The Potential for Adapting the
      UK Water Qualit...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



Declaration of Originality


        ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



Abstract

         This dissertation ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



Acknowledgement

         This disser...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADB      ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



MEWR               Ministry of Enviro...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



Contents
                            ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities




                                    ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



List of Figures
                     ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



1.    Introduction

        ASEAN cit...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



2.       Aims & Objectives

         ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities




                                   W...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



3. Water Quality & Treatment

       ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



3), child mortality (Goal 4), materna...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



diverse hazards associated with very ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



3.1. Water quality

        The WHO G...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



3.1.1.      Microbiological water qua...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



sample of treated potable water. The ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



   •         Dose-response assessment...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



3.1.2.      Chemical water quality

 ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



         The derivation of these guid...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



        For threshold chemicals, ther...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



3.1.4.      Radiological water qualit...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



3.2. Water treatment

        It is c...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



           Table 3        Summary of ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



   Processes                         ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



    Processes                        ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



4. Water Regulations

          The p...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



        The WHO published internation...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



          The framework comprises of ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



      •   Specified technology target...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



        DWI (2005)24 highlighted that...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



        A hazardous event is an incid...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



                  The steps taken to ...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



The role of each individual member sh...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



quick notification and remedial actio...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



        Drinking     water   surveill...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



  •      Investigate and assess incid...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



        The principal source of the c...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



4.2. European Union

        The Euro...
The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities



        The EU adopts the following t...
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
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M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua) The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)

