Singapore - Leading change from the middle Workshop April 15-16 2013


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Slides from a workshop that Idea Creation is running in Singapore hosted by ASCD Singapore with 35 leaders from the Singapore education system

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Singapore - Leading change from the middle Workshop April 15-16 2013

  1. 1. Leading change from the middle ASCD Singapore April 15th – 16th 2013 Chris Jansen University of Canterbury New Zealand 1
  2. 2. Overview• exploring your change inquiry• influence and position• systems thinking• complicated or complex?• system mapping• creating self organisation• tools for adaptive leadership• Appreciative inquiry• mapping your change journey 2
  3. 3. Information overload Speed Complexity Interconnectedness of systems Uncertainty Ambiguity Dissolving of traditional organisational boundaries Exponential rate of change Opportunities Disruptive technologies ParadoxGenerational values and expectations Unintended consequences Lack of Control Increased globalization 3
  4. 4. change is changing….. The greatest challenge for future leaders is the pace of change and the complexity of the challenges faced…. ….”perpetual white-water”… 4
  5. 5. “Our organisations are not equipped to cope with this complexity…” (IBM study – 1500 CEO‟s) 5
  6. 6. Technical challenges “can be solved with knowledge and procedures already at hand” Adaptive challenges “embedded in social complexity, require behaviour change and are rife with unintended consequences‟ 6
  7. 7. Positive Psychology „what we focus on becomes our reality‟ Heliotropic Hypothesis “social systems evolve towards the most positive images they hold of themselves, toward what gives them life and energy, in much the same way that plants grow in the direction of the sun” 7
  8. 8. What do we tend to focus on? • vision • planning • detail • problem • 8
  9. 9. Applications of Positive Psychology • Solution focused therapy / narrative therapy • Placebo effect / positive thinking • Positive expectations on educational achievement • Positive deviancy • Positive leadership – leveraging strengths • Appreciative 9
  10. 10. Whats your change leadership inquiry? – What factors effect powerful professional learning in schools? – What processes build effective collaborations with communities and whanau? – What factors promote positive student behaviour? – How do we improve achievement? – How can we improve our staff culture? 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Planning my change 13
  14. 14. Planning my change 14
  15. 15. Planning my change 15
  16. 16. Planning my change 16
  17. 17. Change agenda - organisational change processes 1. establish urgency based on provable need/gap 2. form a powerful coalition or core team 3. develop a vision and operation plan 4. launch numerous small ‟safe to fail‟ pilots 5. communicate the vision and develop whole school approach 6. consolidate improvements by building capacity 7. widen awareness and support 8. celebrate and embed Based on 17
  18. 18. Hierarchies 18
  19. 19. Networks 19
  20. 20. Scales of Influence Communities Schools Departments Classrooms Individuals What strategies could you consider to increase your positive influence within your organisation and community? 20
  21. 21. Leading from the middle 21
  22. 22. Kiwi Leadership for Principals 22
  23. 23. Middle leadership case studies 23
  24. 24. Analysing 24
  25. 25. Systems Thinking… ….is a way of making sense of a complex system …is the ability to see the world as relationships and connections ...allows us to influence a complex 25
  26. 26. “Where the world is dynamic, evolving and interconnected, we tend to make decisions using mental models that are static, narrow, and reductionist.” 26
  27. 27. Seeing connections instead of parts… “You can never understand anything by analysing it.” “We have to understand the whole before we can understand the parts - what matters is their interaction.” Russell 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Cynefin Framework Multiple Multiple connected but predictable unpredictable cause and interactions Complex Complicated effect interactionsDecisions are uncertain and solutions only Decisions require apparent in retrospect expert knowledge Chaotic Simple Simple, Multiple predictable disconnected cause and interactions effect interactions Decisions need to be made quickly to dampen energy Decisions are obvious Dave Snowden 2012 29
  30. 30. Cynefin Framework Multiple connected but unpredictable Multiple predictable interactions cause and effect interactions Complex ComplicatedDecisions are uncertain Adaptive Technical and solutions only challenges problems Decisions require apparent in retrospect expert knowledge Chaotic Simple +innovative, responsive, nimble +Efficient, reliable, powerful - messy and spontaneous - Inflexible, slow to respond 30
  31. 31. Systems 31
  32. 32. S Student behaviour B Quality of alternative issues programmes O S R Programme appeal to other students “Causal loop diagrams provide a framework for seeing interrelationships rather than events, for seeing patterns of change rather than snapshots” 32
