Photos That Changed The World By Robert J. Courtemanche, CJE firstname.lastname@example.org Galena Park HS, Texas Permission for use granted for any classroom teacher in a public or not-for profit / non-profit school system.
1827 First Photo By Josef Niepce • This most famous reproduction of the First Photograph by the Research Laboratory of the Eastman Kodak Company in Harrow. The pointillistic effect is due to the reproduction process and is not present in the original heliograph. • The view, made from an upper, rear window of the Niépce family home in Burgundy. The subject matter includes [from left to right]: the upper loft (or, so-called "pigeon-house") of the family home; a pear tree with a patch of sky showing through an opening in the branches; the slanting roof of the barn, with the long roof and low chimney of the bake house behind it; and, on the right, another wing of the family house. Details in the original image are very faint, due not to fading -- the heliographic process is a
1927 Lindbergh Landsin Paris By Unknown • Lindbergh gained sudden fame as the ﬁrst pilot to ﬂy solo across the Atlantic Ocean. He ﬂew from Roosevelt Airﬁeld in Garden City, New York, to Paris (Le Bourget Airport) on 20 May - 21 May 1927 in 33.5 hours. His plane was the single-engine aircraft, The Spirit of St. Louis. • Aviator Elinor Smith Sullivan, described the impact Lindbergh had on aviation. Before his ﬂight, she remembers, "But after Charles Lindberghs ﬂight, we could do no wrong. Its hard to describe the impact Lindbergh had on people. The twenties was such an innocent time, and people were still so religious– I think they felt like this man was sent by God to do this. And it changed aviation forever because all of a sudden the Wall Street was banging on doors looking
1928 Ruth SnyderDead! • By Thomas Howard • Photographers are not permitted into executions in the United States, so the New York Daily News, determined to secure a photograph, resorted to a ruse. They brought in Howard, who was not known to the prison guards or journalists in the New York area. He arrived early and, passing himself off by posing as a writer, he took up a vantage position so as to be able to take pictures with the help of a miniature camera that he had strapped to his left ankle. The camera had a single photographic plate which was linked by cable to the shutter release concealed within his jacket. When Snyder’s body shook from the jolt, Howard depressed the shutter release, exposing the plate. The final image captures a sense of movement. • The photograph was published the next day on the front page of the paper under the banner headline "DEAD!" and Howard gained overnight popularity. He received a princely sum for this
1930 Lynching • By Unknown • A mob of 10,000 whites took sledgehammers to the county jailhouse doors to get at these two young blacks accused of raping a white girl; the girl’s uncle saved the life of a third by proclaiming the man’s innocence. Although this was Marion, Ind., most of the nearly 5,000 lynchings documented between Reconstruction and the late 1960s were perpetrated in the South. (Hangings, beatings and mutilations were called the sentence of “Judge Lynch.”) Some lynching photos were made into postcards designed to boost white supremacy, but the tortured bodies and grotesquely happy crowds ended up revolting as many as they scared. Today the images remind us that we have not come as far from barbarity as we’d like to think.
1936 Migrant Mother By Dorothea Lange • For many, Florence Owens Thompson is the face of the Great Depression, thanks to Dorothea Lange. Lange captured the image while visiting a dusty California pea-pickers’ camp in February 1936, and in doing so, captured the resilience of a proud nation facing desperate times. Unbelievably, Thompson’s story is as compelling as her portrait. Just 32 years old when Lange approached her ("as if drawn by a magnet," Lange said). Thompson was a mother of seven who’d lost her husband to tuberculosis. Stranded at a migratory labor farm in Nipomo, Calif., her family sustained themselves on birds killed by her kids and vegetables taken from a nearby ﬁeld. The photo’s impact was staggering. Reproduced in newspapers everywhere, Thompson’s
1936 Spanish Civil War By Robert Capa In 1936, Capa became known across the globe for a photo he took on the Cordoba Front in the Spanish Civil War of a Loyalist Militiaman who had just been shot and was in the act of falling to his death. Because of his proximity to the victim and the timing of the capture, there was a long controversy about the authenticity of this photograph. Historians eventually succeeded in identifying the dead soldier as Federico Borrell García, from Alcoi (Valencia) and proved it authentic. This is the best-known picture of the Spanish civil war.
