County maps – again really at any detail from about 1770. - and in a more uniform style. Often 1 inch to the mile… Land/house owners names regularly appear – After this – move to the Ordnance Survey a which Chris will talk more about later Following on from estate plans, some surveyors made the logical leap to making county maps, such as this one of Haddingtonshire by 1799 by William Forrest. These were at least partly funded up front by the collections of subscriptions. Remember that still only a tiny part of the population was educated and could read, and probably even fewer could afford to buy the maps. This is a particularly fine example – and in this extract you can see the quality of the engraving. Remember that these were engraved backwards onto copper plates for engraving! The limited market had to be secured before production. Part of the sales pitch was undoubtedly to promise that the gentleman’s houses would be shown, and they were often issued with an accompanying list of subscribers... There are many examples of proposals for maps which never made it to production for want of the requisite number of subscriptions. It seems probable that the selection of content, or prominence given to particular areas would be determined by who subscribed. The surveyor may have already surveyed their estate in much greater detail and that knowledge could then come through onto the county map. This is a very good example of the type, described by John Thomson 30 years later as: “ The masterly manner in which this map is executed is at once a memorial of industry, skill and enterprise, seldom found in one individual. The noblemen and gentlemen’s domains, the towns and villages, with the roads, the parish boundaries, the sea coast, the woods and rivers, are presented on paper as if reflected in a glass. The woods and pleasure grounds of Tyningham, the seat of the Earl of Haddington, may be cited as a specimen of delineation that may be equalled, but not surpassed .”
John Adair. East Lothian. 1682
'Plan of the Forest of Mamlorn' was surveyed by Colin Foster in 1732. It is drawn in ink with a very faint grey wash to show relief on the hills and pale brown for rivers. It covers an area in Breadalbane, Perthshire, south of Loch Lyon. It related to a land dispute between the Earl of Breadalbane to the south, and the Laird of Culdares to the north. The map was used in an ensuing Court of Session case in 1735 which examined and settled the boundary between two landowners. Ownershuip is shown by being written on the map… Some areas were clearly not for negotiation…
John Geddy. S. Andre sive Andreapolis Scotiae Universitas Metropolitana. [ca1780]
Ordnance Survey. 1:10,560. Edinburghshire 7, surveyed 1852-3, published 1854.
Ordnance Survey. 1:63,360. One inch to the mile Scotland. First edition. Sheet 22 Kilmarnock. Surveyed 1852 – 5.
It is worth knowing a little bit about scale because the maps you are most likely to use come at a variety of scales. We are all familiar with the modern OS, and many people have the false impression that equivalent mapping will be available as far back as they can trace their family. Unfortunately this is not the case. For Scotland, the OS really came into being in the 1850’s. So for addresses and places after that there is a good chance of being able to locate an exact house or building. As a rough guide, the more populated an area, the more detailed mapping will be available, and in more editions. In some rural areas of Highlands and Perthshire there can be more than 70 years between editions. Just because you can’t find it on the map doesn’t mean it didn’t exist.
caveats : DATES often they do not represent the landscape at the time of publication but several or even 10s of years before. ACCURACY early maps were not measured... they show things which never happened changes happened which were never recorded PURPOSE they were made to show a particular feature so the rest is distorted may only show things related to that purpose... Often not designed to be used in isolation BIAS ALL MAPS ARE BIASED! Mapmakers choice of what to include (impossible to show everything ... 1:1) Their conscious and unconscious political environment Your reading of it is biased by your own views and knowledge All these caveats still hold true to some extent – it is impossible for a map to represent everything that’s on the ground.
Approx 2 million items Whole world – not just Scotland Responsibility to collect for the Scottish people …. Website: approx 4,000 maps 6” going up soon work on 1 st ed. Parish ed. 25” just started – scanning Catalogue – individual maps rather than series (ie no OS) ca. 55,000 ASK!
Maps for Local Studies - LocScot 24 April 2013
Maps for Local StudiesLocScot Dayschool and AGM - National Library of ScotlandWeds 24 April 201310.00 Welcome and introduction (CILIP)10.15 Maps for local history (Chris). An overview of historical maps of Scotland, their purposes, audiences, content andvalue for local studies.11.00 Cataloguing, metadata, and finding aids (Paula).11.45 AGM (CILIP)12.15 Lunch13.30 Split into two groups: 1. Storage, map stacks, classification, and conservation (Paula)2. Hands-on viewing of specific maps and finding aids (Chris)(Groups swap around after half an hour)14.30 Digital mapping and online resources (Chris). Including a brief look at map scanning, online delivery andgeoreferencing, and then primarily looking at the best online sources of maps and related info (NLS Map Images, OldMaps Online, ScotlandsPlaces, Map Curators Toolbox)15.30 Questions and wrap-up discussion16.00 Finish
Maps for Local HistoryRural Maps:County MapsEstate MapsEnclosure / CommontyLegal disputesTown PlansMilitary MapsCoastal chartsTransportation Maps -Canals / railways / roadsOrdnance Survey :HistoryCounty SeriesNational GridScales, map contents and editionsLegends and abbreviationsAir photosGeneral principles. Copyright
Ordnance Survey1.History2.County Series3.National Grid4.Scales, map contents and editions5.Legends and abbreviations
Ordnance Survey1. HistoryRoy Military Survey of Scotland, 1747-17551791 - Purchase of Jesse Ramsden theodoliteSouthern England (from 1790s), Ireland (from 1820s),and then Scotland (from 1840s)Battle of the Scales - 1850sCompletion of survey of Scotland - 1880sBooks of Reference and OS Name Books
OS Book of Reference…from 1855 to the mid-1880s for 1:2,500 maps.Parcel number, acreage andland-use.Can be consulted in NLS andon Internet Archive website:http://archive.org/details/osbooksofreference
OS Object Name BooksAvailable in the National Archives of Scotlandand on ScotlandsPlaces website through a £15 subscription
Ordnance Survey2. County Series Original mapping up to the Second World War based on counties Sheet referencing by County:OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 Aberdeenshire VIII (4 x 6 miles)OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 Aberdeenshire IXOS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 Aberdeenshire XOS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 Aberdeenshire VIII.1-16OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 Aberdeenshire VIII.4 (1 mile x 1.5 miles) Revision by county - all or part of the county revised atparticular points in time.
