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inner speech

a window into consciousness
Alain Morin & Bob Uttl

Cover: VLADGRIN/Bigstockphoto.com

2

Neuropsychotherapi...
Alain Morin & Bob Uttl

Inner Speech and Consciousness
Consciousness, broadly defined, consists of one’s
ongoing experienc...
Inner Speech: A Window into Consciousness

Table 1. Representative measures of inner speech.
Measure
Questionnaires

Descr...
Alain Morin & Bob Uttl

port inner speech content as occurring in everyday
life without situational or temporal restrictio...
to themselves mostly about general daily events, fuThe most often self-reported inner speech functure events, and past eve...
Alain Morin & Bob Uttl

or may “recall” instances that never occurred. The
thought sampling approach discussed previously
...
Inner Speech: A Window into Consciousness

of Personality, 50(1) 14-26.
D’Argembeau , A., Renaud, O., & Van der Linden, M....
Alain Morin & Bob Uttl

Sokolov, A.N. (1972). Inner Speech and Thought. New
York: Plenum Press.
Szpunar, K.K. (2010). Epis...
Inner speech
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Inner speech

inner speech
a window into consciousness
Alain Morin & Bob Uttl

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Inner speech

  1. 1. inner speech a window into consciousness Alain Morin & Bob Uttl Cover: VLADGRIN/Bigstockphoto.com 2 Neuropsychotherapist.com VLADGRIN/Bigstockphoto.com I nner speech represents a running commentary on any significant aspects of ourselves and our world. As such it “exteriorizes” consciousness, so to speak. While self-talk has been studied in specific situations such as self-regulation, and during distinct mental states like anxiety, very little is known about naturally occurring inner speech in everyday life. Morin and colleagues (Morin et al., 2011; Uttl et al., 2012) have probed inner speech frequency and content in over 500 participants using self-report and thought sampling measures. Their findings show that inner speech is very often about the self and that a large portion is concerned with what others think of the self (e.g., self-evaluating, others’ opinion of the self, appearance, performance), as well as individuals and activities relevant to the self. In addition, self-reported inner speech frequently serves self-regulatory (planning), problem-solving, and mnemonic functions. In a thought sampling study using cell phones (Uttl et al., 2012), participants indicated talking to themselves over 50% of all prompt occasions; this is much higher than the 25% previously reported in another study (Heavey & Hurlburt, 2008). These results are discussed in terms of fit with the existing inner speech literature and key novelties are underlined.
  2. 2. Alain Morin & Bob Uttl Inner Speech and Consciousness Consciousness, broadly defined, consists of one’s ongoing experience of self and world, which includes sensations, perceptions, needs, goals, emotions, thoughts, memories, preferences, attitudes, intentions, etc., (Baars, 1988; Natsoulas, 1978). Because inner speech constitutes a running verbal commentary that often focuses on the content of one’s subjective experience (Morin, 2005), it represents an ideal window into consciousness. In this article we ask: What do people talk to themselves about, how often, and why? Answering these questions will at least partially open this window. Our preliminary results, discussed below, suggest that people can potentially talk to themselves about a large number of topics related to the self, others, and the environment. This is consistent with the widespread idea that consciousness represents a very rich and complex experience (Morin, 2006). Philosophers (e.g., Aristotle, Ryle) extensively wrote about inner speech (Blachowicz, 1997), but Russian psychologists (e.g., Luria, Vygotsky) were the first to empirically study its self-regulatory function (Sokolov, 1972). Self-regulation involves altering one’s behavior, resisting temptation, changing one’s mood, selecting a response from various options, and filtering irrelevant information (Baumeister & Vohs, 2003). A broad definition of self-regulation includes setting goals, planning, problem-solving, decision-making, and self-motivating speech. Selfdirected speech has been shown to be implicated in all aforementioned activities, and blocking the inner voice by asking participants to mentally count backward results in them engaging in more impulsive behavior (Tullett & Inzlicht, 2010). Inner speech is also involved in all basic language functions such as reading, writing, and speaking (Abramson & Goldinger, 1997; Levine et al., 1982). Baddeley and Hitch (1974) focused on the memory function of inner speech—the “phonological loop” that gets activated when one rehearses material in short-term working memory, such as a phone number. More recently, psychologists have increasingly been acknowledging the role of inner speech in self-awareness (DeSouza et al., 2008; Edelman et al., 2011; Morin & Hamper, 2012; Neuman & Nave, 2010). Self-awareness is defined as the ability to become the object of one’s own attention; in that state one actively identifies, processes, and stores information about the self (Duval & Wicklund, 1972; Morin, 2011a). Although other mental and social factors underlie self-awareness (Morin, 2004), empirical evidence does support