1937 HindenburgDisaster By Murray Becker • In the grand scheme of things, the Hindenburg wasn’t all that disastrous. Of the 97 people aboard, a surprising 62 survived. But when calculating the epic status of a catastrophe, terrifying photographs and quotable quotes ("Oh, the humanity!") far outweigh body counts. • Assembled as part of a massive PR campaign by the Hindenburg’s parent company in Germany, no fewer than 22 photographers, reporters, and newsreel cameramen were on the scene in Lakehurst, N.J. when the airship went down. Worldwide publicity of the well-documented disaster shattered the public’s faith in Zeppelins, which were, at the time, considered the safest mode of air travel available. • The incident effectively killed the use of dirigibles as a commercially viable mode of
1941 USS Arizona By US Navy Photographer • After the devastating Dec. 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese - this photo and several others like it were run in newspapers throughout the US. The photos created a resolve in the US to avenge the attack and declare war on Germany and Japan.
1944 Omaha Beach By Robert Capa • "If your pictures aren’t good enough," war photographer Robert Capa used to say, "you aren’t close enough." Words to die by. • Caught under heavy ﬁre, Capa dove for what little cover he could ﬁnd, then shot all the ﬁlm in his camera, and got out - just barely. He escaped with his life, but not much else. Of the four rolls of ﬁlm Capa took of the horriﬁc D-Day battle, all but 11 exposures were ruined by an overeager lab assistant, who melted the ﬁlm in his rush to develop it. (He was trying to meet the deadline for the next issue of Life magazine.) • In an ironic twist, however, that same mistake gave the few surviving exposures their famously surreal look ("slightly out of focus," Life incorrectly explained upon printing them).
1945 Raising The Flag At Iwo Jima By Joel Rosenthal • The photo depicts ﬁve United States Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raising the ﬂag of the United States atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. There was some confusion as to whether or not it was staged, after it was published due to an error in the notes of the photographer. • The photograph was extremely popular, being reprinted in thousands of publications. Later, it became the only photograph to win the Pulitzer Prize for Photography in the same year as its publication. • Of the six men depicted in the picture, three (Franklin Sousley, Harlon Block, and Michael Strank) did not survive the battle; the three survivors (John Bradley, Rene Gagnon, and Ira
1945 Soviet Flag Over Reichstag By Yevgeny Khaldei • Soldiers are shown in this photo raising the ﬂag of Soviet Union on the roof of Reichstag building in Berlin, Germany in May, 1945. ﬂag was made from red tablecloth with the hammer and sickle themselves stamped on. This is the original version of the famous picture seen on the right where a second wristwatch or a wrist compass is missing from the other Soviet soldier (possibly retouched on purpose because it was a stolen watch).
1945 Germans At Buchenwald By Margaret Bourke-White • Bourke-White was the ﬁrst woman allowed to be a war correspondent for the US Army and the ﬁrst woman to cross the German border with Patton. Because she was with Pattons third army when they reached Buchenwald, she became one of the ﬁrst photographers to enter the death camps in Germany. • Patton was so outraged he made the local civilians come over and look at what their leaders had done. They are walking around in suits, clearly not looking at a pile of dead, emaciated bodies heaped on top of each other. One woman in the photo is shielding her eyes from the horror around her. The other people in the photo are U.S. soldiers walking around in disbelief. • Bourke-White said of this experience, "I saw and photographed the piles of naked, lifeless bodies,
1945 V-J Day Kiss By Alfred Eisenstaedt • On August 14, 1945, the news of Japan’s surrender was announced in the United States. Riotous celebrations erupted in the streets, but perhaps none were more relieved than those in uniform. Although many of them had recently returned from victory in Europe, they faced the prospect of having to ship out yet again, this time to the bloody Paciﬁc. • Among the overjoyed masses gathered in Times Square that day was one of the most talented photojournalists of the 20th century, a German immigrant named Alfred Eisenstaedt. While snapping pictures of the celebration, he spotted a sailor "running along the street grabbing any and every girl in sight." He later explained that, "whether she was a grandmother, stout, thin, old, didn’t make any difference." • Of course, a photo of the sailor planting a wet one on a senior citizen wouldn’t have made the cover of Life, but when he locked lips with an attractive
1948 Dewey DefeatsTruman By St. Louis Globe Photographer • DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN was a famously wrong banner headline on the front page of the early edition of the Chicago Tribune on November 3, 1948. President Harry S. Truman, who had been expected to lose to Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey in the 1948 presidential race, won the election. A photograph of a delighted Truman, holding a copy of his premature political obituary, is one of the more famous images from the 20th Century. The headline itself is a cautionary tale for journalists, about the dangers of being ﬁrst to break a story without being certain of its accuracy.