  33. 33. marketing student satisfaction S S reputation Causal loopeconomy diagram for R1 Growth University of S resources (physical, people) Canterbury # students enrolled Sefts cap S revenue O financial targets S S management TEC funding S resources for R3 strategies S R2 Growth research Performance UC research imposed performance profile S staff research S standards activity O O O staff involvement in B1 Resistance decision making resistance S O sick leave, stress B2 Health motivation andleave, staff turnover commitment O S team spirit/ morale S collaboration/ engagement
  34. 34. The Iceberg Model Four levels of thinking Events Patterns Systemic structure Mental models Maani 34
  35. 35. System thinking tools – affinity process 1) Clarify the question 2) Determine influence factors 3) Map connections 4) Identify leverage 5) Act with 35
  36. 36. What are the indicators of a successful school in Singapore? What are the factors that contribute to this?• What influences that? • What influences that? • What influences that? 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. Complexity – self 39
  40. 40. The Innovation Stack Management innovation organisational processes/leadership roles communication and decision making Strategic innovation initiatives, programmes etc Product/service innovation pedagogy, technology etc Operational innovation timetable, processes etc Gary Hamel – The Future of 40
  41. 41. Adaptive Complexity / Change / Uncertainty / Ambiguity challenges Paradox / Lack of Control / Unintended consequences Organisational capacity Self organising, adaptive, innovative, flexible, nimble, responsive, creative and resilient Leadership 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. How does self organisation work? • independent agents • interactions with neighbours • decentralised control • an attractor - motivated by threat or opportunity Self organisation leading to emergence Complexity thinking, complex adaptive systems, adaptive 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. “A key concept is Goo – like primordial soup, you can see it moving and growing – it involves people, relationships, you can‟t control it but you can notice it and foster it…it changes and evolves – its living and breathing….……..get your goo glasses on – when you walk into a room put aside the programme, cut out the strategy – see the history, interactions, how wired they are, the group dynamics - look for the living breathing thing and then that‟s the stuff that grows….” Duane Major 45
  46. 46. The Starfish and the Spider… The unstoppable power of leaderless organisations Ori Brafman and Rod 46
  47. 47. Hierarchies and 47
  48. 48. Hybrid? Machine Living organism +Efficient, reliable, +innovative, responsive, nimble-Inflexible, slow to respond -messy and spontaneous 48
  49. 49. Adaptive 49
  50. 50. Adaptive Leadership Characterised by both; • participative processes ”Surfing the Edge of Chaos‟” • collaborate solution findingBenefits:• Engagement, ownership leading to… …enthusiasm/energy and commitment• Better solutions – innovationThe Pronoun Test “I” or “We” “My” or “Our” “We” or “They” Daniel Pink – “A whole new mind”“Theres only one thing better than ownership – authorship! Simon Breakspear , “Talent Magnets” 50
  51. 51. Adaptive leadership: fostering self organisationConditions for self organisation Leadership role1. independent agents 1. Proactive mentoring of individuals2. interactions with neighbours 2. Foster interaction and shared learning3. decentralised control 3. Distribute power + decentralise control4. an attractor - motivated by 4. Explore and articulate shared values threat or 51
  52. 52. Layer 1: Proactive mentoring develop independent agentsRecognise and value people •Strong belief in people •Prioritize them and take the time •Creating space to empower people •Notice, listen, appreciate •Enlarge their self belief •Recognise their strengths and passionsDevelop people •They leave in better shape than when they arrived •Create support structures to meet needs •Make opportunities available •Support initiative and boundary pushing •Note achievements“employee first – customer second”Anand Pillai 52
  53. 53. Who are you actively developing and looking out for? Who is looking out for you? How could we increase this informal mentoring? 53
  54. 54. The Roles of a ManagerVisionMeaningful Contribution PlanValues OrganiseEngage and develop Control people Administer systemsCreate context Critique Create Order Leadership Management (Vision & people driven) (Office bound/paper driven) Commitment, Compliance Change & Hi- Professional & Status-Quo Performance (Teaching role) Efficiency Cammock (2001) The 54 Dance of Leadership
  55. 55. Management and 55
  56. 56. How‟s the balance of leadership vs management in your role? Satisfied? 56
  57. 57. Layer 2: Foster interaction and shared learning interactions with neighbours “It is no longer sufficient to have one person learning for the“a healthy organisation is one in organisation... Its just notwhich all participants have a voice” possible any longer to figure it out(Peck ,1988). from the top, and have everyone else following the order of the „grand strategist‟. (Senge , 2002) Develop culture •Creating environments •Fostering high trust •Build positive relationships •Restorative environment •Compliment each other‟s strengths Foster learning •Role model a learning attitude •Opportunities to dialogue and build networks •Listening to leverage collective intelligence •Redesign social architecture •Take time to consult, get buy in and find the best solution •Generate feedback 57
