the global investments of MBA Polymers Only a few Br Flame Retardants are limited Br-
  16. 16. Brominated Flame Retardants in E-Waste plastics Poly-Brominated Poly Brominated Biphenyl (the family of the PBB‘s) • Not found at levels higher than the detection limits in all samples • This coincides with the findings of the MBA Polymers analyses • PBB cannot be found in E-Waste plastics E Waste Poly-Brominated Di-Phenyl-Ethers (the family of the PBDE‘s) • Octa Poly Octa-Poly Brominated Diphenylether PBDE always at a levels of < 1000 ppm • Penta- Poly Brominated Diphenylether PBDE always at a levels of < 1000 ppm • Hepta and Deca –PBDE‘s can be found at higher levels All other brominated flame retardants • Can be found at higher levels • TBBPA and it‘s derivates represent largest volume of Br-FR‘s used and found • Therefore a total Br content approach cannot be chosen Br-content • And a detailled analysis must form the basis of any decision, if any. Most Br FR‘s are of no concern Br-FR‘s
  17. 17. Only PBB is nominatively stated in 1013/2006 PBB is a diferent type of substance than PBDE
  18. 18. EU Options proposed in Correspondance Meeting Option1: plastics with Br-FR to be notified in EU and export ban non OECD Br FR • Cannot be applicable as most Br-Fr‘s are non-hazardous substances • PBB cannot be found in E-Wate plastics at levels > 50 ppm • Octa-and Penta-PBDE can not be found in quantities > 1000 ppm each Option 2: Threshold level total Bromide content • Not applicable as most Br-FR‘s are perfectly acceptable compounds Option 3: New Annex IIIB entry (notification OECD and non-OECD) • Proposed by several EU countries as solution to the problem • Of course PBB at the current level of <50 ppm • At max acceptable if only Octa and Penta PBDE are limited at each 1000 ppm Octa- Penta-PBDE • And if enforced in all EU member States in the same way Option 4: „Risk-based“ approach on total PBB and PBDE (notification) p pp ( ) • Acceptable, but again with the same remarks as option 3. Option 5: Greenlisting all plastics from consumer E-Waste and all plastics from business applications and CRT as 4 4. • Acceptable, but again with the same remarks as option 3.
  19. 19. High Tech Recycling in China The GMP - MBA Polymers plant in the Pearl River Delta near Guanzhou
  20. 20. Goods-In, Analysis & Pre-processing Sourcing & Goods In Goods-In • Material Handling • Assaying • Material Analysis Pre-Processing • Taking out remaining metals • Cleaning material of minerals (glass, stones, dust) • Eliminating organic fractions such as wood and rubber g g Size reduction to a standard particle size Conveying plastic material into high tech seperations l l h h h
  21. 21. High Tech Separations & Extrusion/Compounding Cleaning plastics High Tech High-Tech Separations • Obtaining PP, ABS and PS • Separating Br FR’s Br-FR s • In three grades • Injection Moulding • Extrusion • General Purpose High quality extrusion and compounding • RoHS compliant products
  22. 22. Laboratory for detailled process control Incoming Material Analysis • Yield & contaminations Process Control • Numerous checkpoints • In-time feed-back cycles • Purity P it control fi l products t l final d t Final products Quality Control • Each big bag is quality controlled • MFI, Izod and Tensile Strength
  23. 23. High Tech Applications for End-Products Made from Post-Consumer Plastics
  24. 24. Summary The discussion on export of E-Waste plastics is not only important to MBA Polymers; it is for the electronics recycling industry at large. The recycling quota of the EU will not be met if plastics cannot be recycled. Many brominated flame retardants can continue to be used for housings of electronics electronics. Recycling is preferable to incineration or land-filling from both economic and environmental standpoints. f b h d l d The CO2 balance advantage should be taken into account in this debate.
  25. 25. Supply Chain to Supply Cycle......for the sake of Environment