1951 Einstein Sticks Out Tongue By Arthur Sasse • You may appreciate this memorable portrait as much as the next fellow, but it’s still fair to wonder: "Did it really change history?" While Einstein certainly changed history with his contributions to nuclear physics and quantum mechanics, this photo changed the way history looked at Einstein. By humanizing a man known chieﬂy for his brilliance, this image is the reason Einstein’s name has become synonymous not only with "genius," but also with "wacky genius." • So why the history-making tongue? It seems Professor Einstein, hoping to enjoy his 72nd birthday in peace, was stuck on the Princeton campus enduring incessant hounding by the press. Upon being prodded to smile for the camera for what seemed like the millionth time, he gave photographer Arthur Sasse a good look at his uvula instead. This being no ordinary tongue, the resulting photo became an instant classic, thus ensuring that the distinguished Novel Prize-winner would be remembered as much for his personality as for his brain.
1952 Little Rock Nine • By Will Counts • The focal point of the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957. Nine black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, were denied entrance to the school in deﬁance of the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling ordering integration of public schools. This provoked a showdown between the Governor Orval Faubus and President Dwight D. Eisenhower that gained international attention. • On the morning of September 23, 1957, the nine black high school students faced an angry mob of over 1,000 whites protesting integration in front of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. As the students were escorted inside by the Little Rock police, violence escalated and they were removed from the school. The next day, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the 1,200-man 327th Airborne Battle Group of the U.S. Armys 101st Airborne Division from Fort Campbell to escort the nine students into the school.
1954 Marilyn Monroe • By Bill Kobrin • On September 14, 1954, she ﬁlmed the now-iconic skirt-blowing scene for The Seven Year Itch in front of New Yorks Trans-Lux Theater. Marilyn showed up at 52nd Street, in the dark, in her white halter top dress, ready to pose for the soon to become famous "blowing skirt" photo shoot 20th Century Fox had scheduled. Bill Kobrin, then Foxs east coast correspondent, told the June 26, 2006 Palm Springs Desert Sun that it was Billy Wilders idea to turn it into a media circus: "... every time her dress came up and the crowd started to get excited.” • Subway trains could not be depended on to run when Fox wanted Marilyns skirt to billow up, so some very lucky electrician was
1961 First Man In Space • By Unknown Russian photographer • On 12 April 1961, Russian Yuri Gagarin became the ﬁrst human to travel into space aboard Vostok 1. His call sign in this ﬂight was Kedr (Cedar) During his ﬂight, Gagarin famously whistled the tune "The Motherland Hears, The Motherland Knows.” • This launch along with the 1957 Sputnik 1 embarrassed the United States and prompted president John F. Kennedy to announce in his famous speech that the US would reach the moon before 1970 and before the Russians.
1963 I Have A Dream • National Archieves • "I Have a Dream" is the popular name given to the historic public speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., when he spoke of his desire for a future where blacks and whites would coexist harmoniously as equals. Kings delivery of the speech on August 28, 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a deﬁning moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. Delivered to over 200,000 civil rights supporters, the speech is often considered to be one of the greatest and most notable speeches in history.
1963 JFK Assassination • By Abraham Zapruder • The Abraham Zapruder home movie of the Kennedy assassination is the only known ﬁlm of the entire assassination. It is a silent, 8mm color record of the Kennedy motorcade just before, during, and immediately after the shooting. • Zapruder ﬁlmed the scene with a Model 414 PD Bell & Howell Zoomatic Director Series Camera that operated via a spring-wound mechanism. The FBI later tested Zapruders camera and found that it ﬁlmed an average of 18.3 frames per second. The entire ﬁlm sequence depicting events in Dealey Plaza consists of 486 frames, or 26.6 seconds. The presidential limousine can be seen in 343 of the frames, or 18.7 seconds. • The two major investigations into the assassination,
1965 How Life Begins • By Lennart Nilsson • In 1957 Nilsson began taking pictures with an endoscope, an instrument that can see inside a body cavity, but when he presented the rewards of his work to LIFEs editors several years later, they demanded that witnesses conﬁrm that they were seeing what they thought they were seeing. Finally convinced, they published a cover story in 1965 that went on for 16 pages, and it created a sensation. Then, and over the intervening years, Nilssons painstakingly made pictures informed how humanity feels about . . . well, humanity. They also were appropriated for purposes that Nilsson never intended. Nearly as soon as the 1965 portfolio appeared in LIFE, images from it were enlarged by right-to-life activists and pasted to placards.
