BMGT 311: Chapter 8
Understanding Measurement, Developing Questions, and Designing the
Questionnaire

Learning Objectives
• To understand the basics of measurement regarding people, places, and
things

• To recognize the thr...
Learning Objectives
• To appreciate the basic functions of a questionnaire

• To learn the dos and don’ts of question word...
Basic Concepts in Measurement
• Measurement: determining how much of a property is possessed by an
object

• Properties: s...
Measuring Properties
• Objective properties are physically verifiable characteristics such as age,
gender, or number of bot...
Basic Concepts in
Measurement
• Scale development is
designing questions and
response formats to measure
the subjective pr...
Types of Measures
• Nominal scales: those that use only labels

• Ordinal scales: those with which the researcher can rank...
Scale Examples (Page 178)
• Nominal Measure Questions: those that use only labels
Please indicate your gender 

Male _____...
Scale Examples (Page 178)
• Ordinal Measure Questions: those with which the researcher can rank-order
the respondents or r...
Scale Examples (Page 178)
• Interval Measure Questions: Interval scales: those in which the distance
between each descript...
Scale Examples (Page 178)
• Ratio Measure Questions: ones in which a true zero Indicate your degree of
agreement with the ...
Class Project
• Develop 2-3 Questions that
might add value to the 

• Nominal

• Ordinal

• Interval

• Ratio
Interval Scales Commonly Used 

in Marketing Research
• Likert scale

• Lifestyle inventory

• Semantic differential scale ...
Likert Scale
• An interval scale commonly
used by marketing researchers
is the Likert scale, in which
respondents are aske...
Lifestyle Inventory
• A special application of the Likert scale question form called the lifestyle
inventory takes into ac...
College Student Lifestyle Inventory (Page 181)
College
Lifestyle
Dimension
Write
Statement
Below
Strongly
Disagree
Disagre...
Semantic Differential
• A semantic differential scale contains a series of bipolar adjectives for the
various properties of...
Stapel Scale
• The Stapel scale relies on
positive and negative numbers,
typically ranging from +5 to –5.
Interval Scales Used in 

Marketing Research
• Should the scale include a neutral point? 

• Should the scale be symmetric...
Reliability and Validity of Measurement
• Reliability: respondent responds in the same or a similar manner to an
identical...
Designing A Questionnaire
• A questionnaire is the vehicle used to present the questions the researcher
desires respondent...
Questionnaire Design Process
• Questionnaire design is a systematic process in which the researcher
contemplates various q...
Developing Questions
• Questionnaire development is the practice of selecting appropriate response
formats and wording que...
Four “Dos” of Question Wording
1.The question should be focused on a single issue or topic.

2.The question should be brie...
Four “Dont’s” of Question Wording
1.Do not “lead” the respondent to a particular answer.

• A leading question gives a str...
Four “Dont’s” of Question Wording
3.Do not use a “double-barreled” question. 

• A double-barreled question is really two ...
Question evaluation
• Question evaluation is scrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure that
question bias is minimi...
Questionnaire Organization
• Questionnaire organization pertains to the sequence of statements and
questions that make up ...
The Introduction
• The introduction sets the stage; it is what a potential respondent reads or
hears before he or she begi...
The Introduction
• Screening questions are used
to ferret out respondents who
do not meet qualifications
necessary to take ...
Question Flow
• Question flow pertains to the sequencing of questions or blocks of
questions, including any instructions, o...
Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design
• Computer-assisted questionnaire design refers to software that allows
users to us...
Coding The Questionnaire
• Codes are numbers associated with question responses to facilitate data
entry and analysis.

• ...
Pretesting The Questionnaire
• A pretest is a dry run of a questionnaire to find and repair difficulties that
respondents enc...
Bmgt 311 chapter_8
Bmgt 311 chapter_8
Bmgt 311 chapter_8
Bmgt 311 chapter_8
Bmgt 311 chapter_8
Bmgt 311 chapter_8
Bmgt 311 chapter_8
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Bmgt 311 chapter_8

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bmgt 311, marketing research, chris lovett, fall 2014

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Bmgt 311 chapter_8

  1. 1. BMGT 311: Chapter 8 Understanding Measurement, Developing Questions, and Designing the Questionnaire