25 inch to the mile coverage1stedition - 1855-1882 2ndand later editions – 1892-
Origins of the OScounty meridians forlarge scale mapping
Survey and Revision Dates for County Series MappingOnline at:http://maps.nls.uk/os/county_series_list.html
Ordnance Survey3.National Grid• Davidson Committee from late 1930s recommended the recasting onto a newprojection for the whole of Great Britain, the National Grid: a Transverse Mercatorprojection with a central North-South meridian, and a point of origin based west ofthe Scilly Isles. New metric grid based on 100 Km squares.OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NW (5 x 5 km area)OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NEOS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4254 (1 x 1 km area)OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4255• Following initial survey, sheets placed under continuous revision
Ordnance Survey3. National Grid• Davidson Committee from late 1930s recommended the recasting ontoa new projection for the whole of Great Britain, the National Grid: aTransverse Mercator projection with a central North-South meridian,and a point of origin based west of the Scilly Isles. New metric gridbased on 100 Km squares.OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NW (5 x 5 km area)OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NEOS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4254 (1 x 1 km area)OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4255• Following initial survey, sheets placed under continuous revision
Richard Oliver’s town listsChapter 6 ofOrdnance Survey Maps: a conciseguide for historians(London: Charles Close, 2005)
Richard Oliver’s County ListingsChapter 7 ofOrdnance Survey Maps: a concise guidefor historians (London: Charles Close,2005)
Ordnance Survey4. Scales, Contents and EditionsScale Area Number of sheets Per cent areaBasic-scale series1:1,250 500m257,400 181:2,500 1-2 km2163,400 521:10,000 25 km23,680 30(All incorporated into OS MasterMap digital data)Derived series1:10,000 25 km26,480 1001:25,000 200 km21,374 1001:50,000 1,600 km2204 1001:250,000 8 1001:625,000 GB 1 100
Ordnance Survey“Ordnance Survey is Great Britains national mapping agency, providingmost accurate and up-to-date geographic data, relied on by governmbusiness and individuals.”Some recent issues: Income generation and cost recovery Greater imbalances of surveying Greater costs of large-scale mapping Greater concern over copyright and IPR Focus on core mapping - provision contracted out to Partners andMapping and Data Centres. Greater liberty to vary prices locally arouncore parameters. OS Opendata Disposal of historic mapping
Beware…• Dates• Accuracy• Purpose (e.g. plans)• Often not designed to be used in isolation• Require accompanying terriers or documents• (there may not be a key…)• Bias• the cartographers choices (what to include?)• political influence• your own bias
CopyrightOrdnance Survey maps are subject to CrownCopyright, which lasts for 50 years from the end ofthe year in which the map was published.Most other commercially published maps are incopyright for 70 years from the end of the year inwhich the map was published.Under fair dealing, OS allow “limited reproduction”(up to 4 identical A4-sized copies) of in copyrightmaps for non-commercial research or private studyor Parliamentary or Judicial Proceedings
Licences• OS have a wide range of licences for using in-copyright mapping,depending upon who you are, and what you wish to do with their mapping:• Paper Map Copying Licence• Publishing Licence• Framework Partner Licence• Internet Licence• From April 2013, NLS has become an OS Licensed Partner and is able tosupply full sheet copies of in-copyright maps• Libraries also have rights over the onward publication of their maps. NLSrequests that permission be requested for all publications of our maps.Usually there is no charge for non-commercial reproduction.• NLS also has an annual permission licence (£100 per annum) allowingunlimited copying of NLS maps for unpublished reports for clients
Digital MappingRaster Images.• Any historical mapping• Scanned maps from desktop or large-format scanners• Smaller-scale digital data from OS• Typical formats: TIFF, PNG, BNP, GIF• Usable by any picture editing software - Imaging, Paint, Photoshop, Illustrator. Also usable byGeographical Information System (GIS) software• Can alter basic image parameters - crop, and add features as extra layers on top of base raster image• Relatively available and easy to use software.Vector Images• Modern OS mapping• Typical formats: GML, DXF, NTF, ArcGIS Shapefile, MapInfo MID/MIF• Usable by any Geographical Information System (GIS) software• All topographic features coded into layers and presentation of features can be customised.• Much greater flexibility over presentation of image and integration with other data.• Greater complexity in availability and use of software.