1965 Ali vs. Liston • Photo by Neil Leifer • Ali stood over his fallen opponent Sonny Liston, gesturing and yelling at him to get up. The moment was captured by ringside photographer Neil Leifer, and has become one of the iconic images of sport. Ali then posed over him, with his fists in the air celebrating the knockdown.
1968 Murder of By Eddie Adams • "Still photographs are the most powerful weapon in the world," AP photojournalist Eddie Adams once wrote. A ﬁtting quote for Adams, because his 1968 photograph of an officer shooting a handcuffed prisoner in the head at point-blank range not only earned him a Pulitzer Prize in 1969, but also went a long way toward souring Americans’ attitudes about the Vietnam War. • For all the image’s political impact, though, the situation wasn’t as black-and-white as it’s rendered. What Adams’ photograph doesn’t reveal is that the man being shot was the captain of a Vietcong "revenge squad" that had executed dozens of unarmed civilians earlier the same day. Regardless, it instantly became an icon of the war’s savagery and made the official pulling the trigger - General Nguyen Ngoc Loan - its iconic villain.
1968 Earthrise By Astronaut William Anders • The late adventure photographer Galen Rowell called it "the most inﬂuential environmental photograph ever taken." Captured on Christmas Eve, 1968, near the end of one of the most tumultuous years the U.S. had ever known, the Earthrise photograph inspired contemplation of our fragile existence and our place in the cosmos. For years, Frank Borman and Bill Anders of the Apollo 8 mission each thought that he was the one who took the picture. An investigation of two rolls of ﬁlm seemed to prove Borman had taken an earlier, black-and-white frame, and the iconic color photograph, which later graced a U.S. postage stamp and several book covers, was by Anders.
1968 Black By Dean Lucas • The Black Power Salute at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City is a noted civil rights protest. Tommie Smith (center) and John Carlos (right) showing the Black Power salute in addition to the salute Smith and Carlos each wore a black glove on opposite hands. Along with the gloves, the men wore black socks with no shoes to protest black poverty. Smith wore a black scarf that stood for black pride. • After completing their 200 meter race on the evening of October 17 American athlete Smith, who won the race in a then world record time of 19.83 seconds, with Australias Peter Norman second with a time of 20.06 seconds and American Carlos in third place with a time of 20.10 seconds, went to collect their medals at the podium. As they left the podium they were booed by the crowd. Smith later said "If I win, I am American, not a black American. But if I did something bad, then they would say I am a Negro. We are black and we are proud of being black. Black
1969 Man on the Moon By Astronaut Neil Armstrong • The Apollo 11 mission was the ﬁrst manned mission to land on the Moon. It was the ﬁfth human spaceﬂight of the Apollo programs, and the third human voyage to the moon. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Buzz Aldrin. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the ﬁrst humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above. • The mission fulﬁlled President John F. Kennedys goal of "landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth by the time this decade is out," in other words by the end of the 1960s. Many consider the landing one of the deﬁning moments of human history.
1970 Kent StateMassacre Photo by John Filo Mary Ann Vecchio gestures and screams as she kneels by the body of a student, Jeffrey Miller, lying face down on the campus of Kent State University, in Kent, Ohio, on May 4, 1970. Original photograph by Filo of the Valley Daily News and Daily Dispatch of Tarentum and New Kensington, Pennsylvania; on publication, the image was retouched to remove the fencepost above Vecchios head. The image convinced many that the US Government’s involvement in Vietnam was wrong and the National Guard’s actions were seen as excessive.
1972 Napalm Girl • By Huynh Cong Ut (also known as Nick Ut). • Kim Phuc Phan Thi, center, running down a road near Trang Bang, Vietnam, after a napalm bomb was dropped on the village of Trang Bang by a plane of the Vietnam Air Force. The village was suspected by US Army forces of being a Viet Cong stronghold. Kim Phuc survived by tearing off her burning clothes. • The photographer himself saved the girl’s life by rushing her to a nearby hospital.
1985 Omayra Sanchez • By Frank Fournier • Fournier captured the tragic image of 13- year-old Omayra Sanchez trapped in debris caused by a mudslide following the eruption of a volcano in Colombia in 1985. • Red Cross rescue workers had apparently repeatedly appealed to the government for a pump to lower the water level and for other help to free the girl. She died of exposure after about 60 hours. • The picture had tremendous impact when it was published. Television cameras had already relayed Omayras agony into homes around the world. • When the photo was published, many were
1985 Afghan Girl • By Steve McCurry • Sharbat Gula is an Afghan woman of Pashtun ethnicity. Her face became famous when it was featured on the June 1985 cover of National Geographic Magazine. Gula was known throughout the world simply as the Afghan Girl until she was formally identiﬁed in 2002 after her country was liberated from the Taliban terrorists.
