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‘We Media’ and
democracy
Lesson 20
AIM: Revisit the arguments, theories around ‘We Media’ and
Democracy; revise the terminology
Mock Exam
Revision
Starter: Look at your terminology glossary
and put a * next to any terms you don’t know
Ask your neighbour…
Ask your neighbour’s neighbour…
Ask me…
5 main questions we need to consider in A2
1. What is/are ‘We Media’ and what are the main arguments in this
school of thought?
2. Where / how has ‘We Media’ emerged?
3. What are the positives and negatives of ‘We Media’?
4. In what way are the contemporary media more democratic than
before?
5. In what ways are the contemporary media less democratic than
before?
Basic structure for your exam answer
- Introduction – outline your view of what democracy is
and how it relates to the media. Briefly explain why
media historically has not been very democratic.
- Point one – make point, include theory, give example
- Point two - make point, include theory, give example
- Point three etc. (different media form –
TV/Newspapers/Online)
- Conclusion – potential future developments
Where is this heading?
Points
Logical order
Assessment
criteria
Note the time
Remember:
• You need to include specific examples from case studies to back up
your points
• At least 4 theorists
• At least 2 media forms are studied
• You should compare alternative ‘we media’ examples with other
examples of more established production and ownership models
• Keep your main examples contemporary (last 5 years)
Case studies we have looked at and resources
Election of Jeremy Corbyn (We Media 13)
Paris attacks case studies (We Media)
‘Black Mirror – The National Anthem’ (We Media 14)
Your case studies (H:CurriculumEnglishMedia StudiesWe
MediaStudent case studies)
Real People on TV (We Media 18)
Russell Brand (We Media 16)
Aftermath of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis (We Media 11)
Remix Culture and pastiche (We Media 19)
Media and democracy – give your point of view
(revisit your definitions) What should be the role
of media in a democracy?
Tony Benn MP
Democracy brings about greater power for the people.
The powerful have never liked or wanted democracy.
It is an ongoing fight.
The more democratic a society is the more power the citizen
has.
Plato’s Cave
There needs to be elites who rule over the lower
orders. Most people are not capable of self-rule so
need educated and skilled people to make
decisions for them.
How democratic has the media been in the
past? Who owned it? Who made it?
NEITHER
POSITIVE OR
NEGATIVE
Chomsky ‘Manufacturing Consent’
• Mainstream media in a liberal democracy owned by
elite who are the same people who benefit most
from the system as it is. Not a conspiracy: the system
works well for them!
• Doesn’t believe the internet is too much better as
the main owners are all still massive companies and
the quality of journalism is weakened
• Allow lively debate but set the margins and give
preference to views that echo their own
• People believe they are getting a variety of opinions
but in reality it is quite narrow; makes their control
stronger as we believe we are getting both sides of
the story
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
Curtis’ ideas about the Internet
• We create simplified (perhaps idealised) versions of
ourselves online
• We often share incredibly personal details about our
fears, likes and desires which is incredibly valuable
information for web companies.
• We give security services all the information they would
previously have to spend months gathering
• We sell our pasts through our web history
• From the information we donate companies,
governments and websites know more about what we
want, how we think and can provide us with endless
targeted distractions or things to buy! Amazon was one
of the first companies to benefit from this approach
• The internet becomes a place where nothing ever dies
and helps keep everything the same as it acts as a huge
museum.
Curtis on the claims of social media’s role in
cultural or political change
“I’m not criticizing the Internet or Facebook or Twitter. In their main
manifestations – the distribution of information – they’re wonderful,
fantastic. What I take issue with are cyber-utopians who I think are
mind-crushingly naïve, who see democracy as simply you, me and
millions of other individuals connected together. And somehow if we
could have perfect connections we could organize everything perfectly
and there wouldn’t be any need for power. Facebook or Twitter can tell
you where to join up and rebel but it doesn’t allow you to envisage
another kind of world.” (in Forrest 2011:23) from McDougall ‘Media
Studies – the basics’
Is ‘We Media’ truly global?
Consider regulation…
‘We Media’ is making contemporary media
more democratic than before
POSITIVE
Dan Gillmor author of ‘We the Media’ –
regular people are journalists
‘...news was being produced by
regular people who had something
to say and show, and not solely by
the “official” news organisations
that had traditionally decided how
the first draft of history would look.
The first draft was being written, in
part, by the former audience. It
was possible – it was inevitable –
because of the internet.’ (Gillmor)
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
Dan Gillmor on ‘big media’
• ‘...treated the news as a
lecture. We told you what the
news was. You brought it in, or
you didn’t.’
• ‘Tomorrow’s news reporting
and production will be more of
a conversation, or a seminar.’
(Gillmor)
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
Media 2.0 - Gauntlett
We can produce our
own media and
distribute it.
Issues around how
you filter your
choices but no longer
consumers: now
prosumers.
