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The Agile Method and AGILE ISD; how to use each to improve your training program

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The term "agile" is being used readily to express the desire organizations have to be responsive and flexible to change in their organization. The Agile development method is designed to quickly and efficiently produce software products. Recently its application has expanded to other areas including training products. AGILE ISD is a new way of thinking about education where performance is the metric that drives the development and delivery decisions in an organization’s training program. It recognizes the long tail of learning and the five moments of learning need. AGILE ISD provides strategies for creating a culture of learning at your organization.

While these two agile methods are for different purposes, they are not mutually exclusive. This session will explain how your organization can use both methods to your advantage and success. We clarify some of the different uses of the term agile within the learning and development community. In this session we will cover:
• Agile (software) movement - its history, its main tenets, different types of agile frameworks and how to incorporated into the ADDIE training methodology
• AGILE ISD – is a methodology developed by Dr. Conrad Gottfredson that aims to supplement ADDIE by expanding its scope to include informal learning design. We cover its history, its main tenants, principles of agile education, and incorporating AGILE ISD into the ADDIE training methodology
• How the two approaches can both be successfully applied in your L&D organization

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The Agile Method and AGILE ISD; how to use each to improve your training program

  1. 1. The Agile Method and AGILE ISD: How to Use Each to Improve Your Training Program Terry Chandler & Chris King TOC Annual Institute April 28-30, 2014
  2. 2. Agile Development Created because traditional software development methodologies were not flexible or rapid enough AGILE Instructional Design Created because traditional instructional design methodologies were not flexible or rapid enough 2 Agile vs. AGILE
  3. 3. Agile vs. AGILE Agile Development AGILE Instructional Design Created because traditional software development methodologies were not flexible or rapid enough Created because traditional instructional design methodologies were not flexible or rapid enough A method for improving software development outcomes A rethinking of how to deliver better training outcomes Focus on tactical development Focus on comprehensive design Describes a philosophy of how a technical team operates Describes a methodology for designing holistic learning programs to address all 5 Moments of Learning Need Iteratively develop and deploy tested and relevant functionality in software Rapidly create and deploy a core learning solution, with a complementary performance support system 3 In spite of the name, they are different but also complementary.
  4. 4. Agile Values (Agile Manifesto) Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools Working software over Comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over Contract negotiation Responding to change over Following a plan That is, while we value the items on the right, we value the items on the left more 4 http://agilemanifesto.org/
  5. 5. Why Agile? • IT industry average success rate for projects is: 5 33% From 2010 report by The Standish Group
  6. 6. Scrum Defined “Scrum is not a process or a technique for building products; rather, it is a framework within which you can employ various processes and techniques… Scrum is grounded in empirical process control theory, and employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk.” - Scrum Guide 6
  7. 7. Incremental and Iterative Delivery Incremental - Develop smaller portions at a time - Gradually build up functionality - Allows value to be delivered early 7 Iterative - Develop through repeated cycles - Start simple, expecting to change - Used to find the right solution (fail early) - Used to improve the candidate solution
  8. 8. 8 Scrum is a framework for building a product
  9. 9. Scrum vs. Waterfall 9 Scrum is based on Adaptability - Constant feedback - Allows for discovery throughout the lifecycle - Provides infrastructure to support and implement change Waterfall is based on Predictability - Feedback is usually not attained until late in the project - Works best when all details are known up front - Change is expensive
  10. 10. Problems with the ADDIE Waterfall 1. Time to realize actual value 2. False precision of estimates 3. What if something goes wrong? 10 Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate “I believe in this concept, but the implementation described above is risky and invites failure.” - Dr. Winston Royce Managing the Development of Large Software Systems, Winston Royce (1970)
  11. 11. The Learning Shift: Physicians ADDIE AGILE 11
  12. 12. Exercise • Index cards – write down a situation you face in your workplace where performance-focused learning is more important than knowledge-focused learning • Hand your card to someone sitting next to you, read theirs, and discuss these examples. 12
  13. 13. AGILE Instructional Design 13 AGILE ISD is more about rethinking how to teach than it is how to develop courses. The change in thinking drives changes in what is developed and the processes developed.
  14. 14. Are learners truly competent after training? 14 Proficiency/Competence Time 1 2 4 3 What we imagine happens What actually happens With support Without support Training Post-Training Source: Mark Rosenberg, At the Moment of Need: The Case for Performance Support, eLearning Guild White Paper, 2013
