Annually over 70,000 severe fire related injuries in Europe :Hospitalisation ; high costs for medical treatment and counseling– reason enough to take action wherever we can to raise awareness of the risks of fire and to make fire-safety in buildings a priority across Europe.loss of life, need for long-term burn wounds treatment, serious disabling long-term effects of toxic smoke inhalation hugely traumatic for both the victims and their families. stress and insecurity of losing one’s residence, or workplace, with resulting unemployment, should not be underestimated.
The sustainability assessment quantifies impacts and aspects to assess the environmental, social and economic performance of buildings using quantitative and qualitative indicators, both of which are measured without value judgements.The purpose of the suite of standards is to enable comparability of the results of assessments.
But first this:If a building does not meet the needs for use, then the building and all products and materials in the building envelope and inside cannot be sustainable. Sustainability also starts with fullfilling the Basic Works Requirements. The European Construction Products Regulation (305/2011) defines 7 Basic Works Requirements. If for example the 1st Basic Work requirements - Mechanical resistance and stability – is not fulfilled, the building collapse or deformations hinder the functioning of the activities in the building, then all products used in the building construction and in the building interior, are no longer sustainable. If the building or part of the building for example catches fires because Basic Work requirement nr 2 – Safety in case of fire – is not fulfilled, all sustainability efforts for building and products become worthless.So: sustainability starts with the Basic Works Requirements; with a good functional and technical design and construction!
But once the functional and technical design is made , and realised, this has an impact on the environment, on the society and the economics.Sustainability is based on the solutions for meeting the functional and technical needs and measured in 3 dimensions: environmental performance, social performance and economical performance.The CEN TC350 standards allow measuring on these 3 dimensions of sustainability. The standards do not define what is sustainable and what not. They do not clasify or give ratings, they only quantify.
The CEN TC350 standards form of a suite of the European Standards, written by CEN/TC 350, that providea system for the sustainability assessment of buildings using a life cycle approach.
Fire safety in the sustainability assessment of buildings
Fire safety in thesustainability assessment of buildingsChris Hamans – ESCFire Forum 2012; Brussels; 18-10-2012http://www.hamans.com
Fire safety:the unknown sustainability indicator• Sustainability and fire safety: not yet integratedHowever:• Fire safety issues can have a huge impact on the sustainability ofbuildings– Environmental impacts– Social impacts– Economic impacts
Fire statistics:new buildings overrepresented• Insurance damage; NL statistics„the expensive fires” are newly constructed buildings• We want to build more sustainable buildings:– More energy efficient– “lean” and “light” buildings – resource efficient– More environmentally friendly products• But is fire destroing our sustainability objectives ?– A building fire: decreased sustainability
Buildings have changed• Many new and more combustible materials– within the building envelope (non-building related materials)– as part of the load bearing and non-loadbearing construction• Lower heat transmittance = well insulated =rapidly development and higher temperature increase in case of fire• Improved air tightness + mechanical ventilation =no natural exhaust of smoke and toxic gasses
Don‟t blameEnergy Efficiency, however ...• Increased demands for the energy efficiency of buildings– Reducing energy losses (EPBD Directive):• Airtightness• Minimised energy transmittance = Increased insulation thickness:may lead to increased fire load• Proven*: an increased risk– 1950 - from ignition of a fire to flash over = 15 min.– 1985 - from ignition of a fire to flash over = 5 min.– 2012 - from ignition of a fire to flash over = 3 min.* SRSA (Swedish Rescue Services Agency)
Fire Safety and Sustainability• Big fires have a devastating effect on all three dimensions ofsustainability.ENV SOC ECONTechnical designFunctional designsustainability
Fire and the Socialdimension of Sustainability• Annually over 70,000 severe fire related injuries in Europe :– Hospitalisation ; high costs for medical treatment and counseling• loss of lives• need for long-term burn wounds treatment• serious disabling• long-term effects of toxic smoke inhalation• hugely traumatic for both the victims and their families• stress and insecurity of losing one‟s residence, orworkplace, with resulting unemployment, should not beunderestimated
Smoke: most fatal social impact• 8 out of 10 fire deaths are due to inhalation of smokeand toxic gasses indicate also that smoke toxicityshould be taken seriously.• Moreover, 30% of fire related deaths and injuriesworldwide concern children.
SOCENVNext to the socialthere is an environmental impact
Fire and the Environmentaldimension of Sustainability• large fires cause serious environmental impacts byemissions to air, water and soil and generate waste– severe local environmental damage caused by water run-off,soot, ash, and smoke pollution,– waste and waste treatment, landfill– loss of all the raw materials ( no sustainable resourcemanagement)– rebuilding represents further material depletion, energy useand additional emissions.
Fire and the Environmentaldimension of Sustainability (2)• Large fires in light manufacturing plants have beenestimated to increase life time carbon emissions by 14%.• Sweden: annual emissions of unburned particles frombuilding fires have been calculated to be equal to thetotal of emissions from all commercial transport in thatyear.