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
Tapscott – Grown Up Digital
• “The print media company and the TV network are
hierarchical organisations that reflect the values of
their owners. New media, on the other hand, give
control to all users. The distinction between
bottom-up and top-down organisational structure is
at the heart of the new generation. For the first
time ever, young people have taken control of
critical elements of a communications revolution.”
(p21)
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
‘We Media’ is NOT making contemporary
media more democratic than before
NEGATIVE
Morozov ‘The Net Delusion’
- View that the web is emancipatory is a “mis-reading of history”
- Part of the technologically deterministic, cyber-utopian
“Google Doctrine” or “Twitter Agenda” – an exaggeration
- Doesn’t bring about real change; mainly ‘slacktivism’
- Governments are actually using the web for propaganda,
control, surveillance, censorship and suppression
- People are actually using the internet for sex, shopping and
entertainment
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
Andrew Keen warns that we should not
celebrate the possible end of big media
He warns that old media is facing
extinction – “say goodbye to experts
and cultural gatekeepers – our
reporters, news anchors, editors, music
companies, and Hollywood movie
studios.”
In its place is amateurism: “If we are all
amateurs, there are no experts.”
(Keen)
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
Andrew Keen on what people actually talk
about on the internet
‘...the internet has become a
mirror to ourselves. Rather than
using it to seek news, information,
or culture, we use it to actually BE
the news, the information, the
culture.’ (Keen)
EXAMPLE?
CASE STUDY?
Surveillance – the internet is just part of a new
and far more sophisticated method of control
Andrew Keen in his third book ‘The
Internet is Not the Answer’ argues
that the internet leads to
monopolies who collect vast
amounts of information about us-
which we freely give them-and use
that to strengthen their
monopolies for their long term
benefit and our short term
gratification. Pointing to
companies such as Google,
Amazon and Facebook.
What is Web 3.0/Semantic Web? -
RECAP
• Web 3.0 has a number of different definitions, but the most
popular (and simple) explanation seems to be that it’s the
virtual blending of online and offline worlds. An example of
this might be your computer remembering your tastes and
interests, so that your browser becomes like a personal
assistant when you search or look for recommendations.
• Most importantly, Web 3.0. is an
increase in computer intelligence,
to the point where
computers will be able to reason and
analyze. But they’ll be better and
more efficient at it than us.
Does this mean we
only see what we want
to see? The internet
acts as an echo
chamber – people are
talking to people who
agree with them;
others can avoid the
news/other points of
view altogether.
We Media L20 mock exam revision

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We Media L20 mock exam revision

  • 1. ‘We Media’ and democracy Lesson 20 AIM: Revisit the arguments, theories around ‘We Media’ and Democracy; revise the terminology Mock Exam Revision
  • 2. Starter: Look at your terminology glossary and put a * next to any terms you don’t know Ask your neighbour… Ask your neighbour’s neighbour… Ask me…
  • 3. 5 main questions we need to consider in A2 1. What is/are ‘We Media’ and what are the main arguments in this school of thought? 2. Where / how has ‘We Media’ emerged? 3. What are the positives and negatives of ‘We Media’? 4. In what way are the contemporary media more democratic than before? 5. In what ways are the contemporary media less democratic than before?
  • 4. Basic structure for your exam answer - Introduction – outline your view of what democracy is and how it relates to the media. Briefly explain why media historically has not been very democratic. - Point one – make point, include theory, give example - Point two - make point, include theory, give example - Point three etc. (different media form – TV/Newspapers/Online) - Conclusion – potential future developments Where is this heading? Points Logical order Assessment criteria Note the time
  • 5. Remember: • You need to include specific examples from case studies to back up your points • At least 4 theorists • At least 2 media forms are studied • You should compare alternative ‘we media’ examples with other examples of more established production and ownership models • Keep your main examples contemporary (last 5 years)
  • 6. Case studies we have looked at and resources Election of Jeremy Corbyn (We Media 13) Paris attacks case studies (We Media) ‘Black Mirror – The National Anthem’ (We Media 14) Your case studies (H:CurriculumEnglishMedia StudiesWe MediaStudent case studies) Real People on TV (We Media 18) Russell Brand (We Media 16) Aftermath of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis (We Media 11) Remix Culture and pastiche (We Media 19)
  • 7. Media and democracy – give your point of view (revisit your definitions) What should be the role of media in a democracy? Tony Benn MP Democracy brings about greater power for the people. The powerful have never liked or wanted democracy. It is an ongoing fight. The more democratic a society is the more power the citizen has. Plato’s Cave There needs to be elites who rule over the lower orders. Most people are not capable of self-rule so need educated and skilled people to make decisions for them.
  • 8. How democratic has the media been in the past? Who owned it? Who made it?