1986 ChallengerExplosion • By NASA photographer • On January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger and her seven-member crew were lost when a ruptured O-ring in the right Solid Rocket Booster caused an explosion soon after launch. This photograph, taken a few seconds after the accident, shows the Space Shuttle Main Engines and Solid Rocket Booster exhaust plumes entwined around a ball of gas from the External Tank. Because shuttle launches had become almost routine after twenty-four successful missions, those watching the shuttle launch in person and on television found the sight of the explosion especially shocking and difficult to believe until NASA confirmed the accident. • New Hampshire school teacher Christa McAullife was among the seven killed.
1989 Fall of Berlin Wall • By Andres Ramos • During the Cold War, the Berlin wall divided East and West Berlin for 28 years, from the day construction began on August 13, 1961 until it was dismantled in 1989. • Hundreds were shot trying to escape from East Berlin before and after the construction of the wall. • When the East German government announced on November 9, 1989, after several weeks of civil unrest, that entering West Berlin would be permitted, crowds of East Germans climbed onto and crossed the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere.
1989 TiananmenSquare • By Jeff Widener • This is the picture of an unknown student/ man going to work who has just had enough of what he has saw the days before of killing of protesters done by their own government. He tries to stop the tanks in Tiananmen Square by standing in front of them and climbed on top of the tank and began hitting the hatch and yelling (presumably for the drivers to come out), the tank driver didnt crush the man with the bags as a group of people came and dragged him away, we still dont know if the men is alive or dead as the Chinese government executed many of the protesters involved.
1993 Vulture Watches • By Kevin Carter • The prize-winning image: A vulture watches a starving child in southern Sudan, March 1, 1993. • Carters winning photo shows a heart- breaking scene of a starving child collapsed on the ground, struggling to get to a food center during a famine in the Sudan in 1993. In the background, a vulture stalks the emaciated child. • Carter was part of a group of four fearless photojournalists known as the "Bang Bang Club" who traveled throughout South Africa capturing the atrocities committed during apartheid.
1995 Oklahoma CityBombing • By Charles Porter • The Oklahoma City bombing, was one of the biggest acts of domestic terrorism in the U.S. • Like all disasters, certain images stick in our minds as illustrations of their magnitude. And in Oklahoma City, a photograph of a ﬁreman holding a child became one of those iconic images. • The photographer, Charles Porter, won a Pulitzer Prize for the photo, and the instant, caught in time, has changed the lives of both the ﬁreﬁghter (Chris Fields) and the babys mother, Aren Almon-Kok. • It was 1-year old Baylee Almon who died in the blast, and she became a symbol for the American innocence lost in that act of domestic terrorism.
2000 The World At Night • This is what the Earth looks like at night. Surprisingly, city lights make this task quite possible. Human-made lights highlight particularly developed or populated areas of the Earths surface, including the seaboards of Europe, the eastern United States, and Japan. Many large cities are located near rivers or oceans so that they can exchange goods cheaply by boat. Particularly dark areas include the central parts of South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The image is actually a composite of hundreds of pictures made by the orbiting DMSP satellites.
2001 The Falling Man • Richard Drew • The powerful and controversial photograph provoked feelings of anger, particularly in the United States, in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks. The photo ran only once in many American newspapers because they received critical and angry letters from readers who felt the photo was exploitative and disrespectful of the dead. This led to the medias self-censorship of the photograph, preferring instead to print photos of acts of heroism and sacriﬁce. • Drew commented about the varying reactions, saying, "This is how it affected peoples lives at that time, and I think that is why its an important picture. I didnt capture this persons death. I captured part of his life. This is what he decided to do, and I think I preserved that."9/11: The Falling Man ends suggesting that this picture was not a matter of the identity behind the man, but how he symbolized the events of 9/11.
2001 Raising The Flag: Ground Zero • By Thomas E. Franklin • Taken on September 11, 2001. The picture shows three ﬁreﬁghters raising the American ﬂag at ground zero of the World Trade Center following the 9/11 attacks. The official name for the photograph used by the Bergen Record is Ground Zero Spirit. The photo appeared on the Record front page on September 12, 2001. The paper also put it on the Associated Press wire and it appeared on the covers of several newspapers around the world. It has often been compared to the Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima photograph taken by Joe Rosenthal during World War II and has since appeared on a US Postage Stamp.