the idea of self-reflection often being mediated by one’s inner voice (Morin, 2009; Schneider et al., 2005). Note that ruminative and negative inner speech may be associated with diverse psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, social anxiety, and depression (Beazley et al., 2001; Fernyhough, 2004). Psychotherapeutic interventions have been designed to reduce or change dysfunctional self-talk (e.g., Meichenbaum, 1977). Thought Sampling Research Additional functions of inner speech have been identified (see Morin, 2011b). It should be apparent by now that inner speech plays a central role in human consciousness. A variety of measurement techniques exist to assess thought processes, including inner speech (see De Guerrero, 2005 & Table 1 for a summary). Spontaneously occurring mental events in healthy individuals have been investigated using numerous variations of the thought sampling method. This method consists in sampling thinking in participants’ natural environments by using beepers that signal participants to report aspects of their experience at random intervals (Hulburt, 1997). To illustrate, Klinger and Cox (1987-88) relied on a questionnaire that participants were asked to fill in when being randomly beeped throughout the day. The questionnaire assessed various characteristics of mental experiences such as the specificity, detail and color of visual experiences, as well as sense of control over these experiences and their time frame. Csikszentmihalyi and Figurski (1982) also used the thought sampling method and identified the following key topics people in their sample thought about (from most to least frequent): work, time, chores, leisure, self, people, conversations, TV and radio, and food. Diehl and Hay (2007) asked participants to complete daily diaries over a 30-day period and to respond to a checklist of self-descriptors (e.g., agreeable, angry, energetic, insecure) in order to rate the emotional valence of their internal experiences. Among other things, their results showed that fluctuations in affect ratings tended to be related to the number of daily stressors reported by participants: on days with a larger number of stressful events, positive affect tended to decrease and negative affect tended to increase. Goldstein and Kenen (1988) invited volunteers to list their typical thoughts and found that 80% of respondents indicated making agreements with themselves; 44% of these thoughts were described as being a process of internal dialogue about lifestyle and health-related issues—i.e., smoking, Neuropsychotherapist.com 3
  3. 3. Inner Speech: A Window into Consciousness Table 1. Representative measures of inner speech. Measure Questionnaires Description Administering questionnaires made up of self-statements along a variety of domains (e.g., anxious versus non-anxious). Participants rate the frequency of their self-talk using a Likert-scale (e.g., from 0 “Never” to 5 “Very Often”). Private speech Recordings of spontaneous speech-for-self emitted by children in social situations. Think out loud method Recordings of adults’ verbalizations as they are working on a given task; participants are explicitly asked to verbalize their thoughts without censoring them. Videotape reconstruc- “Reconstructing” thoughts that participants had during precise situations (e.g., tion procedure task performance) by showing them video recordings of their behavior; participants are asked to recall inner speech content as accurately as possible. Thought listing Retrospectively listing as many thoughts as possible that occurred in specific situations. Thought sampling Collecting a representative sample of participants’ mental experiences in natural settings. Subjects wear a beeper that produces audio signals at random intervals throughout the day. They are asked to report the content of their thoughts upon hearing the beep. Articulatory suppresHaving participants complete a task while concurrently reciting verses or sion(1) mentally counting backward from 100. The forced articulation produced by the recitation or counting blocks any other articulation that would be otherwise required when spontaneously engaging in inner speech. Electromyographic Making electromyographic recordings of movements of the lips and tongue recordings of tongue during problem-solving tasks. These movements represent an objective extermovements nal expression of inner speech activity. (1) Articulatory suppression does not assess inner speech per se but informs the researcher as to what types of cognitive work cannot be accomplished without it. drinking, working, interpersonal relations, reducing weight, and studying. These results illustrate the often mentioned “dialogical” nature of inner speech (Fernyhough, 1996). Heavey and Hurlburt (2008) examined the frequency of common inner experience phenomena by using a beeper that randomly cued participants to report whatever mental events they were experiencing at the moment of the probe. Their small sample (n = 30) of college students reported five basic types of inner experiences each occurring approximately 20% of the time: inner speech, mental imagery, thinking without symbols, feelings, and sensory awareness. inner speech in our case, the thought listing procedure represents a better option1. With this method, volunteers are invited to retrospectively