  • 10. Chomsky ‘Manufacturing Consent’ • Mainstream media in a liberal democracy owned by elite who are the same people who benefit most from the system as it is. Not a conspiracy: the system works well for them! • Doesn’t believe the internet is too much better as the main owners are all still massive companies and the quality of journalism is weakened • Allow lively debate but set the margins and give preference to views that echo their own • People believe they are getting a variety of opinions but in reality it is quite narrow; makes their control stronger as we believe we are getting both sides of the story
  • 12. Curtis’ ideas about the Internet • We create simplified (perhaps idealised) versions of ourselves online • We often share incredibly personal details about our fears, likes and desires which is incredibly valuable information for web companies. • We give security services all the information they would previously have to spend months gathering • We sell our pasts through our web history • From the information we donate companies, governments and websites know more about what we want, how we think and can provide us with endless targeted distractions or things to buy! Amazon was one of the first companies to benefit from this approach • The internet becomes a place where nothing ever dies and helps keep everything the same as it acts as a huge museum.
  • 13. Curtis on the claims of social media’s role in cultural or political change “I’m not criticizing the Internet or Facebook or Twitter. In their main manifestations – the distribution of information – they’re wonderful, fantastic. What I take issue with are cyber-utopians who I think are mind-crushingly naïve, who see democracy as simply you, me and millions of other individuals connected together. And somehow if we could have perfect connections we could organize everything perfectly and there wouldn’t be any need for power. Facebook or Twitter can tell you where to join up and rebel but it doesn’t allow you to envisage another kind of world.” (in Forrest 2011:23) from McDougall ‘Media Studies – the basics’
  • 14. Is ‘We Media’ truly global?
  • 16. ‘We Media’ is making contemporary media more democratic than before POSITIVE
  • 17. Dan Gillmor author of ‘We the Media’ – regular people are journalists ‘...news was being produced by regular people who had something to say and show, and not solely by the “official” news organisations that had traditionally decided how the first draft of history would look. The first draft was being written, in part, by the former audience. It was possible – it was inevitable – because of the internet.’ (Gillmor) EXAMPLE? CASE STUDY?
  • 18. Dan Gillmor on ‘big media’ • ‘...treated the news as a lecture. We told you what the news was. You brought it in, or you didn’t.’ • ‘Tomorrow’s news reporting and production will be more of a conversation, or a seminar.’ (Gillmor) EXAMPLE? CASE STUDY?
  • 19. Media 2.0 - Gauntlett We can produce our own media and distribute it. Issues around how you filter your choices but no longer consumers: now prosumers. EXAMPLE? CASE STUDY?
  • 20. Tapscott – Grown Up Digital • “The print media company and the TV network are hierarchical organisations that reflect the values of their owners. New media, on the other hand, give control to all users. The distinction between bottom-up and top-down organisational structure is at the heart of the new generation. For the first time ever, young people have taken control of critical elements of a communications revolution.” (p21) EXAMPLE? CASE STUDY?
  • 21. ‘We Media’ is NOT making contemporary media more democratic than before NEGATIVE
  • 22. Morozov ‘The Net Delusion’ - View that the web is emancipatory is a “mis-reading of history” - Part of the technologically deterministic, cyber-utopian “Google Doctrine” or “Twitter Agenda” – an exaggeration - Doesn’t bring about real change; mainly ‘slacktivism’ - Governments are actually using the web for propaganda, control, surveillance, censorship and suppression - People are actually using the internet for sex, shopping and entertainment EXAMPLE? CASE STUDY?
  • 23. Andrew Keen warns that we should not celebrate the possible end of big media He warns that old media is facing extinction – “say goodbye to experts and cultural gatekeepers – our reporters, news anchors, editors, music companies, and Hollywood movie studios.” In its place is amateurism: “If we are all amateurs, there are no experts.” (Keen) EXAMPLE? CASE STUDY?
  • 24. Andrew Keen on what people actually talk about on the internet ‘...the internet has become a mirror to ourselves. Rather than using it to seek news, information, or culture, we use it to actually BE the news, the information, the culture.’ (Keen) EXAMPLE? CASE STUDY?
  • 25. Surveillance – the internet is just part of a new and far more sophisticated method of control Andrew Keen in his third book ‘The Internet is Not the Answer’ argues that the internet leads to monopolies who collect vast amounts of information about us- which we freely give them-and use that to strengthen their monopolies for their long term benefit and our short term gratification. Pointing to companies such as Google, Amazon and Facebook.
  • 26. What is Web 3.0/Semantic Web? - RECAP • Web 3.0 has a number of different definitions, but the most popular (and simple) explanation seems to be that it’s the virtual blending of online and offline worlds. An example of this might be your computer remembering your tastes and interests, so that your browser becomes like a personal assistant when you search or look for recommendations. • Most importantly, Web 3.0. is an increase in computer intelligence, to the point where computers will be able to reason and analyze. But they’ll be better and more efficient at it than us. Does this mean we only see what we want to see? The internet acts as an echo chamber – people are talking to people who agree with them; others can avoid the news/other points of view altogether.