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  1. 1. TV Drama – Dramatic programming is television content that is scripted and (normally) fictional. Representation – The action of speaking or acting on behalf of someone or the state of being so represented. Mediation / mediated – Stereotype – A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing. Hegemonic norm – The processes by which dominant culture maintains its dominant position: Ideology – A system of ideas and ideals. Semiotics – The study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation. Connotation – An idea or feeling that a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning. Signifies – Be a symbol of; have as meaning. Types of signifier – Iconic - signs where the signifier resembles the signified, e.g., a picture. Indexical - signs where the signifier is caused by the signified, e.g., smoke signifies fire. Symbolic - signs where the relation between signifier and signified is purely conventional and culturally specific, e.g., most words. Binary opposites – The contrast between two mutually exclusive concepts or things that creates conflict and drives a narrative. For example, good/evil, day/night, male/female, presence/absence, old/young Mode of address –Proposes that media texts address its intended audience in a particular way, establishing a relationship between the producer of the text and the media’s audience. For example,direct mode of address using ‘you’, ‘you’re’. Anchoring – Fixing of meaning. For example, the copy text anchors (fixes to one spot) the meaning of an image (for instance, a single rose that could be used for an ad for anything from a dating agency to a funeral home) in a print advertisement. Conventions – The widely recognised way of doing something - this has to do with content, style and form. For example,the conventions of a music video or magazine.