  58. 58. Engagement leads to peak performanceSample culture survey:Rate each question from 1 (low) to 5 (high)Add up total out of 251) I really care about the future of my organisation2) I am proud to tell others that I work for this organisation3) My organisation inspires me to do my best4) I would recommend my organisation to a friend as a good place to work5) I am willing to put in a great deal of effort and time beyond what is normally expected Adapted from Gallop 58
  59. 59. Diffusion of 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. Tune into the environment Innovators Early Adopters Late Majority LaggardsVenturesome, Respect, more Skeptical, cautious Traditional,risky, can cope integrated into the focussed on past May adopt because and interact withwith uncertainty system of increased like mindsCan understand & “The individual to network pressureapply complex check with” from peers or for Suspicious oftechnical economic necessity innovations and Not so far ahead change agentsknowledge so serve as a role The weight ofNot always model systems norms Limited resourcesrespected by others needs to favour an leads to Plays an important cautiousnessin the system innovation before part by decreasing they are convinced Can change whenPlays an important the uncertaintyrole as gatekeeper - and conveying a Means that most they can see whatbringing in new subjective uncertainty must be is happening andideas from outside evaluation through removed before it fits with theirthe system interpersonal they feel safe cultural values Rogers (1995) Diffusion of Innovation 61
  62. 62. Commitment Charting A (Induction) B (the D) Team Leaders Technology Adapted from the ESD Toolkit v2.0 62
  63. 63. Who has a voice in our organisation? What mechanisms can we create to foster interaction and shared learning? 63
  64. 64. Layer 3: Distribute power and decentralise control decentralised controlShare journey – share leadership •We are all leaders •Break down hierarchy •Share responsibility and accountability – bit by bit … •Create ownership and empowerment •Delegate and let go •Foster interdependance •Master the process – not the content “Traditional organisations require management systems that control peoples behaviour, learning organisations invest in improving the quality of thinking, the capacity for reflection and team learning, and the ability to develop shared visions and shared understandings of complex issues” (Senge, 2002) 64
  65. 65. A framework for empowermentExtrinsic motivation intrinsic motivationexternal locus of control internal locus of controlcontrol empowermentStrict and complete external control no external controlResponsibility on leader responsibility shared responsibility on participantI decide we decide you decideless choice more choiceDependence interdependence Jansen 2005 65
  66. 66. Situational Leadership (High) High Supportive & High Supportive High Supportive & Low Directive High Directive & Behaviour Behaviour High Directive Behaviour SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOUR Low Supportive & Low Low Supportive & Directive High Directive Behaviour Behaviour (Low) (Low) DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOUR (High) 66
  67. 67. Go to the people, Live with them, Learn from them, Love them, Start with what they know, Build with what they have, But with the best leaders, When the work is done, The task accomplished, The people will say, “We have done it ourselves” Chinese Philosopher Lao 67
  68. 68. Who makes the decisions? How could power be shared more effectively? 68
  69. 69. Layer 4: Explore and Articulate Shared Values an attractor - motivated by threat or opportunity We need to be culturally tight and managerially loose. Order and design are not externally imposed but emerge as a result of the combination of individual freedom and shared core values Getting on the same page •Explore individual values and negotiate organisational values to fit •Role model values in leadership behaviour •Reconnect all staff with personal moral purpose •Establish benchmark of needs •Create clarity around shared vision •Leave space for emergent 69
  70. 70. Moral purpose and collective vision….1. What‟s the one change you want to see in the world?2. What do you currently do in your role that contributes to this? How do you play your part?3. What strategies would you have to do to move more towards this?4. How would your leadership be different?5. How would you know if you had achieved this shift? adapted from Jan Robertson 70
  71. 71. Getting into the flow…Internal passion / Moral Purpose / Meaning Hobby Calling Job Duty 71 External opportunities
  72. 72. In what way does our organisation live out shared core values and vision? 72
  73. 73. Appreciative Inquiry and Positive 73
  74. 74. Appreciative Inquiry (AI)Appreciative Inquiry focuses on supporting people getting together to tellstories of positive development in their work that they can build on. (Reed, 2004)AI as an orientation to the positive rather than just a series of techniques •Focus on the positive •Inclusivity – shared ownership, voice, decision making Appreciative Inquiry is an exploratory process for positive change. It identifies the best of what is happening in the present moment to pursue what is possible in the future. (Harkness, 2004) 74
  75. 75. Appreciative Inquiry Processes 1) 2) DreamDiscovery 1) Initiate 2) Inquire4) Delivery 3) Design 4) Innovate 3) 75
  76. 76. Appreciative Inquiry Processes Discover1) Discover 2) Dream - collective discussion around focusing questions -paired interviews around positive and real experiences Dream - collective sense making 4) Deliver 3) Design Design - practical visioning based on these concrete past experiences Deliver - collective action 76