  2. 2. Learning Objectives • To understand the basics of measurement regarding people, places, and things • To recognize the three types of measures used by marketing researchers • To examine three scale formats commonly used by marketing researchers • To see other scale formats commonly used in marketing research
  3. 3. Learning Objectives • To appreciate the basic functions of a questionnaire • To learn the dos and don’ts of question wording • To learn the basics of questionnaire organization • To understand the advantages of computer-assisted questionnaire design software  • To comprehend coding of questionnaires
  4. 4. Basic Concepts in Measurement • Measurement: determining how much of a property is possessed by an object • Properties: specific features or characteristics of an object that can be used to distinguish it from another object • Objective properties are physically verifiable. (Age, Sex, Ect.) • Subjective properties are mental constructs. (Feelings, opinions, etc)
  5. 5. Measuring Properties • Objective properties are physically verifiable characteristics such as age, gender, or number of bottles purchased. • Subjective properties cannot be directly observed because they are mental constructs such as a person’s attitudes, opinions, or intentions. • For subjective properties, researchers must translate mental constructs onto an intensity continuum.
  6. 6. Basic Concepts in Measurement • Scale development is designing questions and response formats to measure the subjective properties of an object.
  7. 7. Types of Measures • Nominal scales: those that use only labels • Ordinal scales: those with which the researcher can rank-order the respondents or responses • Scale measures: those in which the distance between each level is known • Interval scales: those in which the distance between each descriptor is equal • Ratio scales: ones in which a true zero
  8. 8. Scale Examples (Page 178) • Nominal Measure Questions: those that use only labels Please indicate your gender Male _____ Female _____ Are you planning on purchasing a new automobile in the next 6 months? Yes _____ No ______ Unsure _____
  9. 9. Scale Examples (Page 178) • Ordinal Measure Questions: those with which the researcher can rank-order the respondents or responses Please rank each brand in terms of your preference (1 first, 2 and so on) _____ 3 Musketeers _____ Baby Ruth _____ Milky Way
  10. 10. Scale Examples (Page 178) • Interval Measure Questions: Interval scales: those in which the distance between each descriptor is equal Indicate your degree of agreement with the following statements Statement Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree A. I always look for bargains 1 2 3 4 5 B. I enjoy being in the outdoors 1 2 3 4 5 C. I love to cook 1 2 3 4 5
  11. 11. Scale Examples (Page 178) • Ratio Measure Questions: ones in which a true zero Indicate your degree of agreement with the following statements Please indicate your age: _____ Approximately how many times in the last month have your purchased something over $5 in a 7-11 store? 0 1 2 3 4 5 More than 5 (Specify) ______
  12. 12. Class Project • Develop 2-3 Questions that might add value to the • Nominal • Ordinal • Interval • Ratio
  13. 13. Interval Scales Commonly Used 
 in Marketing Research • Likert scale • Lifestyle inventory • Semantic differential scale • Stapel scale
  14. 14. Likert Scale • An interval scale commonly used by marketing researchers is the Likert scale, in which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree–disagree scale for each of a series of statements. (Page 180)
  15. 15. Lifestyle Inventory • A special application of the Likert scale question form called the lifestyle inventory takes into account the values and personality traits of people as reflected in their unique activities, interests, and opinions (AIOs) toward their work, leisure time, and purchases.
  16. 16. College Student Lifestyle Inventory (Page 181) College Lifestyle Dimension Write Statement Below Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither agree or Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Studying 1 2 3 4 5 Going Out 1 2 3 4 5 Working 1 2 3 4 5 Exercising 1 2 3 4 5 Shopping 1 2 3 4 5 Dating 1 2 3 4 5 Spending Money 1 2 3 4 5
  17. 17. Semantic Differential • A semantic differential scale contains a series of bipolar adjectives for the various properties of the object under study, and respondents indicate their impressions of each property by indicating locations along its continuum. • A concern with this type of scale is the halo effect, in which a general overall feeling about a brand or store could bias responses on its specific properties.
  18. 18. Stapel Scale • The Stapel scale relies on positive and negative numbers, typically ranging from +5 to –5.
  19. 19. Interval Scales Used in 
 Marketing Research • Should the scale include a neutral point? • Should the scale be symmetric or nonsymmetric? • A symmetric interval scale is “balanced,” as it has equal amounts of positive and negative positions, and typically it has “no opinion” or “neutral” separating the negative and positive sides. • A nonsymmetric interval scale has mainly degrees of positive positions and would be more appropriate because most people do not think in degrees of negative importance.
  20. 20. Reliability and Validity of Measurement • Reliability: respondent responds in the same or a similar manner to an identical or nearly identical measure. • Occurs when a respondent answers very similar questions very differently • Validity: accuracy of the measurement • Example - when a respondent lies about income
