A reputation for delivering innovative, integrated environmental systems globally
Presentation Outline• Who are Greenspan?• What projects have we completed?• Flood Warning Systems – What is a typical flood warning system – Field Stations – Communications – Base Stations – The path forward
Flood Warning Who are Greenspan? Systems Hydrographic &Irrigation Water QualitySolutions Water Infrastructure Monitoring Oceanographic
Who are Greenspan? 2010 2000 • >100 Australian Projects • Purchased • Coffs Harbour, Brisbane, by Tyco Sydney, Perth, 1998 Singapore, Kuala • First >$1m Lumpur, Vancouver project • World leading projects: • SMART, 1995 • Yangtze, • 2 offices • Environment Canada
Our Staff And Vancouver! • Experts comprising:Malaysia – Hydrologists, Hydrographers and Scientists Singapore – Engineers (Installation & Service) • Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Instrumentation, IT – Project Managers – Factory and Field Technicians – Consultants Newcastle Brisbane – Sales and Marketing Coffs Harbour – Administrative Perth Sydney • Leading experts, all in-house Hobart
Our Affiliations • Campbell Scientific – Asian distributor for environmental monitoring projects • Control Microsystems – Regional Representation and SCADAPartner Integrator • Aquatic Informatics – Alliance Partner – Distributor for Asia, Pacific and Middle EastAlthough we are affiliated with these companies, we are free to choose the mostsuitable product for each application. Companies that manufactureeverything in house have a tendency to recommend theirproducts when others may be more suitable.
Our Projects Environment Canada Yangtze River 3 Gorges Hydrometric Network Dam Malaysian SMART Tunnel Khuzestan Water Singapore Overflow Quality Initiative Network Kenya Indonesian Hydrometric Hydro-Electric Over 100 projects in Network Power Plants Australia (including QLD Main roads FWS and Coffs Harbour FWS design)
Flood Event Review – Hurricane Katrina• Costliest natural disaster in the history of the US – USD$81b, >1,836 deaths• Most severe loss of life in New Orleans when the levee system (2000 miles) failed, resulting in lawsuit against US Army Corp of Engineers.• Canal design helped funnel storm surge to at 20% height to the flood and make it much faster• WMO, BoM, USGS promote “Live with the flood”
The goal of a flood warning system• To provide timely measurement and modelling of flood potential to areas at risk• Engineer a system that will not fail during flood conditions• Maximise the ability of those who are charged with the responsibility for preserving life to have sufficient warning of impending danger.
Typical Field Stations Weather Stations • To provide data to model storm potential • To measure when the storm starts and the intensity of the storm • To understand dynamic conditions that have an impact on flood run off, such as soil moisture • To collect valuable meteorological data for historical data set
Typical Field Stations Upper Catchment Rainfall • Early warning indicator • Quantify what the models have predicted • Without meteorological models, these are the first indicator, along with weather conditions
Typical Field Stations Modernisation of existing stilling wells • Replace chart records or mechanical devices with accurate instruments and telemetry systems • Often have the best historical records for levels and flood events which are valuable for calibrating flood models
Typical Field Stations Raised Platform Hydrometric Station • Above the flood zone • Rainfall and gas purge level
Typical Field Stations Surface Radar Velocity • First of its type measures velocity, not just level • Requires calibration to relate velocity to flow (volume) • Can be used over large ranges such as those experienced in flood conditions
Typical Field Stations In-stream Doppler Current Meter • Velocity provides much more information than simply level • For flow with hysteresis or backwater effects • Or where high flow/velocity gauging’s have not been made • Below cease to flow for total load calculations, higher for flood warning measurements
Typical Field Stations Stormwater blockages or build up in cities • Detects blockages in the underground network of stormwater or sewer systems to alert for maintenance before an failure occurs • Localised city flooding is often cause by drainage failures • Can also be used for underground car parks or other systems to provide early warning to parked vehicles to remove the imminent danger
Typical Field Stations Audible Warning Stations • To alert those in the flood zone • Combination of high intensity sirens as well as voiced announcements through loud speakers • Critical anywhere that experiences high rates of change in level, or below dams or levees that can be breached • Combine with direct warning systems
Typical Field Stations On site visible warning • Road signs with warning lights when flooding is active • One of the greatest dangers in more developed areas are people trying to cross flood zones in their vehicle
Typical Field Stations Flood Gate Control • To control and divert the flow of the flood waters • When flood warning can also be flood mitigation • Pumps can also be controlled
Typical Field Stations CCTV • To verify measurements and view things not directly measured • Can help stop people putting themselves in danger during flood conditions, such as to inspect dams
Communications Customised to suit every application, mixing between: - Wired (cable, leased line, PSTN) - Radio (UHF/VHF/Microwave etc) - Cellular (GSM, GPRS, 3G) - Satellite - True redundancy is achieved by mixing 2 of the above methods, with the most reliable during flood events being satellite - SMS should not be used to transmit data from a station as these can overload in flood events
Control Centres Typically include • Redundant communications infrastructure • Redundant locations (disaster recovery centre) • SCADA • Modelling • Historian • Alarm dissemination
Modelling Data once collected is of value to understand the conditions in the field without having to visit the field. However, with the implementation of a model, these current conditions can be used to understand what may occur in the future. Models can be anything, from a basic rainfall run- off model to highly detailed and complex models including numerical weather prediction.
Data Correction, Validation and Statistics Hydrographic data should be processed with hydrographic tools. Particularly, the following items are important: • Data Correction (i.e. to repair data incorrectly measured in the field) • Quality coding to ensure only high quality data is used in model forecasts • Data Processing such as using rating curves to develop stage-discharge relationships • Statistics • Reporting
RECAP:The goal of a flood warning system• To provide timely measurement and modelling of flood potential to areas at risk• Engineer a system that will not fail during flood conditions• Maximise the ability of those who are charged with the responsibility for preserving life to have sufficient warning of impending danger.
Where to from here?• Make sure that there is a commitment to save lives and property through the investment required to engineer a suitable solution• Develop a scope of works and specification through expert consultancy• Manage the project implementation• We highly recommend a visit to the Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel (SMART) in Kuala Lumpur if at all possible as it is an excellent example of the topics discussed here today.