Undermining sustainability• Fire is given more potential to destroy all sustainabilityambitions!– Burning down the lifetime claims of allbuilding related and non-building related goods– Wasting natural resources, increasing emissions, .....– Rebuilding: extra natural resources, energy, emissions,
ENV ECONAnd then there arethe economic aspects
Fire and the Economicdimension of Sustainability• Estim. ~1% of European GDP is lost due to fireannually.– Moreover, 50% of businesses hit by large fires go bankruptcausing unemployment and the loss of local and national taxrevenue.– Netherlands: occurrence of big fires – damage: > 1 mil. € *)*) Nibra - Miljoenenbranden (2003) ISBN 90-5643-259-1major (66%) impact in the fire developmentand fire acceleration from:• structural detailing• furnishing
Fire is a threath to sustainability• EPBD/EED/Renovation will increase –the fire safety risks will increase!• Fire fighters have to deal with existing buildings – existing buildingsbehave very differently in fire!• Recent fires on ETICS systems in France, China and Berlin haveillustrated new risks. ENVIRONMENTAL + SOCIAL + ECONOMIC SOCIAL ( + CSR) ENVIRONMENTAL + SOCIAL + ECONOMIC
Standards,programs and building rating schemes• Standards for quantification• Programs for qualification– Quantifying– Selecting criteria– Qualifying and Rating based on selected criteria• EPD and Building Programs– Products: IBU, MRPI, Green Guide (BREEAM), .........???– Building rating programs: BREEAM, HQE, LEED,
EN15643-part1: General Framework for the Sustainability Assessment of BuildingsEN15978EnvironmentalAssessment ofBuildingsEN15804EnvironmentalAssessment ofProductsCEN TR 15941EN 15942EN15643-2 EN15643-3 EN15643-4prEN16309Assessment of SocialBuildings PerformanceworkitemAssessment of EconomicBuilding PerformanceWork in progress• All Framework standards published• All environmental standards publishedStatus CEN TC350 standardsStatus 01-09-201219
CEN TC350 standardsENV SOC ECONsustainabilityCEN TC350standards for worksCEN TC350standards only quantifyaspects and impacts20
CEN TC350 standardsSustainability starts with the Basic Works Requirements !• Without meeting the functional needs there is no sustainability• Without meeting the technical needs there is no sustainabilityTechnical designFunctional designCPR305/2011EuroCodes21
CEN TC350 standards for quantificationSustainability starts with the Basic Works Requirements !• Without meeting the functional needs there is no sustainability• Without meeting the technical needs there is no sustainabilityENV SOC ECONTechnical designFunctional designsustainabilityCPR305/2011EuroCodesCEN TC350standards for worksCEN TC350standards only quantifyaspects and impacts22
And yet:• not that much on fire safety in thesustainability assessment of buildings............– Not in the assessment of the environmental performance of thebuilding– Not in the economic performance assessmentHowever– the social aspects of the level of fire safety are assessed in achecklist procedure: prEN16309
Why not ?• Principles in the sustainability aspects of products and buildings:– Based on regular conditions– Assessing the impact – NOT the avoided impact• Fire:– Fire is not/should not be the “regular condition”– Fire Safety is about “avoiding impact”• However:– Fire safety: a functional performance to resist fire
Fire safety aspectin EN15643-3 and prEN16309• Aspect category “safety/security”:– Indicator: resistance to climate change,– Indicator: security against intruders and vandalism,– Indicator: security against interruptions of utility supply(e.g. electricity, water, district heating, etc.).– Indicator: Fire safety• “the capacity of the building to provideresistance to fire and its consequential effectsin respect of both the building users andresistance to fire damage of the built asset.”
Fire Safety in prEN16309– The standards assess the building performance as far as they exceedthe minimum legal level of fire safety that is required.Having a higher level of fire safety will contribute to the sustainability ofthe building
Exceedingthe minimum requirements• The standard does not provide precise measures, but point atexamples of provisions for increased fire safety, such as:– stricter classification for reaction to fire according to EN 13501-1;– using materials/design that will result in reduced levels of toxic gases and/ordroplets;– higher fire resistance classes of building elements than required byprevailing regulations;– installation or enhancement of smoke control systems using approvedcomponents and approved competent persons for the design, installation andmaintenance;A non exhaustive list
Exceedingthe minimum requirements (2)• The standards do not provide precise measures, but point at examplesof provisions for increased fire safety, such as:– installation or enhancement of fire detection and alarm systems usingapproved components and approved competent persons for thedesign, installation and maintenance;– installation or enhancement of fire extinguishing systems using approvedcomponents and approved competent personsfor the design, installation and maintenance;– optimisation of the size of smoke and fire compartments;– improved design of the means of escape(including consideration of disabled people);– improved access and facilities for fire fighters.
However .......There are other sustainability assessments thanthe sustainability assessment of BUILDINGS
Corporate Social Responsibility• An aspect of sustainability– Not of the building– Of policies and (management) decissions• Not in the CEN TC350 standards• In EN-ISO-26000
Corporate Social Responsibility• CSR also should includethe taking of the rightMANAGEMENT DECISSIONS:– Maximum firesafe DESIGN– Material / Product CHOICE– CONTROL – VERIFICATION ofworkmanship / installationNew build&Maintenance&Repair&Refurbishment&Renovation
Conclusion 1:fire safety & sustainability• Within the limits of the principle approach and the scopeCEN TC350 standards assess the social aspects of the degree offiresafety of the building.– A checklist of building performance related to fire safety– No value judgement– No risk assessment– Under “normal” (building use) conditions
Conclusion 2:fire safety & sustainability• The other sustainability assessment:Fire Safety should be an evaluation aspect in theCSR – Corporate Social Responsibilty –assessment and declaration
Thank youChris HamansMore info on CEN TC350 standards? See:• YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL7A9F5EB6874887BF• SlideShare: http://www.slideshare.net/search/slideshow?searchfrom=header&q=CEN+TC350• CEN TC350: www.afnor.org/centc350• www.hamans.com