Types of persuasive claimsSLCCFairview High School
There are four general types ofpersuasive claims• Claims of value• Claims of fact• Claims of policy• Cause/effect claims• And the type of claim you are making will drive the type of evidence you provide to support it.
Claims of value• Example o Kurt Vonnegut is the best modern satirist.• Evidence necessary o Your criteria for determining your value judgment and analysis of less worthy examples. Criteria for determining a great satirist. Who are others? How do they not meet the criteria.
Claims of fact• Example o Women are naturally more nurturing.• Argue it as a fact even though it may not be a fact. o Not a claim: Smoking is bad for your health. That’s not a debatable “fact.”• Evidence necessary o Credible evidence—facts, data, statistics, etc. Use scientific evidence that babies are more soothed by mothers. Surveys show that older adults see mothers as more nurturing.
Claims of policy• Example o Smoking should be banned in all public buildings.• Evidence necessary o Show all the reasons why your policy claim needs to be followed. Demonstrate that smoking is unhealthy. Demonstrate the dangers in particular of second- hand smoking. Something about the role/rights of public buildings. Why specifically in ALL public buildings.
Cause/effect claims• Example o Because the flu shot contains thimerisol, no pregnant women should be given the flu shot.• Evidence necessary o Make the link between the cause and effect clear. Evidence about thimerisol and its dangerous side effects to mother and fetus.
The boundaries between these claimsare fluid; they can overlap• Fact and value o Arguing as fact and placing a value judgment on it. o Boxing is a dehumanizing sport.• Cause/effect and policy o Because this causes that, this other step needs to be taken. o E.g., Because of the dangers of thimerisol on pregnant women and fetuses, flu shots for pregnant women should not contain thimerisol.
Think about your own work:• Write down your thesis.• What type of claim are you making with your research paper thesis? o Value o Fact o Policy o Cause/effect o Some combination• And what kind of evidence then should you be collecting?