  15. 15. Apply New More Change Solve Acquisition of Knowledge Formal Instruction Application and Maintenance of Knowledge Performance Support 15
  16. 16. Structured performance support Ready in 2-clicks and 10-seconds Increasing Levels of Support 16
  17. 17. AGILE Instructional Design Shifts learning from knowledge-focused learning to performance-focused This methodology addresses all five moments of learning need with an Agile approach to training development that leverages the advantages of the Agile philosophy This builds both formal training modules/events and structured performance support 17
  18. 18. AGILE Instructional Design addresses both the formal and informal acquisition of knowledge 18
  19. 19. Five levels of detail are available to support each step of the process in each Task: Process, Steps, Details, Resources, and Teach Me. Processes, Steps, and Details are simply checklists or job aids with increasingly more detail. Resources and Teach Me broker additional, existing reference resources or training resources specifically identified as supporting this task. 19
  20. 20. ADDIE + AGILE Instructional Design + Agile Scrum Provides a big vision, yet an incremental approach that delivers value 20 Sprint Creates small chunks and immediate results early in the project Formal Training Embedded Performance Support System
  21. 21. Conclusion • A combination of Agile, AGILE, and ADDIE is necessary to develop a comprehensive solution • This is rethinking how we design/develop training truly impact job performance • Caveat: It may not be any cheaper • Caveat to the Caveat: It may not be any cheaper, but it will be more effective at changing job performance 21
  22. 22. terry_chandler@sra.com christopher_king@sra.com THANK YOU! 22
  23. 23. SUPPLEMENTAL SLIDES 23
  24. 24. What is all this about Agile • There is the Agile Development method – The Agile development method is designed to quickly and efficiently produce software products. Recently its application has expanded to other areas including training products. • There is an ISD philosophy called AGILE ISD which stands for <>… – AGILE ISD is a new way of thinking about education where performance is the metric that drives the development and delivery decisions in an organization’s training program. It recognizes the long tail of learning and the five moments of learning need. AGILE ISD provides strategies for creating a culture of learning at your organization. • While these two agile methods are for different purposes, they are not mutually exclusive. This session will explain how your organization can use both methods to your advantage and success.
  25. 25. The Agile Development Method - History • Agile is based on a software development manifesto defined during a 2 day meeting at Snowbird Ski resort in Wasatch Mountains, Utah in February 11- 13, 2001. • The 17 members attending represented several different programing approaches sympathetic to the need for an alternative to documentation driven heavyweight software development processes. • These light weight approaches include: Extreme Programming, SCRUM, DSDM, Adaptive Software Development, Crystall, Feature- Driven Development, Pragmatic Programming. • What emerged was an agile manifesto, 12 principles of Agile Software development, and the formation of the Agile Alliance 25
  26. 26. Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. 26
  27. 27. 12 Principles behind the Agile Manifesto 1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. 2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. 3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. 4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. 5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. 6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. 7. Working software is the primary measure of progress. 8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. 9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. 10. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. 11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. 12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. 27
  28. 28. The ORM EEO Resource Center is a Performance Support solution designed to complement the Hybrid Conference Learning Objectives with direct, tasked-based performance support. Stakeholders can access the content from several viewpoints: role-holder, type of complaint, and general information search.
  29. 29. Selecting a Complaint Type offers more information on the complaint, as well as the ability to see each role involved in the complaint type.
  30. 30. The EEO Counselor Role shows the broad framework of preventing and resolving workplace disputes, and offers the ability to drill into any of topics for further information. If a counselor has a question about resolving a dispute informally through counseling, for instance, a click on the box delivers them to a process flow and more information.
  31. 31. The process for the “Resolve Informally Through Counseling” task shows the steps of the process, along with the time frame. Each step in this process links to specific steps that enable the broad process.
  32. 32. Five levels of detail are available to support each step of the process in each Task: Process, Steps, Details, Resources, and Teach Me. Processes, Steps, and Details are simply checklists or job aids with increasingly more detail. Resources and Teach Me broker additional, existing reference resources or training resources specifically identified as supporting this task.

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