  1. 1.     The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities - Further development of a unique Singapore model and a study of technical example of metaldehyde-containing pesticides in UK as an illustration of regulatory issues in the UK By Christopher CHUA Wee Hong A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters of Science in Water Regulations & Management   Centre for environmental Health Engineering (CEHE) Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences University of Surrey   September 2008 © Christopher CHUA 2008  
  2. 2. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Declaration of Originality “I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled ‘The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities’ for the partial fulfilment of the degree of MSc in Water Regulations & Management, has been composed by myself and has not been presented or accepted in any previous application for a degree. The work, of which this is a record, has been carried out by myself unless otherwise stated and where the work is mine, it reflects personal views and values. All quotations have been distinguished by quotation marks and all sources of information have been acknowledged by means of references including those of the Internet.” ……………………………………. Christopher Chua Wee Hong Date: ……………………………... Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -ii- Dissertation 2008
  3. 3. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Abstract This dissertation considers the possibility of adapting the UK water quality regulatory models for use in assisting ASEAN countries to develop high levels of drinking water quality in their cities and surrounding rural communities. The UK model could also potentially be modified by Singapore in an innovative manner to further develop a unique water quality regulatory model. Technology is available for ASEAN cities to provide safe drinking water, but there is a concurrent need to develop the existing inadequate regulatory framework to ensure a sustainable water supply. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -iii- Dissertation 2008
  4. 4. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Acknowledgement This dissertation is in fulfilment of the 1st MSc in Water Regulations & Management and would not have been possible had it not been for: God almighty for His blessings and guidance. Classmates, staff, lecturers and visiting professors of the Centre of Environmental Health Engineering (CEHE) at the University of Surrey (UniS), especially Prof Barry Lloyd and my supervisor, Mr Brian Clarke, who has provided lots of support and made water policies & issues discussions so interesting and so enlightening. Special thanks to Ms Collette Laurens, who provided the best administrative support and advice throughout the course. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) for their support and for the many inspectors who has provided support and lectured during the modules & industrial attachment and for sharing their experiences, in particularly Prof. Jenni Colbourne, Dr Jim Foster, Ms Sharon Evans, Dr Steve Lambert and Mr Andy Taylor. Special thanks to Dr Annabelle May and Ms Allen Jane for their help and advice. Ms Jill Dryer from Severn Trent Water Limited for providing valued advice and comments. Dr Lee Tung Jean & Mr Ridzuan Ismail from the Water Services Division of the Ministry of Environment & Water Resources (MEWR), Singapore, for providing advice and experience sharing on the regulatory situation in Singapore. Colleagues from PUB, especially Mr Harry Seah, Mr Chong Hou Chun, Mr Haja Nazarudeen, Mr Woo Chee Hoe, for their help and patience in answering my queries. Special thanks to my Director, Mr Ng Han Tong, for his help and his support. Georgia, my supportive wife and my 2 girls, Natalie and Rebecca, for being patient with me in not being able to bring them on more European sightseeing tours and not spending more time playing during this period. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -iv- Dissertation 2008
  5. 5. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Acronyms and Abbreviations ADB Asian Development Bank ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nation AWGWRM ASEAN Working Group on Water Resources Management AWGESC ASEAN Working Group on Environmentally Sustainable Cities BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand CIA Central Intelligence Agency, US CCTV Close Circuit Television COD Chemical Oxygen Demand DALY Disability-adjusted life year DBOO Design, Build Own & Operate DBPs Disinfection by-products DEFRA Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK DoH Department of Health DWD Drinking Water Directive DWU Drinking Water Unit, NEA, Singapore DWI Drinking Water Inspectorate of England & Wales DT50 Half-life of 50% of chemical after application to degrade EA Environment Agency, UK EEC European Economic Community EPHA Environmental Public Health Act 1987, Singapore EOI Expression of Intent EU European Union FAO Food & Agricultural Organisation, United Nations FSA Food Safety Authority GAC Granulated Activated Carbon GCMS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points HPA Health Protection Agency, UK IuWRM Integrated urban Water Resources Management Koc Adsorption coefficient Kow Octonol-water partition coefficient LOAEL Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level MDG Millennium Development Goals MGD Million Gallons per day Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -v- Dissertation 2008
  6. 6. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities MEWR Ministry of Environment & Water Resources, Singapore NOAEL No Observed Adverse Effect Level NEA National Environment Agency, Singapore NEWater Singapore’s third national tap Ofwat Water Services Regulation Authority OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PCV Parameter Concentration Value PSD Pesticide Safety Directorate PUB PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency QMRA Qualitative Microbial Risk Assessment RESCP Regional Environmental Sustainable Cities Programme RO Reverse Osmosis membrane filtration SIWW Singapore International Water Week TAC Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia TDI Total daily Intake TEU Treaty of European Union 1992 TOC Total Organic Carbon TQM Total Quality Management UK United Kingdom UKAS United Kingdom Accredited Service UKWIR United Kingdom Water Industry Research UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme WHO World Health Organisation WHOPES WHO Pesticide Evaluation Programme WHOROE WHO Regional Office for Europe WSD Water Studies Division, MEWR, Singapore WSP Water Safety Plans YLD Years of healthy life lost in states of less than full health YLL Years of life lost by premature mortality Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -vi- Dissertation 2008
  7. 7. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Contents Page Abstract..................................................................................................................iii Acknowledgement................................................................................................. iv Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................................ v Contents ................................................................................................................ vii 1. Introduction ................................................................................................- 1 - 2. Aims & Objectives ...................................................................................... - 2 - 3. Water Quality & Treatment ....................................................................... - 4 - 3.1. Water quality ........................................................................................ - 7 - 3.1.1. Microbiological water quality ................................................................ - 8 - 3.1.2. Chemical water quality ......................................................................... - 11 - 3.1.3. Acceptability water quality ...................................................................- 13 - 3.1.4. Radiological water quality ....................................................................- 14 - 3.2. Water treatment .................................................................................. - 15 - 4. Water Regulations ................................................................................... - 19 - 4.1. World Health Organisation................................................................- 19 - 4.1.1. Guidelines for safe drinking water ...................................................... - 20 - 4.1.2. Health- based targets ............................................................................- 21 - 4.1.3. Water Safety Plans ............................................................................... - 22 - 4.1.4. Surveillance .......................................................................................... - 27 - 4.1.5. Other Recommendations ..................................................................... - 29 - 4.2. European Union..................................................................................- 31 - 4.2.1. Drinking Water Directives ................................................................... - 33 - 4.3. United Kingdom................................................................................. - 35 - 4.3.1. England & Wales .................................................................................. - 35 - 4.3.2. The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000 ...................... - 38 - 4.3.3. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) ........................................... - 39 - 5. Metaldehyde-containing pesticide in the UK ........................................ - 50 - 5.1. Metaldehyde ....................................................................................... - 50 - 5.2. Role of Regulation ............................................................................. - 53 - 5.3. Case Study .......................................................................................... - 54 - Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -vii- Dissertation 2008