list as many thoughts that they can remember having experienced during a specific event. In one study (Morin, et al. 2011) we employed an open-format thought listing method to measure inner speech in a sample of over 400 undergraduate students. Participants were invited to list what they typically say to themselves when using inner speech. The thought listing technique is usually used to assess inner speech occurrences in very specific situations during a limited time period (Cacioppo & Petty ,1981)—e.g., immediately following a social interaction or contact with a feared stimulus, where inner Our Thought Listing Study: Findings speech content in socially anxious or phobic patients The thought sampling technique fits well for those is compared to content generated by healthy particwho want to capture all possible internal events that ipants. In contrast to this typical use of the thoughtmake up consciousness (e.g., images, sensations), listing method, we wanted to sample participants’ as described above. However, if one aims at dissectnaturally occurring inner speech. Thus, the novelty ing a specific aspect of conscious experience, such as of our approach is that we asked participants to re1 The thought sampling approach can be used to uniquely assess inner speech, but instructions to participants must clearly specify to report one’s verbal thoughts as opposed to any other form of mental or bodily experience. See “A Cell Phone Study” section below. 4 Neuropsychotherapist.com
  4. 4. Alain Morin & Bob Uttl port inner speech content as occurring in everyday life without situational or temporal restrictions. The goal was to obtain as ecological valid inner speech samples as possible. We developed a coding scheme to classify and quantify inner speech data into specific content and function units. Our coding system includes the following categories: (1) inner speech about the self, others, or unspecified (e.g., career, emotions, health); (2) inner speech about people (e.g., family, friends, community); (3) inner speech about the physical environment (e.g., province/state, workplace, weather); (4) inner speech about activities (e.g., cooking, driving, leisure); (5) inner speech about events (e.g., at school, significant social events, future events); and (6) inner speech functions (e.g., planning tasks to do, remembering, self-censorship). Table 2 presents the most frequently reported inner speech content and functions by participants. One general observation is that our participants mostly reported talking to themselves about themselves. In decreasing order, the most frequently mentioned units were self-evaluation, emotions, physical appearance, relationships, problems, food, behavior, financial situation, stress, performance, future, education, beliefs, others’ opinion of self, and hypothetical situations. The least frequently reported inner speech units were dream contents, sexuality, personality traits, and death. In terms of inner speech functions, participants reported (in decreasing order) talking to themselves to plan tasks, to remember, to self-motivate, to solve problems, to plan when to do specific tasks, to think, to rehearse upcoming conversations, to read, write or calculate, to study, to control emotions, to decide what to wear, to self-censor, and to replay past conversations. The less frequently reported functions were praying, concentrating, rephrasing, and creativity. Regarding self-talk pertaining to participants’ social environment, participants mostly reported (in decreasing importance) engaging in inner speech about family members, friends, people in general, their intimate partner, and children; larger social groups like one’s nation were rarely the focus on inner speech in our sample. In terms of activities, our participants often indicated talking to themselves about school, sports activities, work, leisure activities, chores, music, and driving. Activities that were rarely mentioned were moving, alcohol and drug use, and dating. Our participants talked to themselves mostly about their immediate physical environment and not much about their town, neighbourhood or workplace. And finally, participants reported talking Table 2. Most frequently self-reported inner speech content and functions. Inner speech categories Self & others— general Functions Social environment Activities Physical environment Events Inner speech content • self-evaluation • emotions • physical appearance • relationships • problems • food • behavior • financial situation • stress • performance • future • education • beliefs • others’ opinion of self • hypothetical situations • to plan tasks • to remember • to self-motivate • to solve problems • to plan when to do specific tasks • to think • to rehearse upcoming conversations • to read, write or calculate • to study • to control emotions • to determine what to wear • to self-censor • to replay past conversations • family members • friends • people in general • intimate partner • children • school & educational activities • sports activities • work • leisure activities • chores • music • driving • immediate surroundings • general daily events • future events • past events Neuropsychotherapist.com 5
