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Chris Freitas Copyright Laws

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Chris Freitas Copyright Laws

  1. 1. Copyright Laws <ul><li>Powerpoint Presentation by Chris Freitas </li></ul><ul><li>December 15, 2009 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Copyright Articles <ul><li>Kim, Minjeong (2008). The Creative Commons and Copyright Protection in the Digital Era: Uses of Creative Commons Licenses. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication , 13 (1), 187-209 </li></ul><ul><li>Grunfeld, Dan (1996). All the News That's Fit to Re-Print: Writers vs. The Times. Columbia Journalism Review , 34 (5), 10-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Kirtley, Jane (2008). Web v. Journalism: Court Cases Challenge Long-Held Principles. Nieman Reports, 62 (4), 54-56 </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan, Chris (2007). Copyright Ownership in the Digital Age. Democratic Communique , 21 (1), 27-42 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Copyright Q & A <ul><li>What is the main issue with copyright infringement and the Web? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading of songs, movies, software, etc. without permission. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free access to content via peer-to-peer software (Kazaa, BitTorrent) or file-storage sites (MegaUpload, Rapidshare). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some of the methods being used to discourage the downloading of copyrighted materials? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Levying fines or imprisonment of those who download copyright material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting off internet connection by contacting ISPs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisements advising people that illegal downloading material is stealing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption on material (DRM, copy-protected DVDs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How much of an effect is the illegal downloading of content having on the industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Losing money they would get from those who illegally download </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A “witch hunt” of IP addresses found downloading material from P2P servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some ways people can get content legally on the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>iTunes, Hulu, producer's websites, retail stores, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless provided for free, you will need to buy the product. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Copyright Q & A <ul><li>How would someone be able to distribute content legally? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative-commons licensing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining permission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why should the length of copyright not be longer? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The length is already long enough. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping the copyright longer will not allow other artists to build upon original works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How are ways people can link to websites without copyright infringement? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain permission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have a frame advertising your website linked to another website. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link your website with theirs, and they in turn link with yours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why should a freelance writer retain some of the copyright to his/her story? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is the writer's own interpretation and work, not just a news organization's. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Payment should be made to if the story is used in other media. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Court Case: RIAA vs. Napster (2001)
  6. 6. Case Background <ul><li>First court case addressing the legality of peer-to-peer software </li></ul><ul><li>Napster held liable for copyright infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Servers contained music mp3 files which allowed users to download for free from other users </li></ul><ul><li>Network contained lists of available songs on Napster </li></ul><ul><li>Became a popular software for people to easily find their favorite music </li></ul>
  7. 7. Case Arguments <ul><li>Napster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed that they didn't benefit financially, users sample music before buying, users downloaded music that already own on CDs/Tapes/etc., and they have permission from some artists to distribute music. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio Home Recording Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Millennium Copyright Act safe harbor clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed to be not responsible for users' actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record companies waived copyrights when they distributed music digitally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had a “implied license” to distribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music industry using copyright to control digital distribution online. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Case Arugments <ul><li>RIAA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributory Infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proof that Napster knew users were infringing on copyrighted material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sony v. Universal (Betamax case) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike VCRs where makers have no control over usage, Napster supported the distribution and storage of material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicarious Infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napster could benefit financially and had to right to police potential copyright infringement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Case Outcome <ul><li>Courts found Napster liable for copyright infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to remove infringing files </li></ul><ul><li>First generation Napster shut down in 2002 after failing to completely removing files and paying a $26 million fine to record companies </li></ul><ul><li>Later returned as a paid-subscription service </li></ul><ul><li>Other alternative peer-sharing software emerged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazaa, LimeWire, iMesh, BitTorrent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite RIAA attempting to shut them down, people still continue to download copyrighted material. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD sales continue to decline, but online downloading (legal and illegal) has increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More legal distribution of material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iTunes, Amazon, Rhapsody, Zune </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Student Interview Questions <ul><li>Interview questions based on the 8 question related to copyright laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed 3 U of M students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan Jackson (senior) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarah (senior) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley (sophomore) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Student Responses <ul><li>What is the main issue with copyright infringement and the Web? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan: Music,TV, and Movie Piracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarah and Wesley: People are not making all the money they should be. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some of the methods being used to discourage the downloading of copyrighted materials? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan: Blocking websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarah: Commercials you can't fast forward through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley: Commercials that persuade you that it is stealing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much of an effect is the illegal downloading of content having on the industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley: CD sales are probably down. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some ways people can get content legally on the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan: Hulu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley: Certain websites </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Student Responses <ul><li>How would someone be able to distribute content legally? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley: They can force you to pay for it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why should the length of copyright be longer or shorter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan: I don't see the point, but I'm not in the industry. I guess 70 years gives the surviving family benefits. If that is the case, it's cool. If not...lame! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley: I never thought about it. It sounds fine to me, but I've never heard any arguments about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are ways people can link to websites without copyright infringement? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley: Don't have ads on them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why should a freelance writer or newspaper retain some of the copyright to a story? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarah: Newspapers should get the rights because you worked for them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wesley: I guess you should be able to keep your own stuff. It sounds fair. </li></ul></ul>

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