  8. 8. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Page 6. Water Situation in Southeast Asia .......................................................... - 57 - 6.1. Association of Southeast Asian Nations........................................... - 57 - 6.2. Singapore ............................................................................................ - 62 - 6.2.1. Water Quality Regulations .................................................................. - 64 - 6.2.2. Integrated Water Resources Management ......................................... - 68 - 7. Discussion................................................................................................. - 74 - 7.1. International guidelines .................................................................... - 75 - 7.2. EU & ASEAN perspectives ................................................................ - 77 - 7.3. UK and Singapore water quality regulatory model ......................... - 78 - 7.4. Proposed ASEAN Water Quality Regulatory Model ....................... - 82 - 7.5. Metaldehyde-containing pesticides, a practical issue..................... - 86 - 8. Conclusion ................................................................................................ - 87 - Appendix A - The UN Millennium Development Goals .............................. - 90 - Appendix B – International Drinking Water Guidelines ............................ - 92 - Appendix C – EU Drinking Water Regulations .......................................... - 104 - Appendix D – Drinking Water Regulations in UK ...................................... - 114 - Appendix E – The Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations 2008 ............................................................................. - 122 - References ..................................................................................................... - 125 - Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -viii- Dissertation 2008
  9. 9. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities List of Figures Page FIGURE 1 OVERVIEW OF DISSERTATION .................................................................................... - 3 - FIGURE 2. DISEASES CONTRIBUTING TO THE WATER-, SANITATION- & HYGIENE-RELATED DISEASE BURDEN .................................................................................................................... - 5 - FIGURE 3 ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AT CONCENTRATION .................................- 12 - FIGURE 4 MEMBRANE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................. - 18 - FIGURE 5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WATER SAFETY PLANS ........................................................ - 25 - FIGURE 6 PARTIES ACTIVE IN EU WATER POLICY PROCESS ...................................................... - 32 - FIGURE 7 MAP OF UK ............................................................................................................. - 35 - FIGURE 8 THE CURRENT UK WATER INDUSTRY ...................................................................... - 36 - FIGURE 9 THE DRINKING WATER INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND & WALES ........................................ - 37 - FIGURE 10 ORGANISATION OF THE DWI................................................................................... - 41 - FIGURE 11 ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENTS FLOW DIAGRAM .......................................................... - 46 - FIGURE 12 INFORMATION PROFILE OF METALDEHYDE. ............................................................ - 50 - FIGURE 13 MAP OF ASEAN...................................................................................................... - 57 - FIGURE 14 ASEAN ORGANISATION STRUCTURE ....................................................................... - 58 - FIGURE 15 ASEAN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE .............................................. - 59 - FIGURE 16 MAP OF SINGAPORE ................................................................................................ - 62 - FIGURE 17 CURRENT SINGAPORE WATER QUALITY REGULATORY MODEL .................................. - 65 - FIGURE 18 CLOSING THE WATER LOOP IN SINGAPORE ............................................................. - 68 - FIGURE 19 SINGAPORE'S CATCHMENT AREAS ............................................................................ - 70 - FIGURE 20 PROPOSED BASIC WATER INDUSTRY MODEL ............................................................. - 83 - List of Tables Page TABLE 1 PARAMETERS USED IN ASSESSING WATER QUALITY IN DIFFERENT SITUATION .......... - 10 - TABLE 2 CATEGORISATION OF SOURCE OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS ..................................... - 11 - TABLE 3 SUMMARY OF MAIN WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES ................................................ - 16 - TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF DEFINITION FOR LIKELIHOOD AND CONSEQUENCES OF A HAZARDOUS EVENT ..................................................................................................................... - 24 - TABLE 5 RISK MATRIX ........................................................................................................... - 24 - TABLE 6 MINIMUM FAECAL INDICATOR TEST FREQUENCY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS ............ - 29 - TABLE 7 MINIMUM SAMPLE FREQUENCY FOR PIPED SUPPLY .................................................. - 29 - TABLE 8 TOXICITY STUDIES ON METALDEHYDE ......................................................................- 51 - TABLE 9 METALDEHYDE PROPERTIES TABLE ......................................................................... - 52 - TABLE 10 WATER STATISTICS FOR SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES (1995 & 2004) .................. - 60 - TABLE 11 WATER RESOURCES STATISTICS FOR SINGAPORE ..................................................... - 69 -  Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -ix- Dissertation 2008
  10. 10. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 1. Introduction ASEAN cities are growing at a rapid pace, yet it seems that safe drinking water is still a growing issue which needs to be addressed for the protection of public health and for the country’s developments. While the ASEAN member countries have access to available funding, technology and skills necessary for the provision of water services, it seems that their institutional arrangements and regulatory framework are inadequate to support these developments. Within ASEAN, Singapore has successfully implemented an integrated water resources management strategy that allows its population to have access to an uninterrupted supply of safe drinking water. However, Singapore has just started to develop its water quality regulatory model to ensure sustainable drinking water quality. The Ministry of Environment & Water Resources (MEWR), together with its two operational statutory boards (National Environment Agency (NEA) and PUB, Singapore’s national water agency), is responsible for environment and water resources in Singapore. PUB is responsible for water resources management, while NEA is responsible for environmental and public health issues. Most of the European Union (EU) member states are developed countries with access to safe drinking water. The EU implements the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) to ensure a common approach to the provision of water services in the EU. In the UK, the water quality regulatory model is unique with a privatised water industry in England & Wales. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) is the independent water quality regulator which has been successful in ensuring that England & Wales enjoy a high quality of safe drinking water. It is highly likely that the effective UK water quality regulatory model could be adapted to assist the ASEAN countries to develop high levels of drinking water quality for its population. Singapore’s fledging water quality regulatory model could also be refined by adopting some of the experiences gained by the DWI in implementing the UK model. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 1 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  11. 11. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 2. Aims & Objectives The focus of this dissertation is on the water quality regulatory models. While there are other issues relating to regulating any water industry, such as financial and environmental issues, these are beyond the scope of this dissertation. Nevertheless, these issues need to be studied further to develop a comprehensive model for the water industry. This dissertation aims to: • Analyse international drinking water quality guidelines, EU & UK drinking water quality regulatory model; • Assess water quality regulatory issues in the ASEAN member countries; • Assess the water quality regulatory model in Singapore; and • Assess issues relating to the metaldehyde-containing pesticide in the UK as an example of a current issue in the regulatory system The objectives of this dissertation are: • Compare and contrast the regulatory approach in the UK and in Singapore; • Propose measures to enable Singapore to develop a unique water quality regulatory model; • Complete a detailed literature review, including DWI, MEWR, PUB & NEA source materials; • Develop a water quality regulatory model for the potential improvement to safe drinking water in ASEAN cities and • Complete a detailed study of issues and information relating to metaldehyde-containing pesticide in the UK The overview of the dissertation is shown in Figure 1. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 2 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  12. 12. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Water Quality International Regional National United Nations European Union United Kingdom • Millennium • Organisation • Regulations Development Goals • DWD framework • Regulators (DWI) WHO • Directives & Regulations • Guidelines Association of Southeast Asian Nations Metaldehyde- ASEAN containing pesticide • Organisation • Metaldehyde • Approach to issues • Role of regulations • Water Quality guidelines and objectives • Case study   Rural Communities Urban Cities Singapore • Integrated Water Resources Management • Statutory Authorities & Water Suppliers • Current Regulations Discussion & Conclusion • Review of the WHO guidelines • Comparison of the regulatory approach in UK & Singapore • Proposed ASEAN Water quality regulatory model • Proposed development of the Singapore water quality regulatory model Figure 1 Overview of dissertation C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 3 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  13. 13. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3. Water Quality & Treatment World leaders of the 189 United Nation (UN) member states, at the United Nations Millennium Summit held in New York on 6 - 8 September 2000, agreed to a common goal of the United Nations Millennium Declaration to work together on global social issues and to ensure that the benefits of globalisation be inclusive and equitable to all people, especially for those in the developing countries or economies (UN, 2000)1. This declaration led to the development of the time bound and measurable Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which provides a framework for global action towards a common goal. The MDGs, comprising of 8 goals and 18 targets, are listed in Appendix A. The relevant target and goal related to water and sanitation are Goal 7 and target 10, which states, “Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.” (Lenten R. et al, UNDP, 2005)2 At the opening of the water exhibition organized by the American Museum of Natural History and the UN Department of Public Information in Oct 07, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that “Safe drinking water and adequate sanitation are crucial for poverty reduction, crucial for sustainable development, and crucial for achieving any and every one of the Millennium Development Goals.” Mr Ban also noted that high population growth, unsustainable consumption patterns, poor management practices, pollution, inadequate investment in infrastructure, and low efficiency in water-use are putting huge stresses on the earth’s water resources and estimates that the current 700 million people in 43 countries affected by water scarcity could swell to more than 3 billion by 2025 (UN News centre, 24 Oct 2007)3. The World Health Organisation (WHO) (2008) 4 affirms that “the combination of safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation facilities is a precondition for success in the fight against poverty and hunger (Goal 1), primary education (Goal 2), gender equality and women empowerment (Goal C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 4 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  14. 14. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3), child mortality (Goal 4), maternal health (Goal 5), HIV/AIDS and Malaria (Goal 6), ensure environmental sustainability (Goal 7) and develop global partnerships (Goal 8).” Prüss-Üstün A. et al (2008)5 wrote that at least 10% of the world’s disease burden (in disability-adjusted life years or DALYs, a weighted measure of deaths and disability) could be alleviated by improvement in drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and water resources management and these only include those diseases which are quantifiable or have adequate evidence. The proportion of diseases contributing to this disease burden is shown in Figure 2. Drinking water quality and access improvements are mainly related to the reduction of diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition and Trachoma. Figure 2 Diseases contributing to the water-, sanitation- & hygiene- related disease burden (Prüss-Üstün A. et al, pp 11, 2008)5  Prüss-Üstün A. et al (2008)5 further concluded from a systematic review of diarrhoeal disease literature, that improvement in water supply and water quality would reduce the frequency of diarrhoeal diseases by 25% and 31% respectively. The WHO (2006)7  uses Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) as the common measurement to objectively evaluate and compare the effects of the C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 5 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  15. 15. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities diverse hazards associated with very adverse health outcomes and is defined as the weighted sum of years of life lost by premature mortality (YLL) and years of life lived in disability (YLD) or DALY = YLL + YLD. Each health effect is weighted for its severity from 0 (normal good health) to 1 (death) and multiplied by time duration and the number of people affected. DALYs are used to compare health effects of different agents in water. The Guidelines’ reference level of risk is 10-6 DALYs per person-year. A major concern of water supply is the spread of the infectious water- related diseases through the water supply. This refers to diseases caused by living organisms (bacteria, viruses or parasites like protozoa or helminths) which are usually spread from person to another, or to or from animal, and is related to water. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 classified these diseases by their distinct route of transmission through water: a) Water-borne route – transmission occurs when pathogens in water is drunk by a person or animal; b) Water-washed route – transmission is reduced when there is sufficient quantity of water for hygiene purposes; c) Water-based route – transmission is due to infection by pathogens which spend part of its life cycle in water; and d) Insect-vector route – transmission is spread by insects which either breed in water or bite near water. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 further recommended that water- borne and water-washed diseases could be prevented with an improvement in quality and sufficiency of safe drinking water supply and using this supply rather than an unsafe source. This underlies the importance of water and sanitation for any sustainable developments in a country. Evidence exists to support the need for improvements in drinking water, but there are still questions in determining what it actually means to have adequate access to water of a suitable water quality. What would be a safe concentration of any parameter, such that it is considered safe? C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 6 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  16. 16. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1. Water quality The WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (WHO, 2006) 7 defines safe drinking water as water of a certain microbiological, chemical, physical and radiological quality that does not represent any significant health risk over a lifetime of consumption. In the 3rd edition of the WHO Guidelines, the WHO has moved away from setting an international standard for drinking water quality to a risk-based approach for setting national or regional standards and regulations. The WHO framework for safe drinking water is covered in Chapter 4.1.1. As the setting of water quality standards depends on the local context and conditions, the WHO recommends a preventive rather than remedial approach to the management of water supplies. There is still a need then to monitor at sufficient frequency and ensure that the final water quality meets certain water quality standards. Water quality standards should be scientific & evidence based and must be determined by local authorities based on international guidelines, regional recommendations and national requirements. The WHO (2006)7 advises that national regulatory agency and local water authorities determine and respond to the constituents of public health significance, as under any given circumstances, only a few constituents are of concern. The WHO (2006)7 guidelines assumes a per capita consumption of 1 litre of unboiled water for microbial hazards and for chemical hazards, the daily per capita consumption of 2 litres by a person weighing 60kg. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 7 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  17. 17. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1.1. Microbiological water quality The WHO (2006)7 considers the control of outbreaks of water borne diseases as the foremost priority in drinking water quality control. This is because such infectious outbreaks could affect a large number of people in a short period of time. The public health burden of the diverse pathogen- causing infectious diseases depends on the severity, infectivity and exposed population size. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 highlighted that all faecal-oral diseases and most of the water based diseases are caused by pathogens transmitted in human excreta, normally in faeces. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 also explained that as many of the pathogens are present in very small number in polluted water, it is therefore common practice to detect “indicator bacteria” instead. Lloyd (2007)8 noted that Thermotolerant coliform and Escherichia coli met 7 (bold) out of the following 11 criteria for the ideal water industry indicator of the presence of enteric-pathogens: - Presence of indicator denote the presence of all relevant pathogens; - Detectable whenever a waterborne pathogen is present - Present in greater number than the pathogens - Absent when the pathogens are absent - Abundant in human and animal excreta and absent from other sources - Unable to grow in water - Survive longer than pathogens in water - More resistant than pathogens to disinfectants - Rapidly and reliably isolated - Easily identified. - Precisely enumerated. The WHO (2006)7 recognised that these 2 indicator bacteria are important parameters for verification of microbial quality and recommends that E. coli or Thermotolerant coliform must not be detectable in a 100-ml C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 8 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  18. 18. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities sample of treated potable water. The guidelines for microbiological quality for drinking water are found in Appendix B-1. While indicator bacteria tests provide a quick overview of the possible health risk due to faecal contamination, it does not allow the detection of some pathogenic viruses and protozoan like Cryptosporidium or Giardia. OECD & WHO (2003) 9 explained that this is because the viruses and protozoa have different environmental behaviour and survival characteristics compared to faecal bacteria. There is no single indicator organism that can be universally used for all purposes in surveillance, as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, there might be a need for direct pathogen testing, which is still in a developmental stage and requires a highly specialised laboratory, highly trained staff, appropriate safety measures and time. OECD & WHO (2003)9 discussed some of the possible microbiological alternative and non-microbial parameters which could be used to assess microbial water quality in different situations. This is summarised in Table 1. It is noted that all the parameters, except for Pseudomonas and Aeromonas spp. are suitable parameters in outbreak investigations. A more detailed explanation of the parameters is found in Appendix B-2. The WHO (2006)7 thus recommends a qualitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), epidemiological studies and case histories of outbreaks to determine the necessary microbial water quality improvements needed. This takes into account the following: • Hazard identification – identifying all potential hazardous events such as the source(s) and possible time of occurrence and the selection and control of possible representative organism to ensure the control of all pathogens of concern. • Exposure assessment – subjective estimation of the concentration of pathogenic microbes ingested and the volume of water consumed (treated and/or unboiled) by exposed individuals; C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 9 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  19. 19. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities • Dose-response assessment – study of dose-response of healthy volunteer to derive the probability of adverse health effect after exposure to pathogenic organisms and to determine the infective dose; • Risk characterisation - integration of all available information from exposure, dose-response, severity and risk of infection to determine the disease burden of each potential disease in DALYs. Table 1 Parameters used in assessing water quality in different situation Sanitary survey, Treatment Disinfection Treated water Ingress in Regrowth in Source-water & removal efficiency Distribution distribution groundwater efficiency system system characterization Enteric viruses Total coliforms Total coliforms Total coliforms Total coliforms Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant coliforms coliforms coliforms coliforms coliforms coliforms Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Faecal streptococci Total bacteria Total bacteria Total bacteria Total bacteria (enterococci)* (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) Somatic coliphages Viable bacteria Viable bacteria Viable bacteria Viable bacteria (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) F specific RNA Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Heterotrophic phages bacteria bacteria bacteria bacteria Bacteroides phages Aerobic spore- Aerobic spore- Pseudomonas, forming bacteria forming bacteria Aeromonas Clostridium Clostridium Somatic perfringens perfringens coliphages Giardia cysts, Giardia cysts, F specific RNA Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidiu phages oocysts m oocysts Rainfall events* Particle size Bacteroides analysis phages Flow * Turbidity Flow Flow Flow Solids (Total and pH Colour dissolved) Conductivity Disinfectant Disinfectant Disinfectant residual residual residual Turbidity Organic matter Organic matter (TOC, BOD, COD) (TOC, BOD, COD) Microscopic particulate analysis Ammonia * faecal streptococci and flow parameter are for sanitary survey and surface water characterisation only, while rainfall is only used for sanitary survey and microscopic particulate analysis is meant for groundwater characterisation. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 10 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  20. 20. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1.2. Chemical water quality Natural occurring or pollution derived chemicals are found in varying quantities in water and can be a significant contribution to public health problems. The chemicals can be grouped according to their original source as shown in Table 2. The adverse health effects of most chemical contaminants are associated with long-term exposure. Thomson T. et al (2007) 10 recommended that it is more effective to identify and focus on priority chemicals of concern, as assessing and developing strategies for every chemical would be impractical and require plenty of resources. Table 2 Categorisation of source of chemical constituents Source of Chemical constituents Example of sources Naturally occurring (including Rocks, soils, cyanobacteria in eutrophic naturally occurring algal toxins) lakes Agricultural activities Manures, fertilizers, pesticides, intensive animal practices Human settlements Sewerage & waste disposal, urban runoff, fuel leakage, Industrial activities Mining, manufacturing, processing, Water treatment or materials in Water treatment chemicals, disinfection contact with water by-products (DBPs), storage tank/pipes material corrosion and leeching (Thomson T. et al, 2007)10 The WHO guidelines for drinking water quality (2008) 11 provide guideline values for “36 inorganic constituents, 27 industrial chemicals, 36 pesticides, 4 disinfectants and 23 disinfectant-by-products”, of which the 95 chemicals of health significance in drinking water are found in Appendix B-1. These chemicals are chosen based on the following criteria: • Credible evidence of chemicals occurring in drinking water together with evidence of actual or potential toxicity; • Significant international concern; or • Considered for inclusion or is included in the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) programme C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 11 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  21. 21. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The derivation of these guideline values are scientifically based on health effect studies on human populations or toxicity studies on laboratory animals, supported by other appropriate studies. Health effects studies on human population are preferred, but there is limited value on such studies because of the lack of qualitative information on the concentration to which people have been exposed to and due to simultaneous exposure to other agents. There is uncertainty in the findings from the more frequently used toxicity studies on laboratory animals because of the relatively small number of animals used and relatively high dose administered. This requires extrapolating the results from animals to humans as the human populations are usually exposed to low doses (WHO, 2006)7. This means that most guideline values are likely to be very conservative. As illustrated in Figure 3, different approaches are taken for the different groups of chemicals: • Carcinogens – non-threshold chemicals, where there are adverse health effects at any level of concentration and no safe dose; • Toxic substances – threshold chemicals, where there are no adverse health effects below a certain concentration; • Essential elements – necessary for humans and animals for normal functions, for which there is a safe concentration range, where adverse health effects are observed from deficiency (below safe concentration range) and over-exposure (above concentration range). Carcinogenic substances Toxic substances Adverse (Boron, Cyanide, Lead) (Arsenic, Vinyl Chloride) health effects Essential elements (fluoride, selenium, iodine, manganese, copper) Concentration NOAEL  Safe concentration range (mg/l) Figure 3 Adverse health effects of chemical at concentration C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 12 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  22. 22. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities For threshold chemicals, there is a need to derive the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI), which is defined as amount of substances in food and drinking water, expressed on a body weight basis (mg/kg of body weight), that can be consumed over a lifetime without appreciable health risk. The guidelines values are derived as follows: Where     NOAEL = No Observed Adverse Effect Levels LOAEL = Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level* UF = Uncertainty factor bw = body weight P = fraction of TDI allocated to drinking water C = daily drinking-water consumption * If LOAEL is used, an additional uncertainty factor has to be applied (WHO, 2006) 7 3.1.3. Acceptability water quality Drinking water must not only be safe, but it must be acceptable to consumers. While most consumers are not able to determine the safety of their drinking water due to lack of equipments, they could reject the water due to its physical appearance, taste and odour and use an alternate unsafe source. The physical appearance, taste and odour of drinking water are affected by microbiological and chemical contaminants in water (attached as Appendix B-3), but the acceptability of drinking water by consumers is also subjective and influenced by individual and local factors. As most of these contaminants have microbiological and chemical health-based guidelines, the parameters that fall into this category would include colour, pH, turbidity, hardness and total dissolved solids. (WHO, 2006)7 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 13 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  23. 23. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1.4. Radiological water quality The WHO (2006)7 stated that the long-term incidence of cancer in humans and animals could increase as a result of low to moderate dose of radiation exposure. Radiation arises from naturally-occurring and man-made sources. The guideline value is the recommended reference dose level equivalent to a cumulative 0.1mSv in annual drinking water consumption, given as activity concentration (Bq/l). The WHO (2006)7 states that “The SI unit for radioactivity is the Becquerel (Bq), where 1Bq = 1 disintegration per second...The SI unit for equivalent and effective dose is the sievert (Sv) where 1Sv = 1 J/kg”. (WHO, 2007)7 The guidance levels for radionuclide in drinking water are attached as Appendix B-1 and is calculated by . Where GL = guidance level of radionuclide in drinking water (Bq/litre) IDC = individual dose criterion, equal to 0.1mSv/yr for this calculation Hing = dose coefficient for ingestion by adults (mSv/Bq) q= annual ingested volume of drinking water, assumed to be 730l/yr As the concentration of radionuclide in drinking water is relatively low, the WHO (2006)7 recommends that it might not be justified to identify individual radioactive species using sophisticated and expensive analysis without first carrying out a screening procedure for detection limits of 0.5 Bq/litre for gross alpha activity and 1 Bq/litre for gross beta activity. (WHO, 2007)7      C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 14 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  24. 24. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.2. Water treatment It is common to treat raw water to produce safe drinking water for the protection of public health, as most raw water quality does not meet safe drinking water standards. Allan S.C. (1997)12 cited that there are eight specific reasons for treatment water: • To remove disease-causing pathogens; • To remove potentially toxic natural or synthetic substances; • To remove dissolved and gaseous radioactivity; • To improve organoleptic quality of water to prevent consumer rejecting water due to its physical appearance, taste or odour; • To prevent bacterial after-growth in the distribution system; • To prevent deposition and silting up of pipes; • To prevent corrosion and dissolution of pipes and fittings; and • To comply with local, national and international law on water quality. Water treatment is based on a multi-barrier approach to removing contaminants and depends, amongst other things, on the quality of the source water and final water quality desired. The conventional approach is to choose a combination of the appropriate processes at the treatment works. Some of the main treatment processes can be found in Table 3. Typical water treatment processes usually comprises of pre-treatment, main treatment and disinfection. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 15 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  25. 25. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Table 3 Summary of main water treatment processes Processes Functions Screens Sets of coarse (100mm spacing) to fine screens used as a physical removal of larger particles such as litters or branches and for protection of downstream processes Roughening Coarse media (rock or gravel with size 4 – 12mm) pre-filter used to reduce filters turbidity (60-90% removal) and faecal coliform bacteria (93 – 99.5% removal) Micro-strainers Stainless steel or polyester wire fabric mesh of apertures 15 – 45mm pre- treatment strainers for removing 40-70% algae cells and large protozoa and 5-20% turbidity removal. Aeration The use of a cascade or fountain system to introduce air into the raw water to increase dissolved oxygen in water to protect downstream processes, reduce CO2, raise pH, remove iron and manganese from water and improve taste in water by stripping out hydrogen sulphide and volatile organic compounds. Off-stream/ bank Self-purification reservoir storage to improve water quality before treatment side storage and to ensure adequate supplies at periods of peak demand. Storage also eliminates variation in water quality due to floods and surface run-offs. Exposure to sunlight (natural UV radiation) kills some pathogens and removes colour. Long term storage allows suspended solids to settle and reduces turbidity, while algae can remove hardness by converting bicarbonates to precipitate carbonates. Coagulation & Chemical coagulant like alum (aluminium sulphate) or other salts of flocculation aluminium or iron are added and rapidly mixed to allow colloidal particles in the water to coagulate and then agitated to flocculate so that the flocs can be removed more easily later. The efficiency of the process depends on the raw water quality, coagulant dose, coagulant aid, mixing conditions and pH. Jar tests are usually carried out to determine the optimum dose required. Optimal coagulation can carry out 1-2 log removal of bacteria, viruses and protozoa, as well as removing turbidity, suspended solids, certain heavy metals and low-solubility organochlorine pesticides. Sedimentation Solid-liquid separation process to remove the solids from the raw water by allowing the flocs to settle. Dissolved Air- DAF functions like a sedimentation tank to remove flocs, except that air flotation (DAF) bubbles are introduced from the bottom of the tank to allow the floc particles to attach to the air bubbles and float to the surface, where it can be skimmed off. DAF is found to be effective in the removal of algal cells, Cryptosporidium oocysts or humic acids. Lime softening The addition of lime or soda ash to increase the pH of water to reduce hardness by precipitating calcium and magnesium from the raw water. Lime softening can also aid in the removal of bacteria (2 log removal maximum), viruses (up to 4 log removal) and protozoa (up to 2 log removal) at high pH (>11) depending on temperature, time of exposure and pH. Ion Exchange The adsorption processes where there is a reversible interchange of same charge ions between a solid ion-exchange medium and the raw water. With different resins used, ion exchange can be used for water softening and for removal of radionuclide and heavy metals, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, uranium and dissolved organic carbon. Rapid gravity The use of single, dual- or multi-media of granular material like sand or filtration anthracite of different grades to allow water to pass rapidly through the relatively large gaps in between the grains to remove the suspended solids C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 16 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  26. 26. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Processes Functions through straining, adsorption, adhesion and sedimentation. Filtration rates are typically 5 – 10 m/h. rapid gravity filtration can also remove turbidity, adsorbed chemicals, oxidised iron and manganese from raw water. Under optimum coagulation conditions, up to 2 log removal of bacteria, viruses and protozoa can be achieved. Pressure filters The rapid gravity filter process is carried out in an enclosed in an enclosed cylindrical shell to eliminate the need for a separate pumping stage. Slow Sand A non-pressurised, chemical-free biological filtration process where the raw Filtration water is passed through 0.15-0.3mm diameter fine sand of 0.5m to 1.5m depth and a flow rate of 0.1 to 0.3 m3/m2.h. There is a thin biological active filter skin at the top called the Schmutzdecke. A matured slow sand filter can remove biological particles such as bacteria, viruses, Cryptosporidium, faecal coliform and other organic debris up to 4-log removal, iron and manganese biologically and is effective for the removal of algae and organics, including certain pesticides and ammonia. Membrane – Physical pressure-driven filtration process to remove contaminants from Microfiltration water using a semi-porous membrane media of pore size of 0.01-12µm at (MF) operating pressure of 1 -2 bars. Microfiltration can remove algae, protozoa, bacteria and microbes larger than 0.2 micron and is widely used to remove chlorine resistant pathogens like Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Please see Figure 4. Membrane Similar to MF except that pore size is in the range of 1nm – 100nm. UF filtration – operates at less than 5bars and is capable of removing suspended solids ultrafiltration (turbidity <0.1 NTU), organics (molecular cut-off weight of 800), bacteria (UF) and viruses, including Cryptosporidium (at least 4 log removal). Please see Figure 4. Membrane Similar to UF, except pore size is in the range of 0.001mm to 0.01mm. NF filtration – operates at about 5 bars and rejects divalent ions (magnesium and calcium), nanofiltration organics (molecular cut-off weight above 200), suspended solids, bacteria (NF) and viruses. Please see Figure 4. Membrane Similar to NF, except pore size is less than 0.002mm. Operating at 15- 50 filtration - reverse bar, only water essentially passes through, while dissolved salts, suspended osmosis (RO) monovalent ions and organics (molecular cut-off weight above 50). Complete removal of bacteria, viruses and protozoa is possible with pre- treatment and membrane integrity conserved. Please see Figure 4. Activated carbon Normally in powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) form using porous adsorption carbonaceous material with large surface area (500-1500 m2/g) for the removal of removal of pesticides and other organic chemicals, cyanobacterial toxins, total organic carbon and for control of taste and odour. Chlorine Chlorine is commonly used in destroying or inactivating most water-borne disinfection disease-causing micro-organisms, and as a powerful oxidant to improve water quality by removing reduced nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphide and certain organic species. Chlorine can combine with ammonia to form chlorine residual (chloramines) to provide protection against recontamination in the distribution network. Chlorine, chlorine dioxide or chloramines can be used. Ozone As a powerful oxidant, ozone is used as a primary disinfectant to effectively disinfection inactivate harmful protozoan that form cysts and almost all other pathogens. Ozone is also effective in removing some pesticides and organic materials. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 17 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  27. 27. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Processes Functions Ultra-violet (UV) The adsorption of UV radiation with a frequency of 250 – 256 nm in their disinfection DNA can inactivate microorganisms. A quick, chemical-free process, UV is able to remove bacteria up to 8 log removal; viruses up to 6 log removal and protozoa like Cryptosporidium oocysts by a 4 log removal depending on dosing. Plumb solvency Small quantities of phosphate can be added to reduce lead in pipe dissolving reduction in treated water. (Wikipedia, 2008)13 (WHO, 2006)7 (WHO & OECD, 2003)9 (Koch membrane, 2008)14 (Gray N.F., 2005)15   Figure 4 Membrane process characteristics (Koch membrane, 2008)14 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 18 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  28. 28. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 4. Water Regulations The purpose of drinking water regulations is to ensure that the consumers have safe potable water through effective control. Legislation need to: • Define clearly the roles and responsibility of the stakeholders (water supplier, policy and regulatory authorities, public health authorities, consumers, chemical and material suppliers, analytical services providers, etc) involved in drinking water supply; • Have sufficient enforcement measures; • Allows for changes and amendments needed for future conditions; and • Be flexible enough to cater to different situations. (WHO, 2006)7 The UNDP (2008)16 recognises that the lack of access to safe drinking water results mainly from profound failure in water governance. Water governance requires an integrated political, social, economic and administrative system to manage water resources and provide water services to the population. To gain a better understanding of drinking water regulations, it is useful to look at the international guidelines from the WHO, the regional directives of the EU and the national regulations of the UK. 4.1. World Health Organisation The WHO was established in 1948 with the aim of attaining the highest possible levels of health for all people in all countries. Representatives of the 193 WHO member states and 2 associate members form the WHO Assembly, which sets policies, approves budget and appoints the Director-General for a 5-year term. The WHO Assembly also elects the 34 member Executive Board. Six regional committees focus on regional health matters. The WHO constitution comprises of 82 articles which details the operations and functions of the WHO. (WHO, 2006)17 (WHO, 2008)18 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 19 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  29. 29. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The WHO published international drinking water standards in 1958, 1963 and 1971. These are superseded by the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, published in 3 volumes. The 1st edition and 2nd edition were published in 1983-84 and 1993-97 respectively. (WHO, 2008)18 The 3rd edition of volume 1 of the Guidelines, a rolling edition, was published in 2004 and the 1st addendum was added in 2006. Parts of the previous Volume 2 are replaced by a series of publications providing information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and by internationally peer-reviewed risk assessments for specific chemicals, while the previous volume 3 is still valid in providing guidance on good practices in surveillance, monitoring and assessment of drinking water quality in community supplies. (WHO, 2008)18 The 4th edition for Volume 1 of the Guidelines is currently in progress (Davidson A. et al, 2005)19 (WHO, 2008)20. More than 20 WHO water quality experts last met in Singapore to review the technical work for the 4th edition on 24-27 Jun 08. This was held in conjunction with the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW, 2008)21. The WHO guidelines for safe drinking water are commonly used as the reference source and form the basis of water quality standards for most countries in the world. The guideline values for water quality parameters are found in Appendix B-1. 4.1.1. Guidelines for safe drinking water The Guidelines for drinking water quality (WHO, 2006)7 outline a framework to ensure that safe drinking water could be provided as part of the strategy for the protection of public health and the reduction of water-related diseases. The idea is to critically analyse any drinking water system from catchment to tap for hazards control and prevention. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 20 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  30. 30. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The framework comprises of the following: • Health-based targets based on national and local conditions for the purpose of protecting and improving public health; • Water safety plans for a systematic multi-barrier approach to a comprehensive risk analysis and management of water supply; and • Surveillance to monitor and verify on the compliance with the water safety plan and ensure the adequacy of supply for public health. (WHO, 2006)7  4.1.2. Health- based targets Health-based targets set the health and water quality goals for the implementation of the safe drinking water framework to ensure realistic targets for the effective protection of overall public health in the local context. Every country and community will have different and unique levels of health- based targets, as there is a need to take into account the status, trends, contribution of drinking water to the transmission of infectious diseases and to overall exposure to hazardous chemicals both in individual and overall public health management, access to water, local situations (including economic, environmental, social and cultural conditions) and local (financial, technical and institutional) resources. (WHO, 2006)7 The 4 principal types of health-based targets include: • Health outcome targets based on the reduction in the total disease burden for a particular microbial or chemical hazards largely attributable to water; • Water quality targets for mainly chemical constituents, additives or treatment by-products in water with stable concentrations that represent health risks from long term exposure, typically expressed as guideline values; • Performance targets for control of constituents with fluctuations in numbers or short periods that represent health risks in short term exposure, typically expressed as required reductions; and C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 21 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  31. 31. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities • Specified technology targets for specific equipment or processes or actions for smaller municipal, community and household drinking water supplies, which typically include recommendations and guidance for application and operation of such technology. (WHO, 2006)7 The proportion of exposure to enteric pathogens or hazardous chemicals attributed to drinking water needs to be considered, as there could be other sources of exposure. 4.1.3. Water Safety Plans The Water Safety Plan draws upon the multi-barrier approach and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) methodology used extensively in the food industry, as well as approaches found in the quality assurance standards management systems like ISO 9000 and total quality management (TQM) (Godfrey S. & Howard G., 2004)22. Drury D. (2007)23 highlighted that the WSPs analyse quality assurance within the operations & procedures and do not depend on end-point quality assessments. The 3 components of the WSP are: • System assessment of the entire drinking water supply chain from catchment to tap, as a whole, can achieve the water quality as specified in the health-based targets. The assessment identifies potential hazards for each part of the supply chain, its individual level of risks and the appropriate control measures; • Operational monitoring of the rapid identification of deviation of the required performances of each control measure for the hazards in the systems; and • Management plans to document the system assessment, normal and incident operations, monitoring, validation, remedial actions, reporting and communication procedures and supporting programmes. (WHO, 2006)7 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 22 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  32. 32. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities DWI (2005)24 highlighted that the team responsible for developing the water safety plans requires: • Complete in-depth knowledge of each element of the specific water supply chain and its capability to supply safe water which meets the health-based standards and requirements; • Identification of the hazards for each element of the water supply chain, the consequences and frequency of occurrence of each hazard and the level of risk each of these presents; • Identification and validation of the short-term, medium-term and long- term control measures to reduce each identified risk to an acceptable level; • Implementation of a routine monitoring system of those control measures with action trigger criteria when the control measures are not within the specified targets; • Implementation of remedial action plans when a control measure is outside of the specified target with checks to certify that the system is brought back under control; • Validation monitoring to determine whether the system is performing as assumed in the system assessment; and • Independent verification for the correct implementation of the WSP to ensure that the water supplied is safe and meets health-based and other regulatory targets. The water safety plan team looks critically at the entire water system and their individual components (from catchment, intake, each treatment process, distribution, to the customer’s tap) to identify what the risk of every possible hazard is, how to reduce and control the risk of the hazards and how to show that the controls are working. Drury D. (2007)23 explains that the development of a successful WSP requires the involvement and participation by company staff members who have a deep understanding on how the company operates each component of the water supply systems. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 23 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  33. 33. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities A hazardous event is an incident or situation that can lead to the presence of a hazard, which is anything that could cause harm. There is a need to determine the risk of every hazardous event. Risk is defined as the combination of the likelihood of a hazardous event occurring and the consequences of the hazard. The definition of the likelihood and consequences of an event, with examples in bracket, are shown in Table 4. Table 4 Examples of definition for likelihood and consequences of a hazardous event Likelihood of a hazardous event Severity of the Consequences of a hazardous occurring event if it occur A Almost certain (Once a day) 1 Insignificant (No significant impact) B Likely (Once a week) 2 Minor (minor impact to a small population) C Moderate (Once a month) 3 Moderate (minor impact to a large population) D Unlikely (Once a year) 4 Major (major impact to a small population) E Rare (Once every 5 years) 5 Catastrophic (major impact to a large population) Risk prioritisation can then be carried out using a matrix as shown in Table 5  to identify the significance of the hazard, the importance of each hazard and the prioritisation of improvements needed. For example, an insignificant hazard that is almost certain to occur will be ranked as a medium risk event, while a catastrophic hazard which is unlikely to occur will be ranked as a high risk event. Table 5 Risk matrix Consequences Likelihood 1 2 3 4 5 A (Almost certain ) V High B (Likely) C (Moderate) Medium High D(unlikely) Low E (rare) Negligible (WHO, 2005)25  C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 24 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  34. 34. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The steps taken to develop a WSP are illustrated clearly in Figure 5 (WHO, 2005)25. Assemble the WSP Team Review experience and future System assessment Document and describe the system needs Carry out a hazard assessment and risk characterisation Identify control measures Supporting Define operational limits and Operational monitoring programmes monitoring of control measures Establish verification procedures Review, Establish management procedures approval and for corrective actions, normal Communications audit Management & operations and incident response Establish record keeping Validation and verification Figure 5 Development of the Water Safety Plans (WHO, 2005)25 A multi-disciplinary team of experts with a thorough understanding of the individual elements of the water system needs to be assembled to develop the WSP. The team should consist of specialists with knowledge of the catchment and raw water sources, treatment processes, distribution networks, drinking water quality, public health, domestic distribution system and customer matters. Senior management support is crucial in the development of the WSP. A team leader with sufficient authority, interpersonal and organisation skill should be selected to drive the project and ensure focus. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 25 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  35. 35. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The role of each individual member should be defined properly. Communication procedures with all stakeholders should also be established. Next, the team should collect and evaluate information to document and describe the entire water supply system. If information is missing, then there is a need to determine how and where to collect the information. A detailed flow diagram will be helpful in providing an overview. Stakeholders and users are also identified. For each element of the water supply system, the team should identify potential failures, problems, their locations and implications in terms of hazards and hazardous events. The team should also consider influencing factors. This involves assessment of historic information and events as well as predictive information based on expert knowledge. Next, the WSP team should determine the consequence and likelihood of each hazardous event and the need for action. This is usually done using the risk scoring matrix. Concurrently with the identification of hazards and evaluation of risk, the WSP team should document existing and potential control measures and decide if these control measures are effective. There is also a need to determine if the control measures could introduce or affect any other hazard/risk and their subsequent control measures, if necessary. Risk of the hazardous events should be reprioritised after the control measures are put in place. At the same time, if there are insufficient control measures or the risks are not sufficiently reduced or mitigated, then the team should develop a short-term, medium-term and long-term action and improvement plan to mitigate or control each significant risk. Following the identification of all hazardous events, their hazards, associated risk and control measures, the WSP team will need to define operational limits of all critical control points to monitor the control measures and actions that need to be taken if there is a deviation. This ensures that the control measures are effectively working within the operational limits, and C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 26 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  36. 36. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities quick notification and remedial actions taken when there is a deviation. The documentation of the monitoring includes what to monitor, how to monitor, where the monitoring is carried out, who will carry out the monitoring, who will do the analysis and who receives the results for action. A formal verification and auditing process needs to be established to ensure that the WSP is working properly. Verification involves compliance monitoring; internal & external auditing of operational activities; and consumer satisfaction. Management procedures can then be documented for standard and incident operating conditions and the resultant corrective actions to be taken when necessary. Emergency supplies, investigation plan, communication procedures with stakeholders, reporting procedures and procedures for regular review and management update are also included. Supporting programmes should also be determined for each step of the water safety plan, as the delivery of safe water through the WSP involves managing people and processes. These programmes include training, calibration, operation & maintenance, R&D, legal, hygiene and sanitation aspects. The entire WSP needs to be documented, presented and approved by all stakeholders to allow “buy-in” and support. This is important if the WSP is to be implemented effectively. There is also a need to include a provision for the WSP to be reviewed and regularly updated. 4.1.4. Surveillance Drinking water suppliers are legally and morally responsible for the control of drinking water quality and the sufficiency of supply. The WHO (2006)7 recommends the setting up of a separate surveillance agency responsible for overseeing public health assessment in drinking water to complement the water supplier in view of the conflict of interest between public health and operational costs. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 27 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  37. 37. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Drinking water surveillance requires the long-term constant assessment of the safety and suitability of drinking water supply for the protection of public health. Surveillance provides information, which should be effectively managed and used, as a collaborative mechanism and support for the surveillance agency and water supplier, for the prioritisation of water supply improvements. However, the surveillance agency would also require legal instruments and authority to use enforcement, which should be used only as a last resort. The basic parameters for adequacy of supply that the surveillance agency needs to assess public health are: • Quality – validation and compliance audit of the approved WSPs; • Quantity – proportion of population using different levels of drinking water supply; • Accessibility – percentage of population with reasonable access to improved drinking water supply; • Affordability – tariff paid by domestic customers; and • Continuity – percentage of the time when drinking water is available. (WHO, 2006)7  WHO (2006)7 recommended surveillance be carried out by audit-based or direct assessment approaches. The audit-based approach basically requires the water supplier to undertake assessment activities, verification testing of water quality and to furnish all relevant information to the surveillance agency, while the surveillance agency is responsible for 3rd party auditing to verify compliance. Accredited external laboratories commonly carry out analytical services, paid for by the water supplier. The surveillance agency needs to have the expertise and capability to: • Review and approve water safety plans; • Audit the water safety plans implementation periodically (at regular intervals, following significant incidents or changes to the systems); and C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 28 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  38. 38. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities • Investigate and assess incident reports to ensure that the cause is correctly determined and corrective actions taken and reported to prevent reoccurrence of a similar situation. The direct assessment approach will require the surveillance agency to carry out independent testing of water supplies. The surveillance agency will require its own or 3rd party analytical facilities and trained staff to carry out sampling, analysis and sanitary inspection. 4.1.5. Other Recommendations With a preventive approach, the WHO guidelines (2007)7 recommend minimal dependence on end-point monitoring, as the sampling is meant only as verification of water quality. Simple and more frequent faecal indicator tests are recommended to detect contamination in water supply. Faecal contamination is not distributed evenly throughout the piped distribution system and can vary with local conditions. The recommended minimum sampling frequencies for faecal indicator tests are shown in Table 6. Table 6 Minimum faecal indicator test frequency in distribution systems Population Total no of samples per year Point sources Progressive sampling of all sources over 3- to 5-year cycles Piped supplies 5000 – 100 000 12 per 5000 population (rounded up) >100 000 – 500 000 12 per 10 000 population plus additional 120 samples >500 0000 12 per 100 000 population plus additional 180 samples (WHO, 2006)7 Table 7 Minimum sample frequency for piped supply Population Served No. of monthly samples < 5000 1 5000 – 100 000 1 per 5000 population > 100 000 1 per 10 000 population, plus 10 additional samples (WHO, 1997)26 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 29 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  39. 39. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The principal source of the chemicals found in water will determine the location and frequency of sampling. However, the WHO (2006)7 recognises that source water sampling once a year may be adequate for stable groundwater source, while the variable surface water source might require higher frequency. For piped supply, the recommended minimum sampling frequencies are based on the population served, as shown in Table 7. The sampling frequencies for other supplies in small communities are attached in Appendix BAppendix B – International Drinking Water Guidelines. Each location where the samples are taken should be individually considered, but the samples must be representative of the water source, treatment plant, storage facilities, distribution network, customer delivery points and points of use. The general criteria of the selection of locations are that: - Samples need to be representative of the different sources as it is obtained or enters the system; - Yield samples, representative of the conditions at the most unfavourable sources or places in the supply system and points of possible sources of contamination, need to be included; - Sampling locations should take into account the number of inhabitants served by each source in multiple source systems; - Locations need to be uniformly distributed throughout the distribution system, taking into account population distribution and proportional to the number of branches or links; - Samples need to be representative of the system as a whole and of its main components; - There is a need to sample water in reserved tanks and reservoirs and there should at least be one sampling point directly after the outlet at each treatment works; and - Sampling locations can be fixed or variable. Fixed sites are useful in allowing results to be compared over time, while local problems are more readily detected using random locations. (WHO, 1997)26 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 30 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  40. 40. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 4.2. European Union The European Economic Community (EEC) was originally set up to create a common market between the constituent Member States, but has now been extended to a large number of common policy goals which is directly or indirectly related to attain conditions leading to a single market within the combined territories of the member countries. The EEC was renamed as the European Union (EU) in 1992 by virtue of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). (Hedemann-Robinson M., 2007)27 The Single European Act amending the Treaties was enacted on 1 Jul 1987. The Act aims to create a single internal market and formulates a European foreign policy. More importantly, it introduces explicit references to the EU’s powers relating to environmental protection for the 1st time. This includes: ‐ Article 100a which allows for environmental protection legislation affecting the internal market to be adopted by the majority of member states; and ‐ Article 130r, 130s & 130t, which specifies the objectives, means and procedures for unanimous adoption of environmental legislation. (European Community, 1996)28 The EU comprises of 27 member states, which are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania. (Europa, 2008)29 What is unique about the EU is that there are distinct, separate legislative, executive and judicial organs of government, the power of which is transferred from the member states to the community by virtue of treaties and that the community law overrides the national laws. (European Community, 1996)28 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 31 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  41. 41. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The EU adopts the following type of legislation: ‐ Non-binding recommendations or resolutions ‐ Regulations which are binding and directly applicable to Member States and overrides national laws ‐ Decisions which are directly binding to the persons (member states, individual and legal persons) they are addressed to; and ‐ Directives which member states are required to transpose and implement through their national law or regulations within a specified time period (normally 18 months to 2 years). (European Community, 1996)28 As illustrated in Figure 6, the EU water policy formation involves the core European institution, Member States government and non-governmental organisations with interest in water. The Council decides on the policy objectives and directions, while the Commission develops and drafts the directions into appropriate policy text and directives. The European Parliament actively debates on the legislation and can amend the draft legislation presented by the Council. The European Parliament shares the responsibility of passing European laws with the European Council. Representatives of sectors affected by water-related regulations and various water-related organisations try to influence the process by lobbying. This reflects the similar situation at the national level. The scientist and technologist group is consulted on water-related technical issues and their recommendations are critical to the nature of the policies. EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONS ORGANISED EUROPEAN EUROPEAN INTERESTS REPRESENTATIVES/ PARLIAMENT ASSOCIATIONS SCIENTISTS EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGISTS COMMISSION MEMBER STATES’ COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS NATIONAL LEVEL EUROPEAN LEVEL Figure 6 Parties active in EU water policy process (Kallis G. & Nijkamp P., 1999) 30 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 32 ‐  Dissertation 2008   

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