  5. 5. to themselves mostly about general daily events, fuThe most often self-reported inner speech functure events, and past events. tion was self-regulation, which includes planning to engage in specific tasks, self-motivating speech, self-censorship, time management, and planning Thought Listing Study: Discussion when to do things. Also frequently mentioned was Participants in our sample mostly reported talkself-talk used to solve problems and make decisions, ing to themselves about themselves. This observaas well as inner speech used to remember things. tion is consistent with the proposed role played by These inner speech functions are precisely those inner speech in self-reflection (Morin & Hamper, that have been the most extensively investigated in 2012). Participants indicated talking to themselves the literature (e.g., Zivin, 1979). about private self-aspects (e.g., emotions, beliefs) and public self-aspects (e.g., physical appearance, behavior), which reflects the classic distinction in- A Cell Phone Study troduced by Fenigstein and colleagues (1975) beThe thought listing approach described above tween private and public self-consciousness. Also, represents a nonreactive method which shows a significant proportion of inner speech was about good criterion-related, concurrent, and discrimiwhat others think of the self (e.g., self-evaluating, nant validity (Cacioppo et al., 1997). In other words, others’ opinion of self, appearance): this echoes inner speech measured with the thought listing apMead’s view (1934) that the self at least partially de- proach correlates well with other measures of inner fines itself by taking others’ perspective and imag- speech, does not correlate with measures unrelated ining how one is perceived by others. Participants to inner speech, and predicts actual behavior (e.g., reported frequently engaging in self-talk about fu- emotional reaction to feared stimuli). However, beture events. A growing body of literature is currently cause of its retrospective and reconstructive nature, examining mental time travel (MTT) (Quoidback et the thought-listing method may cause recall errors. al., 2008; Szpunar, 2010). MTT involves mentally Put simply, there is the possibility that participants projecting oneself in a fictional future. Our results fit may forget some actual inner speech occurrences with those obtained by D’Argembeau et al. (2009), suggesting that at least some MTT is mediated by inner speech. Their study also showed that futureoriented thoughts often gravitated around leisure activities, work, errands, and relationships. The reported functions of future-oriented thoughts in the same study were planning, deciding, setting goals, and reassuring the self. These functions are consistent with inner speech functions reported by our participants. Self-reported inner speech about people focused more on individuals that are close to oneself―family members, friends, intimate partner—and much less on distant and unknown others, such as the community and the world. It may be reasonable to assume that people are simply more interested in (and may talk to themselves more often about) any things directly relevant to themselves. In addition, participants in our sample talked to themselves mostly about their immediate physical environment as opposed to more distant environmental themes such as one’s city, province, or nation. Again, this most likely reflects people’s natural inclination to think about things significant to the self. Participants indicated frequently talking to themselves about school and education, work, leisure activities, and chores. These represent typical activities most undergraduate students regularly engage in. 6 Neuropsychotherapist.com michaeljung/Bigstockphoto.com Inner Speech: A Window into Consciousness
  6. 6. Alain Morin & Bob Uttl or may “recall” instances that never occurred. The thought sampling approach discussed previously (see Footnote 1) is likely to take care of this limitation because it directly samples participants’ inner speech by randomly interrupting them during daily activities, thus producing more “natural” (ecologically valid) content that does not rely on memory resources. Accordingly, in the next study, we (Uttl et al., 2012) used participants’ cell phones as a beeper device and asked them through text messaging to report their immediate inner speech content and current activity. Participants were randomly sent eight prompts per day for seven days; each prompt asked them to report (1) whether they were talking to themselves or not, (2) (if yes) what they were talking to themselves about, and (3) what activity they were engaged in. The coding scheme described previously was used to classify inner speech. The content and functions of inner speech that participants reported upon receipt of the text message prompts were comparable to what we obtained using the thought listing technique, suggesting that (1) a retrospective self-report approach is valid and not overly contaminated with recall biases, and (2) participants are able to report on their own inner speech use with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Our participants reported being engaged in the following activities (in decreasing order) when they received the text messages: watching TV, doing homework, talking to someone, eating, driving, relaxing, and surfing the internet or writing emails. Perhaps the most intriguing result we obtained was that participants reported