  77. 77. Appreciative Inquiry Processes When you ask people appreciative questions, you touch something very important to them. They don‟t give politically correct answers, they give heartfelt answers because we ask soulful questions. (Hammond) 77
  78. 78. Step 1) DiscoverThink back over your experience as a leader and locate a moment or periodthat was a high point in your leadership, when you felt a sense of satisfactionin your work, when you went home saying YES! • Describe the situation. What happened? What was the result? • What was your role in creating this experience? What other people and factors contributed to this exceptional moment? • When you reflect on this experience– what beliefs and values guided you in your leadership? 78
  79. 79. Step 2) DreamCollectively draw out the key themes from the peer interviews in step 1 • Listen to each sound bite • Consider key themes emerging • Build up collective mind map of clusters of similar 79
  80. 80. LYNGO Deeply held values Equality Social Justice Compassion Dignity and respect Generosity Honesty and integrity Passion and energy Humility Quality 80
  81. 81. We take what we know and we talk about what could be. We stretch what we are to help us be more than what we have already been successful at. We envision a future that is a collage of the bests. Because we have derived the future from reality, we know it can happen. We can see it, we know what it feels like, and we move to a collective collaborative view of where we are going. (Thin Book of Appreciative Inquiry) 81
  82. 82. Step 3) Design Collective dialogue to explore; • What energises and motivates us? • What do we have in common? • What could we do collectively that we couldn‟t do individually? Step 4) Deliver• If we were to carry thisconversation on beyond thisworkshop what could that look like?• What opportunities are there for us to further these conversations?• What would we like to achieve? 82
  83. 83. AI touchstones for creating learning communities Focus on the positive strengths, what‟s working Collaboration shared ownership, voice, inclusivity, decision 83
  84. 84. AI based NGO Leadership 84
  85. 85. Creating a professional learning community Guiding principles• Positive focus• Collaboration 5 key strategies• flexible and negotiated structure• sharing positive stories• cycles of exploration• individual and collective reflection• significant time frame• Intentional facilitation 85
  86. 86. Positive Deviancy Pioneered by Jerry and Monique Sternin in Vietnam working with communities whose children had extremely high malnutrition statistics Now successfully implemented in an enormous range of complex settings around the world • infant mortality in the Himalayas • rehabilitating child soldiers in Uganda • preventing girl trafficking in Indonesia • reduction in hospital infections – MRSA superbug • girls access to education in Ethiopia • primary school student retention in Argentina US 86
  87. 87. Positive Deviancy DEFINE, DETERMINE, DISCOVER, DESIGN Step 1: The community DEFINES or reframes the problem • Explore the magnitude of a problem • Articulate a preferred future • Including all stakeholders in community meetings • Collect baseline data Step 2: The community DETERMINES common practices • Conducting discussions and focus 87
  88. 88. Step 3: The community DISCOVERS the presenceof positive deviants• Identify individuals or groups that exhibit different outcomes• Ensure that those selected have the same circumstances orworse than everyone else in community• Conduct in-depth interviews and observations to indentifyuncommon practices• Vet the findings with the whole communityStep 4: The community DESIGNS and developsactivities to expand the PD solutions• Set up opportunities for the positive deviants to demonstratetheir practices to other members of the community• Create opportunities for community members to learn bydoing• Start small, ensure safe environment to try new things• Target the widest possible range of community 88
  89. 89. Positive Deviancy Suggests that when confronted with an intractable problem that is resistant to other change strategies, then look for those outliers within the community or organization who have already successfully addressed the issue, then provide opportunities for these „positive deviants‟ to teach other community members. The solutions to complex long term problems in communities and organisations are to be discovered within these organisations or community “somebody just like me”… Invisible in plain sight…often invisible positive deviants don‟t realise what they are doing and yet they flourish while their peers struggle” (The Power of Positive Deviance, 2010) 89
  90. 90. Four Critical Tasks in Leading Change Appreciating Mobilising Change Support Leading Change Building Change Executing Capability 90
  91. 91. Informal Connected Un-precious Agile Inspired Gutsy 91
  92. 92. What is success?To laugh often and muchTo win the respect of intelligent peopleAnd the affection of childrenTo earn the appreciation of honest criticsAnd endue the betrayal of false friendsTo appreciate beautyTo find the best in othersTo leave the world a bit betterWhether by a healthy child, a garden patchOr a redeemed social conditionTo know even one life has breathed easierBecause you have livedThis is to have succeeded RALPH WALDO EMERSON 92