  21. 21. Designing A Questionnaire • A questionnaire is the vehicle used to present the questions the researcher desires respondents to answer. • Translates the research objectives into specific questions asked of respondents • Standardizes those questions and the response categories so every participant responds to identical stimuli • Serves as an enduring record of the research • Depending on the data collection mode used, such as online, can speed up the process of data analysis • Contains the information on which reliability and validity assessments may be made
  22. 22. Questionnaire Design Process • Questionnaire design is a systematic process in which the researcher contemplates various question formats, considers a number of factors characterizing the survey at hand, ultimately words the various questions carefully, and organizes the questionnaire’s layout. • The researcher should strive to minimize question bias. • Question bias is the ability of a question’s wording or format to influence respondents’ answers.
  23. 23. Developing Questions • Questionnaire development is the practice of selecting appropriate response formats and wording questions that are understandable, unambiguous, and unbiased. • Marketing researchers take great care in developing research questions that measure the following: • Attitudes • Beliefs • Behaviors • Demographics
  24. 24. Four “Dos” of Question Wording 1.The question should be focused on a single issue or topic. 2.The question should be brief. 3.The question should be grammatically simple. 4.The question should be crystal clear.
  25. 25. Four “Dont’s” of Question Wording 1.Do not “lead” the respondent to a particular answer. • A leading question gives a strong cue or expectation as what answer to provide. 2.Do not use “loaded” wording or phrasing. • A loaded question has buried in its wording elements a sneaky presupposition, or it might make reference to universal beliefs or rules of behavior.
  26. 26. Four “Dont’s” of Question Wording 3.Do not use a “double-barreled” question. • A double-barreled question is really two different questions posed in one question. 4.Do not use words that overstate the case. • An overstated question places undue emphasis on some aspect of the topic.
  27. 27. Question evaluation • Question evaluation is scrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure that question bias is minimized and that the question is worded so that respondents understand it and can respond to it with relative ease. • Researchers get better over time • Developing a good questionnaire is a lot of work!
  28. 28. Questionnaire Organization • Questionnaire organization pertains to the sequence of statements and questions that make up a questionnaire. • Well-organized questionnaires motivate respondents to be conscientious and complete. • Poorly organized questionnaires discourage and frustrate respondents and may even cause them to stop answering questions in the middle of the survey.
  29. 29. The Introduction • The introduction sets the stage; it is what a potential respondent reads or hears before he or she begins answering survey questions. • With an undisguised survey, the sponsor is identified, but with a disguised survey, the sponsor’s name is not divulged to respondents. • Incentives are offers to do something for the respondent to increase the probability that the respondent will participate in the survey. • Other forms of incentives address respondent anxieties concerning privacy. Two methods tend to reduce anxieties and, therefore, increase participation. • The first is ensuring anonymity. The second method is confidentiality.
  30. 30. The Introduction • Screening questions are used to ferret out respondents who do not meet qualifications necessary to take part in the research study. • Are you over 21? • Do you drink alcohol?
  31. 31. Question Flow • Question flow pertains to the sequencing of questions or blocks of questions, including any instructions, on the questionnaire. • Warm-up questions are simple and easy-to-answer questions that are used to get the respondents’ interest and to demonstrate the ease of responding to the research request. • Transitions are statements or questions used to let the respondent know that changes in question topic or format are about to happen. • Response to a skipped question affects which question will be answered next. • Classification questions are used to classify respondents.
  32. 32. Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design • Computer-assisted questionnaire design refers to software that allows users to use computer technology to develop and disseminate questionnaires and to retrieve and analyze data gathered by the questionnaire. • Skip logic lets the questionnaire designer direct the online survey to ask questions based on previous answers. • Display logic is similar to skip logic. The survey displays or asks questions that are appropriate based on the respondent’s prior answers.
  33. 33. Coding The Questionnaire • Codes are numbers associated with question responses to facilitate data entry and analysis. • The codes for an “all that apply” question are set up as though each possible response was answered with “yes” or “no.”
  34. 34. Pretesting The Questionnaire • A pretest is a dry run of a questionnaire to find and repair difficulties that respondents encounter while taking the survey. • How most mistakes are found • Pre-testing highly recommended at all levels of marketing research

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