talking to themselves well over 50 percent of all messages sent. This is much higher than the twenty-five percent previously reported by Heavey and Hurlburt (2008) in their small sample study of 30 participants. Our 160-participant sample allows for better generalization and suggests that people talk to themselves much more often that previously estimated. Future Research Questions and Conclusion Our previous studies inform us about normal, healthy consciousness in university students. What about older nonstudent individuals? What about abnormal, unhealthy conscious experiences? What do anxious, depressed, or addicted individuals talk to themselves about? How does inner speech use correlate with various personality traits (e.g., Extroversion, Agreeableness) and cognitive operations (e.g., prospective memory, verbal knowledge)? Are there cultural differences in inner speech frequency, content, and functions? These questions remain to be addressed, and their answers will further enhance our understanding of consciousness. References Abramson, M., & Goldinger, S.D. (1997). What the reader’s eye tells the mind’s ear: Silent reading activates inner speech. Perception and Psychophysics, 59, 10591068. Baars, B.J. (1988). A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge University Press. Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G.H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 8, pp. 47-89). New York: Academic Press. Baumeister, R.F., & Vohs, K.D. (2003). Self-regulation and the executive function of the self. In M.R. Leary & J.P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (pp. 197–217). New York, NY: Guildford Press. Beazley, M.B., Glass, C.R., Chambless, D.L., & Arnkoff, D.B. (2001). Cognitive self-statements in social phobias: A comparison across three types of social situations. Cognitive therapy and Research, 25(6), 781–799. Blachowicz, J. (1997). The dialogue of the soul with itself. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4(5-6), 485-508. Cacioppo, J.T., von Hippel, W., & Ernst, J.M. (1997). Mapping cognitive structures and processes through verbal content: The thought-listing technique. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 928-940. We hope that the data presented in this article offer a glimpse into what consciousness is made up of when seen as a running verbal commentary Cacioppo, J.T., & Petty, R.E. (1981). Social psychological on ourselves and our environment. To summarize, procedures for cognitive response assessment: The our work so far suggests that a substantial portion thought-listing technique. In T.V. Merluzzi, C.R., Glass, & M. Genest (Eds.), Cognitive assessment (pp. 309of consciousness is self-reflective—i.e., is about the 342). New York: Guilford Press. person being conscious. Conscious experience is also largely about aspects of the world that are pertinent to the self, including planning (self-regulating) Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Figurski, T. (1982). Self-awareness and aversive experience in everyday life. Journal events and behaviors. Neuropsychotherapist.com 7
  7. 7. Inner Speech: A Window into Consciousness of Personality, 50(1) 14-26. D’Argembeau , A., Renaud, O., & Van der Linden, M. (2009). Frequency, characteristics and functions of future-oriented thoughts in daily life. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(1) 96-103. doi: 10.1002/acp.1647. De Guerrero MCM (2005) Methodology of research on inner speech. In: De Guerrero M (Ed.) Inner Speech – L2: Thinking Words in a Second Language, Chapter 2, pp. 89–118. New York: Springer. DeSouza, M.L., DaSilveira, A., & Gomes, W.B. (2008). Verbalized inner speech and the expressiveness of self-consciousness. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 5(2), 154-170. Diehl, M., & Hay, E.L. (2007). Contextualized self-representations in adulthood. Journal of Personality, 75, 1255-1284. Duval, S., & Wicklund, R.A. (1972). A Theory of Objective Self Awareness. New York: Academic Press. Edelman, G.M., Gally, J.A., & Baars, B.J. (2011). Biology of consciousness. Frontiers in Psycholology, 2(4),1-7. Fenigstein, A, Scheier, M.F. & Buss, A.H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36(1), 241-250. Fernyhough, C. (2004). Alien voices and inner dialogue: Towards a developmental account of auditory verbal hallucinations. New Ideas in Psychology, 22, 49-68. Fernyhough, C. (1996). The dialogic mind: A dialogic approach to the higher mental functions. New Ideas in Psychology, 14(1), 47-62. Goldstein, G., & Kenen, R. (1988). “Internal dialogue” in a “normal” population: The implications for health promotion. Health Promotion International, 3, 249-257. Heavey, C.L. & Hurlburt, R.T. (2008). The phenomena of inner experience. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(3) 798-810. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2007.12.006. Hurlburt, R.T. (1997).Randomly sampling thinking in the natural environment. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 941-9. Klinger, E., & Cox, W.M. (1987-1988). Dimensions of thought flow in everyday life. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 7, 105- 128. Levine, D.N., Calvanio, R., & Popovics, A. (1982). Language in the absence of inner speech. Neuropsycholo- 8 Neuropsychotherapist.com gia, 20, 391–409. Mead, G.H. (1934). Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum Press. Morin, A. (2011a). Self-awareness Part 1: Definitions, measures, effects, function, and antecedents. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(10), 807-823. Morin A. (2011b). Inner speech. Encyclopedia of human behavior. 2nd ed. W. Hirstein, Ed. UK: Elsevier. Morin, A. (2009). Self-awareness deficits following loss of inner speech: Dr. Jill Bolte Taylor’s case study. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(2), 524-529. Morin, A. (2006). Levels of consciousness and self-awareness: A comparison and integration of various neurocognitive views. Consciousness and Cognition, 15(2), 358-371. Morin, A. (2005) Possible links between self-awareness and inner speech: Theoretical background, underlying mechanisms, and empirical evidence. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12(4-5), 115-134. Morin, A. (2004). A neurocognitive and socioecological model of self-awareness. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 130(3), 197-222. Morin, A., & Hamper, B. (2012). Self-reflection and the inner voice: Activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus during perceptual and conceptual self-referential thinking. The Open NeuroImaging Journal, 6, 78-89. Morin, A., Uttl, B., & Hamper, B. (2011). Self-reported frequency, content, and functions of inner speech. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Journal, 30, 1714-1718. Natsoulas, T. (1978). Consciousness. American Psychologist, 33(10), 906–914. Neuman, Y., & Nave, O. (2010). Why the brain needs language in order to be self-conscious. New Ideas in Psychology, 28(1), 37-48. Quoidback, J., Hansenne, M., & Mottet, C. (2008). Personality and mental time travel: A differential approach to autonoetic consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1082-1092. Schneider, J.F., Pospeschill, M., & Ranger, J. (2005). Selfconsciousness as a mediator between self-talk and self-knowledge. Psychological Reports, 96, 387–396.
  8. 8. Alain Morin & Bob Uttl Sokolov, A.N. (1972). Inner Speech and Thought. New York: Plenum Press. Szpunar, K.K. (2010). Episodic future thought: An emerging concept. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 142-162. Tullett, A.M., & Inzlicht, M. (2010). The voice of self-control: Blocking the inner voice increases impulsive responding. Acta Psychologica, 135, 252–256. Uttl, B., Morin, A., Faulds, T., Hall, T., & Wilson, J. (2012). Sampling inner speech using text messaging. Poster presented at the Canadian Society for Brain, Behavior, and Cognitive Science conference, Kingston, ON, June 7-9. Zivin, G. (1979). Removing common confusions about egocentric speech, private speech, and self-regulation. In G. Zivin (Ed.), The development of self-regulation through inner speech. New York: Wiley. Alain Morin, Ph.D. Dr. Alain Morin got his Ph.D from Laval University in 1992. Between 1991 and 2001 he taught various courses and conducted research in a host of Canadian universities and colleges in the Maritimes (e.g., St. Francis Xavier University, Acadia University) and Québec (e.g., Université de Montréal, CEGEP de Rivière-duLoup). Now at Mount Royal University in Calgary, he teaches Theories of Personality, Social Cognition, and The Self. His field of expertise is self-awareness, more specifically: its cognitive underlying mechanisms with an emphasis on inner speech. Morin publishes scientific papers in journals such as Consciousness & Cognition, Cortex, Brain & Behavioral Sciences, Brain Research Bulletin, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Journal of Mind and Behavior, and Science & Consciousness Review. His most recent contribution is a meta-analysis of brain-imaging studies using self-tasks in relation to left inferior frontal gyrus activation (the brain area that sustains inner speech). He also recently published a book chapter entitled “What are animals conscious of?” Morin is currently working on individual differences in inner speech, personality, psychopathology, and cognition. Other research interests include self-recognition, the localization of the self in the brain, the split-brain phenomenon, neurophilosophy, fame and self-destruction, and the antecedents of self-consciousness. Bob Uttl, Ph.D. Dr. Bob Uttl has held academic posts in a several universities and research institutes including National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA), Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (USA), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City (Japan), and Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Currently, he is Associate Professor of Psychology at Mount Royal University, Calgary, Canada. His research interests are broadly focused on cognition and cognitive aging. Topics of current and recent work include the relation between perception, processing resources, and memory; changes in perception, processing resources, memory, and intelligence due to normal and pathological aging; prospective memory; inner speech; and measurement and research methods in psychology. Dr. Uttl has served as co-editor of Dynamic Cognitive Processes (2005) and Memory and Emotion (2006), co-authored over fifty scientific papers, and presented his research at numerous conferences worldwide. Neuropsychotherapist.com 9

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